Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 15, 2016 at 2:13 am.
Ilya Prigogine (Documentation and Reference) by Congress:Member:Leslie R. Pastor
The Educated have missed a significant point, in that, Energy was only understood and explained recently by Quantum Physicists such as Dirac and Feynman among others, and updated via the research of Dan Solomon. More importantly, the problem with science, our understanding of thermodynamics, notwithstanding the ambiguity factor, inherent within its dynamics, suggests that our models and physics laws are not absolute, requiring regular updates, as newer information and discovery evolve.
It was Maxwell who explained that thermodynamics laws can be violated: "The truth of the second law is a statistical, not a mathematical, truth, for it depends on the fact that the bodies we deal with consist of millions of molecules. Hence the second law of thermodynamics is continually being violated, and that to a considerable extent, in any sufficiently small group of molecules belonging to a real body." (James Clerk Maxwell)
Source: [Maxwell, J. C., "Tait's Thermodynamics II," Nature 17, 278-280 (7 February 1878)].
Ilya Prigogine: Thermodynamics Far From Equilibrium (Nobel Prize In Chemistry in 1977)
(The 2nd Law does not always apply, and may even be possible to reverse)
In non-equilibrium thermodynamics, it is well-known and recognized that the second law can be violated, even by simple strong gradients. E.g., a listing of several areas known to allow violation of the second law, is given by Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, in Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures. (Wiley, New York, 1998, reprinted with corrections 1999, p. 459.)
One of those second-law violation areas is simply a sharp, strong gradient. Reference: http://peswiki.com/index.php/Site:LRP:Problem_With_Science:Our_Understanding_of_Thermodynamics
"One general point to note about the First Law and the Second Law is that both laws must be local laws. In fact, to be compatible with the principle of relativity, and to be valid regardless of the observer's state of motion, these laws must be local. Nonlocal laws of energy conservation or of entropy production are inadmissible because the notion of simultaneity is relative. Consider two parts of a system spatially separated by some nonzero distance. If changes in energy du1 and du2 occur in these two parts simultaneously in one frame of reference so that du1 + du2 = 0, the energy is conserved. However, in another frame of reference that is in motion with respect to the first, the two changes in energy will not occur simultaneously. Thus, during the time between one change of u and the other, the law of conservation of energy will be violated." [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipating Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998, reprinted with corrections in 1999, p. 336, footnote.].
Our currently accepted knowledge of the laws of thermodynamics is inadequate to address ‘novelty of fact’ attributes recently uncovered by our modern physicists, many of whom have stated categorically that there are significant aspects of our understanding that need to be updated and clarified. The nature of ‘energy’ needs to be fully addressed and more adequately understood in explanatory terms and terminology cognizant of their recent discoveries and exploratory research, such as those of Ilya Prigogine and Richard P. Feymann.
Ilya Prigogine - The Father of Modern Thermodynamic Theory as explained by Thomas Eugene Bearden in a series of informal write-ups
Tom Bearden To Leslie R. Pastor:
"I have some write-ups (informal) which I’ll try to dig out and send you. I had tentatively "scheduled" my work on a thermodynamics paper for my website, to occur after I get the "retranslation of EE into vacuum engineering" paper done.
The best reference(s) are by, or involve, Nobelist Ilya Prigogine who was one of the main scientists that established the far more modern thermodynamics of systems far from equilibrium." Here are a few pertinent quotes for openers:
'Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine', Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, New York, 1998, reprinted with corrections 1999. Areas known to violate the old second law are given on p. 459. One area is strong gradients (as used in the MEG) and another is memory of materials (as used in the MEG in the nanocrystalline core materials and layered crystalline structures to invoke the Aharonov-Bohm effect). We strongly comment that these known, recognized mechanisms allow macroscopic and significant violations of the Second Law that are directly usable in real systems and circuits.
'Kondepudi and Prigogine': "One aspect is common to all these nonequilibrium situations, the appearance of long-range coherence. Macroscopically distinct parts become correlated. This is in contrast to equilibrium situations where the range of correlations is determined by short-range molecular forces. As a result, situations which are impossible to realize at equilibrium become possible in far-from-equilibrium situations. This leads to important applications in a variety of fields. [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998, p. xii.]
'Kondepudi and Prigogine': "Equilibrium thermodynamics was an achievement of the nineteenth century, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was developed in the twentieth century, and Onsager's relations mark a crucial point in the shift of interest away from equilibrium to nonequilibrium. … due to the flow of entropy, even close to equilibrium, irreversibility can no more be identified with the tendency to disorder… [since it can] … produce both disorder … and order…" [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998, p. xv.]
