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PowerPedia:Marcus Device

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THe Marcus Device is a claimed Anti-gravity device. Marcus Hollingshead is said to have invented a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] device.


Marcus Hollingshead is a British inventor who in November 2002 claimed to have developed a device capable of overcoming the force of gravity. He referred to this effect as gravitational lensing as he thought the term anti-gravity inaccurate. However, the veracity of Hollingshead's claims are in question despite approximately 30 pages of detailed construction and experimental notes posted to online groups. During that time he was at the center of intense scrutiny and became something of a phenomenon in alt.sci (alternative science) arenas.

Hollingshead's claims were unusual in that he:

#Claimed to have invented (and tested at the University of Cambridge) a 160 kg working prototype (iteration #161) capable of lifting 2040 Kg of weight while utilizing 4.1 kVA of power (about 5.6 horsepower).

#Publicly posted detailed written descriptions (but no photos) of the dimensions, materials and construction techniques employed to construct the most recent versions of his device. Several individuals generated 3D computer visualizations from his instructions and found the dimensions to be consistent.

#Claimed that the original intent of the device was not "antigravity" (a term he disliked) but to model geomagnetic forces in the Earth, and that as an inventor he professed no real idea of the theoretical physics behind its operation.

Hollingshead first became known by posting results of his experiments on the BBC science message boards in November of 2002. He claimed that he had created a device that accidentally had collapsed a Black and Decker Workmate table. After modifying and restarting, it allegedly lifted off from his workbench.

Various replication to test similar device have included the following elements:

Toroidal Coil: ring-arranged interlinking coils within the device.

Quadra-Pole Coil Type 2: bifilar-wound toroid 4 point split at, for a quadra-flow.

Two Rings Looped: dual steel-rings.

Six Rings Looped: hexa-interconnected steel rings cores for flux-linked spinning electromagnets.

Kikusui 6000L Supply: Kikusui 6000L and 18000L multipurpose AC power-supplies.


The configuration of the devices #161 and #162 (generically known to Hollingshead as "bob") was six rings arranged in three pairs, each interlinked pair slightly offset from each other and centered around one of three axes: X, Y or Z. The rings in each pair were counter-rotated at 4200 rpm. Rings were wound with wire in a bifilar/caduceus manner. Twelve stubs, coil-wound short lengths of rods with flat points, were attached to the inner circumference of each ring and pointed inward.

At the center of the device was positioned a charged multi-layered spherical capacitor (called the RP, for Reference Point). Each coil ring had its own drive and power supply and was powered through a continuous electrical contact. Power to the stub coils was separate from the rings and capable of being timed to coincide with the approach and retreat from its closest point to the RP.

Hollingshead posted that if all the rings are powered and spun in balance there is no net movement of the device. However, a spherical field would form around it, noticeably darkening and blurring the contained zone to a point where the RP is no longer distinguishable and producing a shell coronal effect (purple/violet) in the dark. This field was one of the first non-propulsive "HAFF" fields produced by the device. It has been suggested but not verified that the acronym HAFF may stand for Hollingshead Anomalous Force Fields, of which Hollingshead reports there are seven.

Reported Field Effects

Hollingshead describes several distinct field effects produced by his devices. Below is a collection of effects in Hollingshead's own words as reportedby Tim Ventura in American Antigravity (see External links):

Shield Effect:The shield effect is a slowly expanded spherical field that is produced by an altered rp and slower increased power and spin changes. This is complete enough a field to form a vacuum and strong enough to be hit with a rubber mallet and chair.

Tractor Effect:It's possible to produce a 'pull' field effect as well as a 'push'. So far I've been able to focus it for a short period of time on a 5 inch cube of wood 1.8 metres away and then drag the wood back towards the device by 30cm or so, by decreasing the focus range but keeping the power stable.

Temperature Effect:There are some things that you have to keep an eye out for, such as icing up of the rp - but I hope to correct that by heating the outer shell as per a suggestion by Colin.

Vacuum Effect:Vacuum is a deliberate effect of a slowly increased spherical shield, not normally present in moving variants.

Gravity Effect:The device acts to produce a regular gravitational field - the field strength is increased until there is equivalence with earths gravitational influence. Power beyond that is 'lensed' to produce movement the lensing is caused by increasing power above G threshold in one or more of the coils (providing they are not opposites).

Hollingshead reported that if the device were powered up and power to a ring pair were increased, then movement of the device would occur in that direction, even when the direction was counter to the force of gravity.

