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PowerPedia:Lord Kelvin

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Lord Kelvin factoids

: Date of_birth : There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83]

: Place of_birth : Belfast, County Antrim, Ireland

: Date of death : There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85]

: Place of death : Largs, Ayrshire, Scotland

|}

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41] (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42]-There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45] of Electricity and Thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging discipline of Physics in its modern form. He is widely known for developing the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86] scale of absolute temperature measurement. The title There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87] Kelvin was given in honour of his achievements, and named after the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88], which flowed past his university in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90].

He also enjoyed a second career as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] engineer and Inventor, a career that propelled him into the public eye and ensured his wealth, fame and honour.

Early life and work

Family

William's father was Dr. James Thomson, the son of a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92]. James received little youthful instruction in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93] but, when 24 years old, started to study for half the year at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95], while working as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96] back in Belfast for the other half. On graduating, he became a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97] teacher at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98]. He married Margaret Gardner in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99] and, of their children, four boys and two girls survived infancy.

William, and his elder brother There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47], were tutored at home by their father while the younger boys were tutored by their elder sisters. James was intended to benefit from the major share of his father's encouragement, affection and financial support and was prepared for a fashionable career in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100]. However, James was a sickly youth and proved unsuited to a sequence of failed There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101]ships. William soon became his father's favourite.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102]. The summer of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103] was spent in Germany and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104]. Language study was given a high priority.

Youth

William began study at Glasgow University in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105] at the age of 10, not out of any precociousness the University provided many of the facilities of an elementary school for abler pupils and this was a typical starting age. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[106], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[107], the professor of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[108], took the chair of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[109]. Nichol updated the curriculum, introducing the new mathematical works of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[110]. The mathematical treatment much impressed Thomson.

In the academic year 1839-There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49] strategy at times of personal There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50].

Thomson became intrigued with Fourier's Théorie analytique de la chaleur and committed himself to study the "Continental" mathematics resisted by a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51] establishment still working in the shadow of Sir There was an error working with the wiki: Code[111]. Unsurprisingly, Fourier's work had been attacked by domestic mathematicians, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[112] authoring a critical book. The book motivated Thomson to write his first published There was an error working with the wiki: Code[113]P.Q.R (1841) "On Fourier's expansions of functions in trigonometric series" Cambridge Mathematical Journal 2, 258-259 under the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[114] P.Q.R., defending Fourier, and submitted to the Cambridge Mathematical Journal by his father. A second P.Q.R paper followed almost immediately.P.Q.R (1841) "Note on a passage in Fourier's 'Heat'" Cambridge Mathematical Journal 3, 25-27

While vacationing with his family in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[115] in 1841, he wrote a third, more substantial, P.Q.R. paper On the uniform motion of heat in homogeneous solid bodies, and its connection with the mathematical theory of electricity.P.Q.R (1842) "On the uniform motion of heat and its connection with the mathematical theory of electricity" Cambridge Mathematical Journal 3, 71-84 In the paper he made remarkable connections between the mathematical theories of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[116] and Electrostatics, an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[117] that There was an error working with the wiki: Code[118] was ultimately to describe as one of the most valuable science-forming ideas.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Vol.2, p.301

Cambridge

William's father was able to make a generous provision for his favourite son's education and, in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[119], installed him, with extensive letters of introduction and ample accommodation, at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[120]. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[121] Thomson graduated as second There was an error working with the wiki: Code[122]. However, he won a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[123], sometimes regarded as a better test of originality than the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[124]. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[125], one of the examiners, is said to have declared to another examiner You and I are just about fit to mend his pens.Thompson (1910) vol.1, p.98

While at Cambridge, Thomson was active in sports and athletics. He won the Silver Sculls, and rowed in the winning boat of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[126]. He also took a lively interest in the classics, music, and literature but the real love of his intellectual life was the pursuit of science. The study of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[127], physics, and in particular, of Electricity, had captivated his imagination.

