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Directory:Solar Hydrogen

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'Description:' : Index of technologies that use solar power to produce Hydrogen gas.

: "The raw materials -- water and sunlight -- are free. The only waste, oxygen, is nonpolluting." (Wired Sept. 2, 2004)

'OBJECTIVE:' : Present a prioritized listing of the best resources and most promising up-coming technologies that deal with solar hydrogen. With input from knowledgeable people worldwide, this page can become the most reliable and helpful place to find information about solar hydrogen.

See also Directory:Solar:Photosynthesis Imitation


Hydrogen Fuel Closer to Fruition - Overview of recent "solar hydrogen" systems being developed in the U.S., U.K., and Australia. (Wired News Sept. 2, 2004)

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How a Solar-Hydrogen Economy Could Supply the World's Energy Needs - In an invited opinion piece to be published in the Proceedings of the IEEE, Professor Abbott at the University of Adelaide in Australia, argues that a solar-hydrogen economy is more sustainable and provides a vastly higher total power output potential than any other alternative and should be the final goal of current energy policy. (PhysOrg Aug. 24, 2009)

Technologies / Teams

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Water + Sunlight = Solar Hydrogen - Scientists are developing a cheap, viable photoelectrolytic technology that would split water into hydrogen and oxygen using sunlight. Using thin films of titanium iron oxide nanotube arrays, they reported a photoconversion rate of 1.5%, and are now optimizing to obtain closer to the theoretical maximum around 12.9%. (TreeHugger Aug. 17, 2007)

Solar Hydrogen Filling Stations Funded - $3 million grant to develop Nevada hydrogen refilling stations provide hydrogen from non-carbon-based source. (MarketWire Nov. 23)

Solar Hydrogen Trends, Inc.

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Latest: Directory:Solar / Directory:Hydrogen > Directory:Solar Hydrogen > Directory:Solar Hydrogen Trends, Inc.'s Overunity Hydrogen - Presenting "the world’s first hydrogen reactor for production of unlimited hydrogen reactor uses water as main fuel and is 100% carbon-free! Endless fuel from water…" Claim that an input 500 watts produces 2,797 cu.ft. H2 per hour, equivalent to 221.5 KW-hr at a cost of $1.80. (PESWiki March 19, 2014)
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Latest: Directory:Hydrogen > Directory:Hydrogen Production > Directory:Solar Hydrogen Trends, Inc.'s Overunity Hydrogen > Solar Hydrogen Trends asks: - With a claim to a coefficient of performance (COP) of 400:1 (output versus input energy), and citing Stanley Meyers, it's no wonder they are being met with skepticism and reservation by the mainstream yet they claim to have independent test results to verify their claim. (PESN April 17, 2014)

Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation (SHEC)

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Directory:Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation (SHEC) Labs (separate page) - has developed a process that will convert landfill and other waste methane into clean hydrogen, using the power of the Sun for the reformation, at a price comparable to traditional hydrogen production methods.


Free Energy Blog:2013:11:15 - Stanford University scientists have created a silicon-based water splitter that is both low-cost and corrosion-free. The novel device -- a silicon semiconductor coated in an ultrathin layer of nickel -- could help pave the way for large-scale production of clean hydrogen fuel from sunlight, according to the scientists. (Free Energy Blog November 15, 2013)


See also Directory:Honda

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Directory:Electric Vehicles > Directory:Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations / Directory:Fuel Cells / Directory:Solar Hydrogen > Directory:Solar Hydrogen > Honda's next gen solar-powered hydrogen fuel cell station for home use - Honda has begun work on a smaller solar hydrogen station prototype intended as a home refueling appliance. Capable of an overnight refill of fuel cell electric vehicles it is designed to be a single, integrated unit that will fit in the user's garage, producing enough hydrogen (0.5kg) via an 8-hour overnight fill for daily commuting (10,000 miles per year). (GizMag Feb. 1, 2010)