Speculative Physics

In his audio interview with Tim Ventura in September of 2004 Hollingshead says that there are changes in the nucleus of the iron atoms within the RP (composed of layers of purified iron and kapton as the dielectric). The forces "push protons into becoming neutrons" and soon the iron core is no longer pure iron.

Note: it is true that an antineutrino (nubar ?-) colliding with a proton (p+) will yield a neutron (n0) and a positron (e+), or, ?- + 1p+ —> 1no + oe+. If a positron speeds away, there must be something that flies out in the opposite direction, since it has been determined that the positron momentum is not balanced by recoil of the proton. A neutrino, answering this requirement, is thus also emitted. This suggests the iron atoms become an isotope of manganese.

The result, says Hollingshead, is the release of energy and production of a local gravity lensing effect. However he reports that the diminution of iron in the RP results in nuclear byproducts and a reliable gravity lensing effect for a duration of only 2,000 hours.

Iron comes in four stable isotopes, the most common of which is Fe-56, comprising 91.7% of most terrestrial samples. There is also Fe-54 at 5.8%, Fe-57 at 2.2% and Fe-58 at .28%. If a proton of Fe-56 is pushed to become a neutron the result is Mn-56 (Manganese with 25 protons and 31 neutrons). Mn-56 is radioactive and has a half-life of about 2.5 hours. Thus, an "RP" would be rendered into a radioactive (hazardous) material. This isotope may be the undesired "by-product" Marcus refers to in the interview.

Hollingshead's method of producing his effect through the spinning of electromagnetic fields appears to not follow the work of researchers Ning Li and Eugene Podkletnov who also reported propulsive effects, though by the spinning of superconducting magnets. However, recent ESA-sponsored research by Tajmar, et al (see External links) has produced gravitomagnetic effects through the spinning of superconducting magnets composed of either nobium or lead (dissimmilar to Li and Podkletnov's apparatus) and the artificial gravity field produced was reversible when spin was reversed, similar to Hollingshead's reversible effects.

Tajmar's experimental results have recently been tied to Burkhard Heim's Heim Theory of six elemental forces of nature by Walter Dröscher and Jochem Häuser. In Heim's theory gravito-photons, as of yet unobserved particles, would theoretically allow the conversion of an electromagnetic field into a gravitational-like field. Gravito-photons come in at least two types: one exhibiting repulsive gravitational effects and the other attractive gravitational effects.

Trustiworthiness Questioned

A number of incidents have allegedly taken place that cast further doubt on Hollingshead's claims. Paul Horwood (moderator of Antigravity_open-source group), one of the original few to discuss the invention with Marcus on the BBC boards and to create their own Yahoo group, says: "On all the times I saw him, I did not see the device (and I saw him 3 times and spoke to him on those occasions). The only time that looked promising, I went to Marcus's house and waited outside for him all day (8 hours in all!) and he did not turn up, or return home."

There was to have been a demonstration in early 2003 at Chepstow racecourse, a large building for internal practice of horse jumping. But the demo was cancelled at the last minute as many uninvited "guests" turned up with cameras. Writer Nick Cook of Jane's Defence Weekly (JDW) indicated that he'd dropped by unannouced to get some footage after Marcus had cancelled his first public demonstration (to which Cook had been invited). Cook reported that Marcus relayed a story about "the government confiscating his work" and turned Cook away at the door.

Later that Spring demonstration versions of the device were to have been sent to test areas in Europe and North America. Photos of the device were also to have been sent, but neither devices nor photos were received.

On several occasions, Marcus claimed that it was a hoax. However, he later recanted both that it was a hoax and that the government had confiscated his work, saying that he did it to avoid the intense scrutiny he was receiving (which included receiving several thousand emails a day, according to Tim Ventura of American Antigravity).


According to Paul Horwood, Hollingshead now claims he has a number of engineers working on the device at Thornbury just outside Bristol, Somerset under a contract with the European Space Agency (ESA) to produce propulsion and that he has over 50 million pounds in investment. This area, including Filton, is heavily invested in the aerospace industry, including BAE Systems.

References and external articles

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Marcus Device,, Antigravity open Source, Paul Horwoods site.>

Designing a World Without Gravity Gregory Daigle examines Marcus Hollingshead's 'gravity-lensing' device.

Marcus device,

See also

- PowerPedia

- Main Page