In 1845 he gave the first mathematical development of Michael Faraday's idea that electric induction takes place through an intervening medium, or "dielectric", and not by some incomprehensible "action at a distance". He also devised a hypothesis of electrical images, which became a powerful agent in solving problems of electrostatics, or the science which deals with the forces of electricity at rest. It was partly in response to his encouragement that Faraday undertook the research in September of 1845 that led to the discovery of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[128], which established that light and magnetic (and thus electric) phenomena were related.

On gaining a fellowship at his college, he spent some time in the laboratory of the celebrated There was an error working with the wiki: Code[129], at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[130] but in 1846 he was appointed to the chair of natural There was an error working with the wiki: Code[131] in the University of Glasgow. At twenty-two he found himself wearing the gown of a learned professor in one of the oldest Universities in the country, and lecturing to the class of which he was a freshman but a few years before.

Thermodynamics

By There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[132]. Joule argued for the mutual convertibility of heat and Mechanical work and for their mechanical equivalence.

Thomson was intrigued but sceptical. Though he felt that Joule's results demanded theoretical explanation, he retreated into an even deeper commitment to the Carnot-Clapeyron school. He predicted that the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53]. Experimental confirmation in his laboratory did much to bolster his beliefs.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54] his scale against established measurements.

In his publication, Thomson wrote:

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2]

- but a footnote signalled his first doubts about the caloric theory, referring to Joule's very remarkable discoveries. Surprisingly, Thomson did not send Joule a copy of his paper but when Joule eventually read it he wrote to Thomson on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[133], claiming that his studies had demonstrated conversion of heat into work but that he was planning further experiments. Thomson replied on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[134], revealing that he was planning his own experiments and hoping for a reconciliation of their two views.

Thomson returned to critique Carnot's original publication and read his analysis to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55] beliefs led to speculation about the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[135].

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Compensation would require a creative act or an act possessing similar power.

In final publication, Thomson retreated from a radical departure and declared "the whole theory of the motive power of heat is founded on ... two ... propositions, due respectively to Joule, and to Carnot and Clausius."Thomson, W. (1851) "On the dynamical theory of heat with numerical results deduced from Mr. Joule's equivalent of a thermal unit and M. Regnault's observations on steam" Math. and Phys. Papers vol.1, pp175-183 Thomson went on to state a form of the second law:

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4]

In the paper, Thomson supported the theory that heat was a form of motion but admitted that he had been influenced only by the thought of Sir Humphry Davy and the experiments of Joule and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[136], maintaining that experimental demonstration of the conversion of heat into work was still outstanding.Ibid p.183

As soon as Joule read the paper he wrote to Thomson with his comments and questions. Thus began a fruitful, though largely epistolary, collaboration between the two men, Joule conducting experiments, Thomson analysing the results and suggesting further experiments. The collaboration lasted from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[137] to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[138], its discoveries including the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[139], and the published resultsThomson, W. (1856) "On the thermal effects of fluids in motion" Math. and Phys. Papers vol.1, pp333-455 did much to bring about general acceptance of Joule's work and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[140].

Transatlantic cable

Calculations on data-rate

Though now eminent in the academic field, Thomson was obscure to the general public. In September There was an error working with the wiki: Code[141], he married childhood sweetheart Margaret Crum but her health broke down on their There was an error working with the wiki: Code[142] and, over the next seventeen years, Thomson was distracted by her suffering. On There was an error working with the wiki: Code[143] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[144], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[145] wrote to Thomson to try to re-interest him in work by asking his opinion on some experiments of Michael Faraday on the proposed There was an error working with the wiki: Code[146].

:To understand the technical issues in which Thomson became involved, see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56]

Faraday had demonstrated how the construction of a cable would limit the rate at which messages could be sent &mdash in modern terms, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57] consequences in terms of the potential There was an error working with the wiki: Code[147] of the transatlantic undertaking. In a further There was an error working with the wiki: Code[148] analysis,- (1855) "On the peristaltic induction of electric currents in submarine telegraph wires" Math. and Phys. Papers vol.2, p.87 Thomson stressed the impact that the design of the cable would have on its There was an error working with the wiki: Code[149].