'Kondepudi and Prigogine': "…the thermodynamic theory of fluctuations … has its origin in Einstein's famous formula that relates the probability of a fluctuation to decrease in entropy." [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998, p. xv.]
'Kondepudi and Prigogine: “We then have the case of strong gradients, where we expect the failure of linear laws such as the Fourier law for heat conduction. Not much is known either experimentally or theoretically. Attempts to introduce such nonlinear outcomes into the thermodynamics description have led to 'extended thermodynamics' [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, New York, 1998, reprinted with corrections 1999, p. 459].
'Kondepudi and Prigogine': "One general point to note about the First Law and the Second Law is that both laws must be local laws. In fact, to be compatible with the principle of relativity, and to be valid regardless of the observer’s state of motion, these laws must be local. Nonlocal laws of energy conservation or entropy production are inadmissible because the notion of simultaneity is relative." [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, New York, 1998, reprinted with corrections 1999, p. 459].
'Kondepudi and Prigogine': "According to relativity, events that are simultaneous but occurring at different locations to one observer, may not be simultaneous to another. Hence the simultaneous disappearance and appearance of energy as seen by one observer will not be simultaneous for all. For some observers, energy would have disappeared at one location first and only some time later would it reappear at the other location, thus violating the law of conservation of energy during the time interval separating the two events." [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, New York, 1998, reprinted with corrections 1999, p. 44, footnote.].
'Hilbert, D. Quoting': "I assert... that for the general theory of relativity, i.e., in the case of general invariance of the Hamiltonian function, energy equations... corresponding to the energy equations in orthogonally invariant theories do not exist at all. I could even take this circumstance as the characteristic feature of the general theory of relativity." [D. Hilbert, Gottingen Nachrichten, Vol. 4, 1917, p. 21.].
'Logunov and Loskutov': Quoting, p. 179. "In formulating the equivalence principle, Einstein actually abandoned the idea of the gravitational field as a Faraday-Maxwell field, and this is reflected in the pseudotensorial characterization of the gravitational field that he introduced. Hilbert was the first to draw attention to the consequences of this. … Unfortunately, … Hilbert was evidently not understood by his contemporaries, since neither Einstein himself nor other physicists recognized the fact that in general relativity conservation laws for energy, momentum, and angular momentum are in principle impossible." Logunov and Loskutov, "Nonuniqueness of the predictions of the general theory of relativity," Sov. J. Part. Nucl., 18(3), May-June 1987, p. 179.
The Prigogine Crystal
http://energyfromthevacuum.com/Disc32PetroAcoustics/part%2032%20dvd%20150px.jpg http://www.energyfromthevacuum.com/Disc27CrystalBatteries/part%2026%20dvd%20150px.jpg http://www.energyfromthevacuum.com/Disc29BediniBatteryLectureConf/part%2029%20dvd%20150px.jpg
Prigogine crystal: an amorphous pellet or crystal made by sintering finely divided material at high temperature and pressure, in such fashion that the pellet becomes a highly stressed system far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Specifically, more than one type of material must be used, one ingredient of which must be piezoelectric. One ingredient should also be radioactive, and preferably one of the uranium compounds exhibiting highly anomalous magnetic spin coupling. For best results, a third ingredient should be luminescent when electrically stimulated. The stress on each grain of the piezoelectric material must be just so that the grain is on the very verge of being slightly stress cracked, but not split. Each grain then becomes a scalar interferometer. Such a crystal produces a scalar potential field and can react to minute changes in potential - i.e., it can react to scalar waves. Via scalar interferometry it can change scalar waves into negative (time-reversed) electromagnetic radiation and energy at a slight distance. Under oscillating potential stress, the radioactive ingredient provides a one-way gate valve from the Dirac Sea electrons of vacuum and the scalar interferometers provide necessary impetus on these negative energy electrons to lift them out of the Dirac sea, producing negative electricity and currents. These currents can then be collected in multiple stages to provide electrical power (negative power operates devices much better than positive power). In the proper arrangement, such a Prigogine crystal can be made into a system capable of tapping the energy of vacuum directly. T. H. Moray built exactly such systems in the 1920's and 1930's, finally obtaining 50 kilowatts of negative power from a 55-lb device. J. Bedini has produced modern versions of these stress crystals in the 1980's, and a series of negative power devices. Several other inventors have produced successful negative power devices also.
Tesla’s Secrets (Bearden) 1981 Copyright