Honda FCX Fuel Cell Car Powered by the Sun - Hydrogen produced from a 700 square foot solar array at a custom filling station is capable of supporting 200 miles per week -- the national average. Range 170 miles. Prototypes: $2 mil each. (LA Times Aug. 29, 2004) [free subscription required to access]

Nocera Catalytic Electrolysis

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Directory:MIT:Daniel Nocera:Catalytic Electrolysis - MIT researchers have combined a liquid catalyst with photovoltaic cells to achieve nearly a 100% efficient electrolysis in a simple set-up, which could make solar energy more affordable and practical -- excess capacity during the day could be stored as hydrogen and oxygen, then used in fuel cells at night when needed. (PESWiki Aug. 1, 2008)

OriginOil -- usin Algae

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Directory:Solar Hydrogen / Directory:Algae > OriginOil Achieves Hydrogen Production Comparable To Photovoltaics - OriginOil intends the Hydrogen Harvester to be deployed as an additional system output in algae production settings, approaching an efficiency of 12 percent when exposed to the sun. An advantage is that algae stores up energy during the day and will continue to generate hydrogen throughout the night. (Biofuel Daily November 11, 2010)


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Cheap Hydrogen from Solar Energy - Nanoptek, a startup based in Maynard, MA, has developed a new way to make hydrogen from water using solar energy. The company says that its process is cheap enough to compete with the cheapest approaches used now, which strip hydrogen from natural gas, and it has the further advantage of releasing no carbon dioxide. (MIT Technology Review Jan. 31, 2008)

Hydrogen Solar Ltd.

Hydrogen Solar (.com) - "Technologies for Generating Renewable, Carbon-Free Hydrogen"

: "Hydrogen Solar is building a portfolio of hydrogen technologies and Intellectual Property aimed at the new hydrogen economy, which many believe will evolve alongside the oil economy and eventually overtake it. Currently, the prime technology is the Tandem Cell™, which converts light and water directly into hydrogen fuel, and for which Hydrogen Solar owns the world-wide exclusive rights. We also own rights to biological processes for generating hydrogen, and are actively seeking to acquire compatible technologies in hydrogen generation and storage."

In the News

Les Temps (Switzerland) - June 2005, (in French)

Wired - 7 December, 2004

Science News - 9 November, 2004

Financial Times - 3 September, 2004

BBC News - 10 August, 2004

Altair Nanotechnologies

Two-pronged approach entails the development of a cell for direct hydrogen production from sunlight and water, along with related vehicle refilling stations. - Altair Nanotechnologies company website

Grant Funds Development of Solar Hydrogen Generation Cells - The US Department of Energy has awarded a 2.5 million dollar grant to fund the development of solar hydrogen generation cells. The phase III award is given jointly to Altair Nanotechnologies and the University of Nevada Las Vegas Research Foundation. (Renewable Energy Access Nov. 2005)

Algae as a Hydrogen Factory using Photosynthesis

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Directory:Using green algae to produce hydrogen from sunlight and water via photosynthesis - Researchers at the University of California at Berkeley have engineered a strain of pond scum that could, with further refinements, produce vast amounts of hydrogen through photosynthesis. The breakthrough also could have application in a wide range of products, from biodiesel to cosmetics.

Weizmann Institute of Science

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Solution for Production of Hydrogen Fuel Through Solar Technology - Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel has completed testing on a full-scale prototype solar concentrator that uses Zinc gas-powder cycle to store and release solar energy and release hydrogen at will. (H2O Power Aug. 8, 2005)

Asymmetric Parabolic Mirrors on a Filament of Platinum

Directory:Asymmetric Parabolic Mirrors on a Filament of Platinum - System that converts solar radiation into hydrogen utilizing ASYMETRIC PARABOLIC MIRRORS to create energy gradients that set up an energy flow on a platinum wire. This creates hydrogen from the water. Similar to SHEC labs, but possibly much cheaper and easier to build.