Thomson contended that the speed of a signal through a given core was inversely proportional to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58] of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[150] of the core. Thomson's results were disputed at a meeting of the British Association in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[151] by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[152], the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[153] of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[154]. Whitehouse had possibly misinterpreted the results of his own experiments but was doubtless feeling financial pressure as plans for the cable were already well underway. He believed that Thomson's calculations implied that the cable must be "abandoned as being practically and commercially impossible."

Thomson attacked Whitehouse's contention in a letter to the popular There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59] magazine,- (1855) "Letters on telegraph to America" Math. and Phys. Papers vol.2, p.92 pitching himself into the public eye. Thomson recommended a larger Conductor (material) with a larger There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60] of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61]. However, he thought Whitehouse no fool and suspected that he may have the practical skill to make the existing design work. Thomson's work had, however, caught the eye of the project's undertakers and in December There was an error working with the wiki: Code[155], he was elected to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[156] of the Atlantic Telegraph Company.

Scientist to engineer

Thomson became scientific adviser to a team with Whitehouse as chief electrician and Sir There was an error working with the wiki: Code[157] as chief engineer but Whitehouse had his way with the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[158], supported by Faraday and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[159].

Thomson sailed on board the cable-laying ship HMSS Agamemnon in August There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62]es involved in the laying of a submarine There was an error working with the wiki: Code[160], and showed that when the line is running out of the ship, at a constant speed, in a uniform depth of water, it sinks in a slant or straight incline from the point where it enters the water to that where it touches the bottom.- (1857) Math. and Phys. Papers vol.2, p.154

Thomson developed a complete system for operating a submarine telegraph that was capable of sending a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63] every 3.5&nbspThere was an error working with the wiki: Code[161]s. He Patented the key elements of his system, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[162] and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[163], in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[164].

However, Whitehouse still felt able to ignore Thomson's many suggestions and proposals. It was not until Thomson convinced the board that using a purer There was an error working with the wiki: Code[165] for replacing the lost section of cable would improve data capacity, that he first made a difference to the execution of the project.Sharlin (1979) p.141

The board insisted that Thomson join the 1858 cable-laying expedition, without any financial compensation, and take an active part in the project. In return, Thomson secured a trial for his mirror galvanometer, about which the board had been unenthusiastic, alongside Whitehouse's equipment. However, Thomson found the access he was given unsatisfactory and the Agamemnon had to return home following the disastrous There was an error working with the wiki: Code[166] of June 1858. Back in London, the board was on the point of abandoning the project and mitigating their losses by selling the cable. Thomson, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[167] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[168] argued for another attempt and prevailed, Thomson insisting that the technical problems were tractable. Though employed in an advisory capacity, Thomson had, during the voyages, developed real engineer's instincts and skill at practical problem-solving under pressure, often taking the lead in dealing with emergencies and being unafraid to lend a hand in manual work. A cable was finally completed in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[169].

Disaster and triumph

Thomson's fears were realised and Whitehouse's apparatus proved insufficiently sensitive and had to be replaced by Thomson's mirror galvanometer. Whitehouse continued to maintain that it was his equipment that was providing the service and started to engage in desperate measures to remedy some of the problems. He succeeded only in fatally damaging the cable by applying 2,000&nbspThere was an error working with the wiki: Code[170]. When the cable failed completely Whitehouse was dismissed, though Thomson objected and was reprimanded by the board for his interference. Thomson subsequently regretted that he had acquiesced too readily to many of Whitehouse's proposals and had not challenged him with sufficient energy.Ibid p.144

A joint committee of inquiry was established by the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[171] and the Atlantic Telegraph Company. Most of the blame for the cable's failure was found to rest with Whitehouse."Board of Trade Committee to Inquire into … Submarine Telegraph Cables’, Parl. papers (1860), 52.591, no. 2744 The committee found that, though underwater cables were notorious in their lack of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[172], most of the problems arose from known and avoidable causes. Thomson was appointed one of a five-member committee to recommend a specification for a new cable. The committee reported in October There was an error working with the wiki: Code[173]."Report of the Scientific Committee Appointed to Consider the Best Form of Cable for Submersion Between Europe and America" (1863)

In July There was an error working with the wiki: Code[174] Thomson sailed on the cable-laying expedition of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[175] but the voyage was again dogged with technical problems. The cable was lost after 1,200&nbspmiles had been laid and the expedition had to be abandoned. A further expedition in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[176] managed to lay a new cable in two weeks and then go on to recover and complete the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[174] cable. The enterprise was now feted as a triumph by the public and Thomson enjoyed a large share of the adulation. Thomson, along with the other principals of the project, was There was an error working with the wiki: Code[178] on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[179] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[176].

