Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 15, 2016 at 1:42 am.
Total Spectrum Solar Consentrator is a concept where you first consentrate the suns rays using
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There was an error working with the wiki: Code, and then you spread them out in a spectum using a prism, wich enables you to place optimal photo-electric materials for each frequency along the spectrum.
Total Spectrum Solar Consentrator is a concept where you first consentrate the suns rays using parabolic mirrors or a fresnel lense, and then you spread them out in a spectum using a prism, wich enables you to place optimal photo-electric materials for each frequency along the spectrum. Solar thermal energy can be used to heat a fluid to high temperatures and use it to produce electric power. Solar thermal energy refers to the idea of harnessing solar power for practical applications from solar heating to electrical power generation. Solar thermal collectors, such as solar hot water panels, are commonly used to generate solar hot water for domestic and light industrial applications. Solar thermal energy is used in architecture and building design to control heating and ventilation in both active solar and passive solar designs. This article is devoted primarily to solar power generation facilities, that is, solar power plants that generate electricity by converting solar energy to heat, to drive a thermal power plant. The article on photovoltaics reviews solar power generation by means of solar electric panels.
In concentrating collectors, the area intercepting the solar radiation is greater, sometimes hundreds of times greater, than the absorber area. Where temperatures below about 200 °F are sufficient, such as for space heating, flat-plate collectors of the nonconcentrating type are generally used. These hold temperatures "in stagnation" at between 150 and 220 degrees Celsius.
Power towers (also know as 'central tower' power plants or 'heliostat' power plants (power towers) use an array of flat, moveable mirrors (called heliostats) to focus the sun's rays upon a collector tower (the target). The high energy at this point of concentrated sunlight is transferred to a substance that can store the heat for later use. The more recent heat transfer material that has been successfully demonstrated is liquid sodium. Sodium is a metal with a high heat capacity, allowing that energy to be stored and drawn off throughout the evening. That energy can, in turn, be used to boil water for use in steam turbines. Water had originally been used as a heat transfer medium in earlier power tower versions (where the resultant steam was used to power a turbine). This system did not allow for power generation during the evening. Examples of heliostat based power plants are the 10 MWe Solar One, Solar Two, and the 15 MW Solar Tres plants. Neither of these are currently used for active energy generation. In South Africa, a solar power plant is planned with 4000 to 5000 heliostat mirrors, each having an area of 140 m²
A dish system uses a large, reflective, parabolic dish (similar in shape to satellite television dish). It focuses all the sunlight that strikes the dish up onto to a single point above the dish, where a thermal collector is used to capture the heat and transform it into a useful form. Dish systems, like power towers, can achieve much higher temperatures due to the higher concentration of light which they receive. Typically the dish is coupled with a Stirling engine in a Dish-Stirling System, but also sometimes a steam engine is used. These create rotational kinetic energy that can be converted to electricity using an electric generator.
A linear Fresnel reflector power plant uses a series of carefully angled plane mirrors to focus light onto a linear absorber. Recent prototypes of these types of systems have been built in Australia (CLFR) and Belgium (SolarMundo). These systems claim to offer lower overall costs because they permit the heat-absorbing element to be shared between several mirrors. The mirrors can therefore be smaller and do not require complex pivoting couplings for the fluid flowing from the absorber. The design can also permit mirrors to be placed closer together, allowing for a more efficient use of land area.
Of these technologies the solar dish/stirling has the highest energy efficiency (the current record is a conversion efficiency of 30% of solar energy). A single solar dish-Stirling engine installed at Sandia National Laboratories’ National Solar Thermal Test Facility produces as much as 25 kW of electricity, while its footprint is a hundred times smaller than the spain solar updraft tower. Solar trough plants have been built with efficiencies of about 20%.
The Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Plant using the parabolic trough principle called the SEGS system, in California in the United States, produces 330 MW, and it is currently the largest solar thermal energy system in operation. Furthermore, Southern California Edison announced an agreement to purchase solar powered Stirling engines from Stirling Energy Systems over a twenty year period and in quantities (20,000 units) sufficient to generate 500 megawatts of electricity. Stirling Energy Systems announced another agreement with San Diego Gas & Electric to provide between 300 and 900 megawatts of electricity.
The gross conversion efficiencies (taking into account that the solar dishes or troughs occupy only a fraction of the total area of the power plant) are determined by net generating capacity over the solar energy that falls on the total area of the solar plant. The 500-megawatt (MW) SCE/SES plant would extract about 2.75% of the solar power (1 kW/m² see Solar power for a discussion) that impinges on its 4,500-acres (18.2 km²). For the 50MW AndaSol Power Plant that is being built in Spain (total area of 1,300×1,500 m = 1.95 km²) gross conversion efficiency comes out at 2.6%.