Hydrogen Solar Ltd

Hydrogen Solar Ltd Hydrogen Solar is building a portfolio of hydrogen technologies and Intellectual Property aimed at the new hydrogen economy, which many believe will evolve alongside the oil economy and eventually overtake it. Currently, the prime technology is the Tandem Cell™, which converts light and water directly into hydrogen fuel, and for which Hydrogen Solar owns the world-wide exclusive rights. We also own rights to biological processes for generating hydrogen, and are actively seeking to acquire compatible technologies in hydrogen generation and storage.

In the News

Nanotechnology to Create Green Hydrogen - Converts light and water directly into hydrogen fuel. (PhysOrg Sept. 24)

Hydrogen Solar funding round oversubscribed - New funding to continue research into carbon-free hydrogen generating Tandem Cell™ solar hydrogen technology


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Directory:Solar / Directory:Hydrogen > Directory:Solar Hydrogen > Directory:Solar:Photosynthesis Imitation > HyperSolar Envisions Solar Powered Hydrogen - Essentially mimicking the natural process of photosynthesis, Hypersolar's nanoscale solar device with protective plastic coating enables the production of hydrogen in hostile environments including sea water, wastewater or stormwater runoff. That gives the system a leg up on conventional hydrogen systems, which require purified water. (CleanTechnica May 26, 2012)

Uppsala University

Artificial photosynthesis for future energy production - Some algae produce hydrogen from water with the help of solar energy. EU has allocated 1.8 million to a new network to be led by Uppsala University to seek a usable imitation that would not harm the environment. (PhysOrg Feb. 21, 2005)

Brewer Light to Energy Research Projects

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Supramolecular complexes created by Karen Brewer of Virginia Tech can convert solar energy into a fuel, such as hydrogen gas in a process has been called artificial photosynthesis.

Brewer Light to Energy Research Projects - official project website at Virginia Tech.

Chemical Compound Turns Water to Hydrogen Gas -- Artificial Photosynthesis (Solar Access Aug. 26, 2004)

Chemical Compound Turns Water to Hydrogen Gas- Supramolecular complexes created by Karen Brewer of Virginia Tech can convert solar energy into a fuel, such as hydrogen gas in a process has been called artificial photosynthesis.


University of New South Wales

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Special titanium oxide ceramics harvest sunlight and split water to produce hydrogen fuel. Researchers at UNSW anticipate an energy-harvesting device with no moving parts within 7 years.

Solar hydrogen - energy of the future - UNSW press release, Aug. 26, 2004. (See also March 4, 2004 | May 30, 2003 grant announcement)

WATER +sunshine = hydrogen (PDF) - UNSW Brochure.

University of New South Wales - PESN coverage, includes link to other news organizations that picked up the story. (Aug. 27, 2004)

Breakthrough technology splits water into clean fuels by harnessing solar power - News Target report Dec. 2, 2004.

Contact: (remove ")

- Januez Nowotny:

- Chris Sorrell:

University of Tokyo

New photocatalyst for H generation works by irradiation with visible light - Mimicking nature's photosynthesis is not so easy. Researchers at Tokyo Univ. of Science have developed a method for taping visible light through a catalytic process. (PhysOrg May 23, 2005)

American Computer Scientists Association

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Solar-Hydrogen Maglev Rail System Conceived - Interstate maglev rail system would include solar panels along the tracks, which would generate hydrogen to run the transport vehicles, which would travel at 250 mph, carrying cars and people between metropolitan areas. 3x excess energy anticipated. (PESN May 27, 2005)


Photocatalyst boost - Researcher shares his reasons why he thinks it will be possible to obtaining hydrogen from water using a non-solar light source within a cell. (enki's tblog Oct. 2, 2004)

Kim Blake

Directory:Using Light Finesse Instead of Brute Force in Water Molecule Dissociation - Kim Blake describes his theory about a plausible way to extract hydrogen from water using particular vibrations of light.