To exploit his inventions for signalling on long submarine cables, Thomson now entered into a partnership with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[181] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[182]. In conjunction with the latter, he also devised an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[183], a kind of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[184] for sending messages on a cable.

Later expeditions

Thomson took part in the laying of the French Atlantic There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64] to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[185] section of the Brazilian coast cables in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[186].

Thomson's wife had died on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65].

In June There was an error working with the wiki: Code[187], Thomson and Jenkin were onboard the Hooper, bound for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[188] with 2,500&nbspmiles of cable when the cable developed a fault. An unscheduled 16-day stop-over in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[189] followed and Thomson became good friends with Charles R. Blandy and his three daughters. On There was an error working with the wiki: Code[190] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[191] he set sail for Madeira on the Lalla Rookh. As he approached the harbour, he signalled to the Blandy residence Will you marry me? and Fanny signalled back Yes. Thomson married Fanny, 13 years his junior, on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[192] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[191].

Thomson & Tait: Treatise on Natural Philosophy

Over the period There was an error working with the wiki: Code[194] to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[195], Thomson collaborated with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[196] on a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[197] that unified the various branches of physical science under the common principle of energy. Published in 1867, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[198] did much to define the modern discipline of Physics.

Marine

Thomson was an enthusiastic yachtsman, his interest in all things relating to the sea perhaps arising, or at any rate fostered, from his experiences on the Agamemnon and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66].

Thomson introduced a method of deep-sea There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67], in which a steel There was an error working with the wiki: Code[199] replaces the ordinary land line. The wire glides so easily to the bottom that "flying soundings" can be taken while the ship is going at full speed. A pressure gauge to register the depth of the sinker was added by Thomson.

About the same time he revived the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68].

During the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[200]s, Thomson worked to perfect the adjustable There was an error working with the wiki: Code[201] in order to correct errors arising from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[202] owing to the increasing use of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[203] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[204]. Thomson's design was a great improvement on the older instruments, being steadier and less hampered by friction, the deviation due to the ship's own magnetism being corrected by movable masses of iron at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[205]. Thomson's innovations involved much detailed work to develop princples already identified by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[206] and others but contributed little in terms of novel physical thinking. Thomson's energetic lobbying and networking proved effective in gaining acceptance of his instrument by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[207].

{{quotation | Scientific biographers of Thomson, if they have paid any attention at all to his compass innovations, have generally taken the matter to be a sorry saga of dim-witted naval administrators resisting marvellous innovations from a superlative scientific mind. Writers sympathetic to the Navy, on the other had, portray Thomson as a man of undoubted talent and enthusiasm, with some genuine knowledge of the sea, who managed to parlay a handful of modest ideas in compass design into a commercial monopoly for his own manufacturing concern, using his reputation as a bludgeon in the law courts to beat down even small claims of originality from others, and persuading the Admiralty and the law to overlook both the deficiencies of his own design and the virtues of his competitors'.

The truth, inevitably, seems to lie somewhere between the two extremes.Lindley (2004), p.259 }}

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[208] had been among the first to suggest that a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[209] might be made to signal a distinctive number by occultations of its light but Thomson pointed out the merits of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[210] for the purpose, and urged that the signals should consist of short and long flashes of the light to represent the dots and dashes.

