Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 14, 2016 at 10:02 pm.
Herein we will see:
the beryllium isotopes
the equilibrium of nucleons in the light isotopes with Z < 8, following the Least Action Principle
the calculations on the magnetic moments of beryllium isotopes
Consider that the nucleus 2He4 rotates clockwise direction, as shown in the Figure 1:
The structure of 4Be8 is shown in the page 230 of the book Quantum Ring Theory, where it is shown that, due to repulsions and the flux n(o) crossing within the two deuteriuns, the structure of 8Be thakes that shape shown in the Figure 5.1(B) of the book:
From the principles of current Nuclear Physics, this isotope is a great mistery, because it has 4 protons and 4 neutrons, but it is no stable.
Except the 4Be8, the ligth nuclei with Z=N=pair are stable: 2He4 , 6C12, 8O16, 10Ne20 , 12Mg24 , 14Si28 , 16S32 , 18Ar36 , 20Ca40
So, we would have to expect that 4Be8 should have to be stable. But it is not, its half-life is 6,7x10-17 s.
So, a question arises: why 8Be is an exception ?
There is a strong Coulomb repulsion between the two deuterons, and they push one each other against the central 2He4, where each one of them penetrate, and two nuclei 2He4 are formed.
In 2009 scientists had measured by the first time the size of a one-neutron halo, and the result was very suprising, as we note in the article:
By studying neutron halos, scientists hope to gain further understanding of the forces within the atomic nucleus that bind atoms together, taking into account the fact that the degree of displacement of halo neutrons from the atomic nuclear core is incompatible with the concepts of classical nuclear physics.
Atomic Nucleus with Halo: For the First Time, Scientists Measure the Size of a One-Neutron Halo with Lasers
The surprise is because the isolated neutron in the 11Be was detected with a distance of 7fm from the center of the nucleus.
Since the strong force actuates in the maximum distance of 2fm, then it is obvious that such neutron is not tied to the nucleus by the strong force.
The 11Be is not stable, it decays in 13,81 seconds. But within the nuclei 13,8 seconds is an eternity, by considering that the phenomena occur very fast. And so it is impossible to explain how the isotated neutron is kept by the nucleus at that distance of 7fm.
Besides, as we will see ahead, in spite of the 11Be decays in 13,81s, nevertheless the neutron is not emitted (and therefore its connection to the nucleus is sufficiently strong, in order to avoid the rupture of the 11Be structure by the disruption of the flux n(o) which connects the isolated neutron to the rest of the nucleus – such flux is shown in blue in the Figure 14).
The conclusion is clear: the nuclei aggregation cannot be promoted by the strong force (as it is proposed by the nuclear model of Quantum Ring Theory).
There is need to consider other cause responsible for the nuclei aggregation. And the solution proposed in Quantum Ring Theory must be considered seriously, and among several reasons, there is need to consider the fact that the nuclear model proposed in the theory is able to explain the phenomena which do not fit to the standard Nuclear Theory.
Again, we have to enphasize that there are two condictions indispensable for the neutron to be kept in a light isotope ( Z < 8 ):
1- To be captured by the flux n(o) of the central 2He4
2- To have spin-interaction with one, two, or three deuterons.
The definition of halo nucleus in wikipedia is the following:
In nuclear physics, an atomic nucleus is called a halo nucleus or is said to have a nuclear halo if its radius is appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model, wherein the nucleus is assumed to be a sphere of constant density.
For a nucleus of mass number A, the radius r is (approximately)
r = ro A1/3
where ro 1.2 fm.
Actually all the excess neutrons are neutron halo. The neutrons which are no neutron halo are only those ones that belong to the structure of a deuteron [ of the central 2He4, or of any deuteron captured by the flux n(o) ].
In the standard Nuclear Physics it is not considered that neutrons form deuterons with the protons inside the nuclei. So, according to classical nuclear theory all the neutrons of a light isotope are candidates to be a halo neutron, and if one of them has a larger radius, then it is a halo neutron.
For instance, 4Be14 has 10 neutrons, and according to Nuclear Physics it has:
1) 6 no halo neutrons
2) 4 halo neutrons , because they have larger orbit radius
However actually the 4Be10 has:
1) 4 neutrons forming deuterons
2) 10 halo neutrons, where:
a) n-1 is strongly tied to the deuteron D-1 and n-2 is tied strongly to D-2, and so the radius of their orbits is short
b) n-3 is weakly tied to D-1 and n-4 is weakly tied to D-2, and so the radious of their orbit is larger than that of n-1 and n-2
c) n-5 and n-6 has no spin-interaction with deuterons, and so their orbits have a larger radius.
Stability of Light Nuclei – PART ONE
Stability of Light Nuclei – PART TWO
Stability of Light Nuclei – PART FOUR
Stability of Light Nuclei – PART FIVE
Guglisnki, W. , Quantum Ring Theory-foundations for cold fusion, 2006, Bäuu Institute Press