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Directory:Solar > Directory:Solar Hydrogen / Directory:Solar:Photosynthesis Imitation > Breakthrough in using sunlight to split water - A team of MIT researchers has managed to mimic the photosynthetic process in plants by engineering M13, a simple and harmless virus, to help splitting water into its two atomic components - hydrogen and oxygen - using sunlight. The virus acts as the chlorophyl by capturing light, then transfers the energy down its length, acting like a wire. (GizMag Apr. 16, 2010)


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Directory:Alternative Fuels / Directory:Solar > Directory:Solar Energy Research and Development > Directory:Solar Hydrogen > Breakthrough solar reactor makes fuel from sunlight - U.S. and Swiss researchers have developed a prototype device that directly converts the Sun’s rays into fuels that can be stored, allowing the energy to be used at night or transported to locations where it is needed. Gizmag December 26, 2010)
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Directory:Solar Hydrogen / Directory:Hydrogen > Directory:Hydrogen Production / Directory:Hydrogen Storage > A Virus That Might Make Hydrogen - A team of scientists lead by material science professor Angela Belcher has genetically modified a virus that can exploit sunlight to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. If viable, the process could help solve the vexing problem of energy storage and the equally vexing problem of producing hydrogen in a reasonable and cost-effective way. (Green Tech Media April 11, 2010)

Molecule Harvests Water's Hydrogen- Researchers have developed a large molecule that can use sunlight energy to extract hydrogen from water, and then use that to move electrons more efficiently. (MIT Technology Review Dec. 6, 2004)

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Solar Hydrogen Photocatalyst - Nanoptek’s Solar Hydrogen Generator (SHG) produces hydrogen directly from water using only sunlight and a titania photocatalyst in a process known as photoelectrochemical (PEC) water dissociation, or photolysis. The manufacturing process is scalable, low cost, and requires less energy than other processes. (Green Car Congress Jan. 16, 2008)

Splitting Water with Sunlight - Researchers from the German Max Planck Institute have developed a catalyst that utilizes light to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. It also stores the gases which can later be released separately. (PhysOrg Sept. 25, 2007)

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Solar Water Cracker - Clean Hydrogen Producers' system concentrates sunlight to heat a furnace to the point where it splits water into hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used to generate electricity. It combines the cost efficiency of wind farms with the advantage of being both predictable and adjustable thanks to hydrogen storage. (Green Car Congress Aug. 17, 2007)

Global Photonic - GPEC is seeking to mimic the natural photosynthetic process whereby the chlorophyll in green plants is able to capture light energy (photons) and immediately convert that energy into a usable form for green plants. GPEC's hydrogen fuel production technology is based on this phenomenon, whereby photonic energy is captured and efficiently converted to electrical energy. The electrical energy is used to drive down stream reactions that will efficiently split water into hydrogen and oxygen. GPEC calls this technology "Chemophyll™"

Solar Hydrogen Truck - Arizona high school project believed to be first ever solar-hydrogen truck in the world. The $10,000 prototype is not yet practical for continuous running, but proves a concept. (Arizona Republic Oct. 1, 2004) - Canadian group sells fuel cells with input energy from solar PV cells.

Solar Hydrogen Research Pty Ltd(96) - National Hydrogen Institute of Australia promotes fuel cell technologies.

University of Delaware

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Directory:Hydrogen / Directory:Solar > Directory:Solar Hydrogen > Scientist Develops Self-Sustaining Solar Reactor that Produces Clean Hydrogen Fuel - A doctoral student in mechanical engineering at the University of Delaware has designed a new type of reactor that produces hydrogen using nothing more than concentrated sunlight, zinc oxide, and water. And best of all, the zinc oxide used by the reactor can be reused, meaning that once the reactor is up and running, it would be self-sustaining. (Inhabitat April 7, 2012)


If you know of a resource or technology or team that is not included above, feel free to post it here. (Click on the "edit" link to the right of the "more" heading.)



