Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 15, 2016 at 12:55 am.
The following article was originally posted by W. Guglinski on Nov. 23, 2008.
:Is there need of new foundations for cold fusion?
:There is a controversy.
::Some theorists say “yes?.
::Another ones say “no?, because they allege that occurrence of cold fusion can be explained on the basis of the existing theories.
:::However from the basis of the existing theories there is no way to surpass some theoretical troubles, as for instance as shown in the article PowerPedia:Don Borghi's experiment. And so it seems that the controversy is over, and we have to respond “yes, there is need of new foundations for cold fusion?.
So, a cold fusion theory must be proposed on the basis of new foundations.
But is there a criterion to appraise what new foundations are acceptable, or not, on the basis of which a cold fusion theory must be developed?
Such a criterion was never proposed before.
However there is a criterion that we can consider seriously, which is the following:
:::::CRITERION FOR NEW FOUNDATONS:
:::::New foundations, to be acceptable,
::::::and from which a cold fusion theory can be developed with chance to be successful,
:::::::must be able to supply us a model of nucleus
::::::::from which we can explain ordinary nuclear phenomena not explained yet
:::::::::from the current nuclear models of Nuclear Physics
In another words:
1- There is not yet in current Nuclear Physics a unique model of nucleus, capable to explain the ordinary nuclear phenomena, as magnetic moments, binding energies of nuclei, electric quadrupole moments, magic numbers, etc. There are several nuclear models, and each one of them is applied to explain a certain nuclear property. Besides, those several nuclear models are incompatible. And it’s hard to believe that Nature uses several different and incompatible structures for producing the nuclear phenomena.
2- If one wishes to find a successful theory able to be applied to cold fusion, first of all it’s indispensable to discover the true structure of the nuclei, i.e, it is indispensable to discover a UNIQUE model of nucleus, capable to explain all the ordinary nuclear phenomena. Such argument makes sense, because since Nuclear Physics is unable to explain some ordinary nuclear phenomena from a unique coherent nuclear model, it’s reasonable to expect that from the foundations of Nuclear Physicis it’s impossible to develop a successful cold fusion theory.
3- The fact that from the basis of the current Nuclear Physics there is no way to explain some ordinary nuclear phenomena is emphasized by Eisberg and Resnick, as they state in their book Quantum Physics:
:: "Though we dispose nowadays of a sufficient complete assembly of information about the nuclear forces, we realize that they are too much complexes, not having been possible up to now to use this cknowledge for building an extensive theory of the nuclei. In other words, we cannot explain the whole properties of nuclei in function of the properties of the nuclear forces that actuate on their protons and neutrons".
:So, as from the current foundations of Nuclear Physics some nuclear phenomena cannot be explained, it is reasonable to expect that such current foundations cannot explain cold fusion too.
4- If new foundations are successful to explain the ordinary nuclear phenomena phenomena not explained from the old foundations of Nuclear Physics, then we can hope that a cold fusion theory developed from these new foundations can explain cold fusion occurrence too.
PowerPedia:Quantum Ring Theory (QRT) was not developed with the aim to look for new foundations for a cold fusion theory. Instead of, it was developed with the objective to find new foundations and models from which one could explain phenomena that have not explanations from the existing theories.
In the branch of Nuclear Physics, QRT proposes a new nuclear model from which we explain the questions not answered by the current nuclear models.
The nucleus of 92U238 has an intriguing behavior, that cannot be explained from the nuclear models of current Nuclear Physics, as explained ahead.
92U238 has pair number of protons (92) and pair number of neutrons (146). So, the nucleus is symmetric.
When 92U238 is excited, its shape changes.
Let us analyse what we have to expect that must be such changing of U238, from the current Nuclear Physics.
::According to Nuclear Physics, protons and neutrons have aleatory distribution within the U238, similar to the molecules of air within a basket ball.
::If we supply air to a spherical basket ball with radius R, its radius increases from R to R+a, along all the directions (that is, the growth of “a? is the same in all the directions, in order that the final form of the basket ball continues to be spherical).
:::Consider a nucleus U238 with spherical form and radius R, earlier to be excited
:::From the current Nuclear Physics, we had to expect that, when excited, there would be a growth of the radius in all the directions, from R to R+a, in order that “a? would be the same in any direction, similar to what happens with the basket ball.