Electrical standards

Thomson did more than any other electrician up to his time to introduce accurate methods and apparatus for measuring electricity. As early as 1845 he pointed out that the experimental results of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69]. In the Memoirs of the Roman Academy of Sciences for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70] specification of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72] of Electric current.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[211], Thomson headed an international commission to decide on the design of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[212] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[213]. Despite his previous belief in the superiority of Direct current Electric power transmission, he was convinced by Nikola Tesla's demonstration of three-phase Alternating current power transmission at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[214] of that year and agreed to use Tesla's system. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[215], Thomson said "Tesla has contributed more to electrical science than any man up to his time."There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5]

Geology and theology

Thomson remained a devout believer in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[216] throughout his life and saw chapel as part of his daily routine,McCartney & Whitaker (2002), reproduced on Institute of Physics website though he might not identify with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[217] if he were alive today.Sharlin (1979) p.7 He saw his Christian faith as supporting and informing his scientific work, as is evident from his address to the annual meeting of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[218], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[219] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[220].Thomson, W. (1889) Address to the Christian Evidence Society

One of the clearest instances of this interaction is in his estimate of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] but he was no There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74] in the modern sense.Sharlin (1979) p.169 He contended that the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75], that conditions had remained constant since the indefinite past. He contended that "This earth, certainly a moderate number of millions of years ago, was a red-hot globe ... ."Burchfield (1990)

After the publication of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[221]'s There was an error working with the wiki: Code[222] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[223], Thomson saw evidence of the relatively short habitable age of the Earth as tending to contradict an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[224]ary explanation of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[225]. He noted that the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[226] could not have possibly existed long enough to allow the slow incremental development by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[224] &mdash unless some energy source beyond what he or any other There was an error working with the wiki: Code[228] person knew of was found. He was soon drawn into public disagreement with Darwin's supporters There was an error working with the wiki: Code[229] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[230].

Thomson ultimately settled on an estimate that the Earth was 20-40 million years old. Shortly before his death however, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[231]'s discovery of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[232] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[233]'s studies with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[234]s provided the insight into the 'energy source beyond' that would power the sun for the long time-span required by the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[235]. Though Thomson continued to defend his estimates, privately he admitted that they were most probably wrong.

Limits of classical physics

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76] phenomena.Kargon & Achinstein (1987) Imaginative as were the "Baltimore lectures", they had little enduring value owing to the imminent demise of the mechanical world view.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[236], he gave a lecture titled Nineteenth-Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light. The two "dark clouds" he was alluding to were the unsatisfactory explanations that the physics of the time could give for two phenomena: the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[237] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[238] radiation. Two major physical theories were developed during the twentieth century starting from these issues: for the former, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[239] for the second, Quantum mechanics. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[240], in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[241], published the so-called "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[242]", one of which explained the photoelectric effect and was of the foundation papers of quantum mechanics, another of which described There was an error working with the wiki: Code[243].

Other work

A variety of physical phenomena and concepts with which Thomson is associated are named Kelvin:

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The SI unit of temperature, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[250]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[251] in potential theory

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Always active in industrial There was an error working with the wiki: Code[253], he was a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[254] of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[255] corporation.

Honours

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[256], 1847.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[257], 1864.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[258], 1887.

President, 1873&ndash1878, 1886&ndash1890, 1895&ndash1907.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[259], 1851.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[260], 1856.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[261], 1883.

President, 1890&ndash1895.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[262]ed 1866.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77] of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78], 1892. The title derives from the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[263], which passes through the grounds of the University of Glasgow. His title died with him, as he was survived by neither heirs nor close relations.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79], 1896.

One of the first members of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[264], 1902.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80], 1902.

He is buried in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[265], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[266] next to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[267].

Corporate Name

The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] was founded in 1914 in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[268]. This name was very suitable for a company that manufactured There was an error working with the wiki: Code[269]es and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[270]s.

Related

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External articles and references

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General

Kelvin Society of Glasgow

Lord Kelvin Online

Lord Kelvin Exhibit: Image and Reality

Lord Kelvin's Patents

Heroes of the Telegraph at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[272]

Humorous website devoted to the

William Thomson: king of Victorian physics at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[273] website

Measuring the Absolute: William Thomson and Temperature, Hasok Chang and Sang Wook Yi (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[274] file)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

Kelvin's works

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Biography, history of ideas and criticism

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See also

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