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Directory:Solar > Directory:Solar PhotoVoltaics / Directory:Hydrogen > Directory:Solar Hydrogen > Jack Nicholson's 1978 Hydrogen Car - Step back in time to when solar panels were new and needed to be explained as part of a presentation on how the energy of sunlight could be used to generate electricity to electrolyze water to generate hydrogen which could run a car, using a metal catalyst to stabilize the storage of hydrogen. (GreenEnergyTV 9/9/9)

In the News

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Congress:Top 100 Technologies -- RD: Directory:Storage / Directory:Electrolysis > Directory:MIT:Daniel Nocera:Catalytic Electrolysis > Splitting Water to Store Solar Energy - MIT professor Daniel Nocera earlier worked on a catalysts that can divide water molecules which can be utilized to store energy. Daniel Nocera has established a company named as Sun Catalytix to give his dreams a concrete shape. He envisions low-cost Solar electrolysis procing hydrogen, stored in tanks, to run a fuel cell on demand, (Alt Energy News Sept. 30, 2009)

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Professor demonstrates new hydrogen fuel system - A University of Nevada research team have created a photoactive hydrogen material with over a billion nanotubes, through an electrochemical process from applied ultrasonic waves. The material has the potential to produce hydrogen from water for as little as $1 per gallon equivalent by harnessing the sun's energy. (PhysOrg Feb. 23, 2007)

Titania Nanotube Arrays Harness Solar Energy - Penn State researchers are finding new ways to harness the power of the sun using highly-ordered arrays of titania nanotubes for hydrogen production and increased solar cell efficiency. “Basically we are talking about taking sunlight and putting water on top of this material, and the sunlight turns the water into hydrogen and oxygen. With the highly-ordered titanium nanotube arrays, under UV illumination you have a photoconversion efficiency of 13.1%. (PhysOrg January 25, 2006)


See Talk:Directory:Solar Hydrogen

See also


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Directory:Hydrogen Production

Directory:Hydrogen from Water

Directory:Solar Hydrogen

Directory:Hydrogen Storage



Directory:Water as Fuel

Directory:Fuel Efficiency Hydrogen Injection

Directory:Hydroxy or HHO Injection Systems

Directory:HHOi under Air Pressure to the Fuel Rail to Provide Petrol Substitute

Directory:Running Vehicles on Water

OS:Water Fuel Cell

Directory:Alternative Fuels

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Directory:Solar - index of resources

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PowerPedia:Solar Energy - Encyclopedic review of history and future

Directory:Solar Energy Research and Development


Directory:Solar Problems


Directory:Concentrated Solar Power

Directory:Solar Infrared Harvesting

Directory:Solar PhotoVoltaics

Directory:Home Generation:Solar PV

Directory:Photovoltaic Research and Development

Directory:Solar Thermal

Directory:Home Generation:Solar Heating

Directory:Thin Film Solar

Directory:Solar:Photosynthesis Imitation

Directory:Solar Paint

Directory:Dye Solar Cells

Directory:Solar Tower

Directory:Floating Solar Chimney

Directory:Space Based Solar Power

Directory:Solar Sails

Directory:Solar Windows


Directory:Plastic Solar Cells

Directory:Silicon - more efficient uses, alternatives, methods

Directory:Black Silicon

Directory:Synchronous Solar Heliostat

Directory:Solar:Installation and Consultation



Directory:Solar Applications



Directory:Solar Hydrogen

Directory:Walipini Underground Greenhouses

OS:Solar Ethanol - distiller design

Directory:Energy from Roadways

Directory:Solar Pavement - black-body absorption of the asphalt

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ALT FUELS (alphabetical sequence)

Directory:Alternative Fuels

Directory:Air Cars

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Directory:Algae for Oil


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Directory:Biodiesel from Algae Oil

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OS:DIY Rocket Stove


Directory:Boron-Powered Vehicles

Directory:Hydrogen from Water using Boron



Directory:Cellulosic Ethanol

OS:Solar Ethanol

Directory:Ethanol Woes


Directory:Hydrogen from Water

Directory:Hydroxy or HHO Injection Systems

Directory:Solar Hydrogen



Directory:Liquid Nitrogen economy




Directory:Sorganol Biofuel

Directory:Biofuel Sources


Directory:Waste to Energy

Directory:Animal and Crop Waste to Energy

Directory:Water as Fuel

Directory:Running Vehicles on Water


Directory:Hybrid Vehicles

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- Directory







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