::::So, the U238 would have to have a “contraction-expansion? along the time, as shown in Figure 1, like happens to a basket ball too (if we take a full ball and supply to it an additinal portion of air, and remove it, and supply it again, and remove it, and so on).
However the experiments have shown that such prediction that we expect from the nuclear models of Nuclear Physics is wrong. Because the U238 actually changes its shape as shown in the figure 2.
The variation in the form of U238 is 30%, and from Nuclear Physics there is not theoretical explanation for such a strange behavior of the nucleus of uranium.
In Quantum Ring Theory the protons and neutrons are distrubuted along the z-axis in hexagonal floors, and in the center of the nucleus there is a central 2He4, as shown in the Figure 3. It is named Hexagonal Floors Model.
It is shown in the book QRT that from such model we calculate the binding energies of nuclei, magnetic moments, nuclear spins, etc.
:In particular, the theoretical binding energies of light nuclei as 1H2, 1H3, 2He3, 2He4, 3Li, 4Be, 5B, 6C, and 7N, cannot be calculated from current Nuclear Physics. But they are obtained from the Hexagonal Floors Model, and agree to empirical data.
Note that between the hexagonal floors there is a distance ?d, and when the nucleus is excited several distances ?d are submitted to a contraction-expansion phenomenon, like happens to the belows of an accordion. Such phenomenon is named Accordion-Effect in Quantum Ring Theory.
So now we can understand why the U238 has that behavior shown in Figure 2, when it is excited, as we realize by looking at Figure 4, where several distances between the floors increases from ?d to ?D.
Obviously the accordion effect occurs in all the nuclei. However those ones that have a pair number of protons and a pair number of neutrons, as occurs to the 92U238, have the biggest effect of contraction-expansion.
So, the phenomenon occurs in the 46Pd, which has a central 2He4, and 7 completete hexagonal floors, and two 1H2 (each one far away of the central 2He4).
All the nuclei are submitted to the accordion-effect everytime. A free deuteron 1H2 is also submitted to another sort of motion: an oscillation due to the zero point energy, everytime.
: If the motion of a nucleus Pd due to the accordion-effect gets resonance with the oscilation due to the zero point energy of a free nucleon 1H2, such resonance can help the cold fusion occurrence.
::If the two motions are aligned toward the same direction through an electromagnetic field, it’s easier cold fusion to occur by the capture of the 1H2 by the nucleus Pd.
There is something missing in the hydrogen model of Quantum Mechanics, as we realize from the successes of Bohr’s hydrogen model (see Successes of the Bohr atom.
In the new hydrogen atom proposed in Quantum Ring Theory there is a dilation of the space (aether) within the electrosphere of the proton. Such a dilation of the aether is due to the repulsive gravity (the same repulsive gravity that causes the expansion of the Universe, and predicted in Einstein’s theory through the cosmological constant).
It seems that such dilation of the aether within the proton’s electrosphere causes a sort of interaction that Don Borghi called non-Coulombic interactions.
:In his paper, Don Borgi wrote:
::We have tried to see experimentally whether there is some interaction between electric charges, other than the Coulombic one, and whether it may produce some kind of bound states between a proton and an electron, electrically neutral but different from a hydrogen-atom state. This requires that the stronger, and quicker, Coulombic interaction may be avoided by means of a high-frequency ionizing e.m.field. This field succeeds in maintaining a "cold" plasma i.e., a considerable number of protons mixed and colliding with an equal number of free electrons, for a time much larger than 10-8 sec. This limit is suggested by the known average recombination time of the ionized hydrogen atom.
So, it seems that the non-Couloumbic interactions detected in Don Borghi’s experiment are the LENR responsible for cold fusion occurrence. And LENR is present within the hydrogen atom.
The Editor Eugene Mallove of Infinite Energy Magazine read the paper where it is proposed the new hydrogen atom of Quantum Ring Theory, and in March 04-2004 the Managing Editor Christy Frazier sent by e-mail the following words to the author of QRT:
:“Thank you again for submitting your paper, Fundamental Requirements for the Proposal of a New Hydrogen Atom, to Infinite Energy Magazine (Manuscript #03-06). Our editor is aware of the possible implications presented for LENR and hydrino physics by this paper'. ?
R. Eisberg, R. Resnick, ‘’Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei and Particles’’, John Wiley & Sons, 1974
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