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Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 15, 2016 at 1:22 am.

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Materials used

2 Baldors 7.5 3PH (more detail below)

Inverter xantrex 1200watt modified sine wave

Solar panel 120 watt

Deep cycle 12 volt battery

Basic run and start caps (non electrolytic for run!)


RotoVerter energy savings video - finished setup running on solar panels

Step by Step

Modifying your setup

You will find from the examples of replications from hectors RV that they are modified in the alternator side. Although this is primarily only cosmetic enabling the two junction boxes to face the front when coupled, this is also done particularly so it makes the system easer to work on when your testing different configurations. Also you will need to follow part of this routine described to remove the fan, because as Dans test prove conclusively the fan takes 32.84

watts!(builds up wind resistance) And is not needed when the motors are operated idling for observation of the processes and learning from the behaviour modified to RV mode, as your not driving the motor in its normal functional peaks. (therefore over heating will not occur)

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This guide is modeled on the latest recommendations from the groups discussions. Which are two Motors 230/460 VAC 7.5HP 3450- or 1725 RPM 3PH motor 184 TCH frame (with removable external fan

Specifications :baldors motor EM3770T

Catalogue Number: EM3770T

Specification Number: 07H002X790

Horsepower: 7 1/2

Voltage: 230/460

Hertz: 60

Phase: 3

Full Load Amps: 19/9.5

Usable at 208 Volts: N/A

RPM: 1770

Frame Size: 213T

Service Factor: 1.15

Rating: 40C AMB-CONT

Locked Rotor Code: J

NEMA Design Code: A

Insulation Class: F

Full Load Efficiency: 91.7

Power Factor: 81

Enclosure: TEFC

Baldor Type: 0735M

DE Bearing: 6307

ODE Bearing: 6206

Electrical Specification Number: 07WGX790

Mechanical Specification Number: 07H002

Base: RG

Mounting: F1


you need DOUBLE COIL motors - this means, that the motor should have 9 or 12 wire terminals. And two identical motors. That's why Hector has stated that it should be 230/460V model - when the dual coils are connected in series, then it is 460V (good for RV prime mover), when in parallel, then it is a 230V motor with twice the amps capacity (excellent for RV alternator operation).

Such double coil motors might be a bit hard to find in Europe or in Australia. It is advisable to stick to the modeled guide and to order those US 230/460 motors.

The above is the motor that Hector recommended (it's a 1770RPM motor which is a bit more peaceful to operate - less vibration, especially when the coupling between motors is not very good)

Currently recommended motors from EVGray

current recommendations from EVGRAY on RV motors to use:

NA: - DUAL winding motors 230/460VAC 60Hz 3 to 7.5HP

- prime mover 3600rpm, wired for highest voltage (460V 'Y')

and apply single-phase 110V

- alternator 3600rpm or lower, wired for lowest voltage (230V)

EU: - WYE/Delta motors 230/400VAC 50Hz 5 to 10 HP

- prime mover 3000rpm, wired for highest voltage ('Y')

and apply single-phase 100-120VAC (through variac or transformer)

- alternator 3000rpm or lower, wired for lowest voltage (in DELTA)

In any case the lowest HP is 5HP for 50Hz, as you need to have the same efficiency. (with 60Hz, you can go down to 3HP).So a 4KW motor will do fine.

Re-grease bearings!

Before commencing with modifying your set up, you must RE- grease the bearings and put oil on the shaft[s]!!.

This is essential to boost the efficiency by getting rid of drag from factory grease, even in new motors! So far the best stuff I have found is a product called BI-tron, this is a superior lubricating product and protection. I suggest you evaluate this from their site to see what I talking about. One can see from the test comparison that there is no other product on the market which can stand the pressure and protect like BI-tron.

Here is the instructions I got from the representative.

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Bi-tron is mail order only and not found in the shops, but is the best stuff. Alternatively you can try what Konehead uses which is

{{quotation|I sprayed my Barings out with carburetor cleaner, took off the plates, then when I add small amount of "krol" lubricant (guy in nuts and bolts store said it is great) it loses a bit of spin is all - now maybe 15 revolutions before coming to stop. Plus

I think dura-lube brand is the best lubricant to use.|konehead}}

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The bearings that look like little wheels, have balls. Do not fondle with these balls because they are accurately machined. But too see the balls you must pop off some seals. These are normally black flat washer things clipped into the sides of our bearing.

Some bearings have metal seals. What we do in this case is break them out with a screwdriver. But if we have rubber seals we carefully flip them out with a blade ON THE OUT SIDE EDGE. We do not flip them out on the inside edge towards the centre because there is a perfect neat running edge.

We can do all this without taking the bearing off the motor shaft. We pop them off and slide away from the bearing then wash all the old grease out. We put new grease in and carefully clip the seals back in place. Now we only need a little grease, because too much will expand and pop our seals off without us ever knowing, when the motor is running.

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Flipping the rotor step by step

First choose the alternator side of your 2 motors(any one of the two). Then take the four long bolts that hold the endplates out. Remove the fan too, as it builds up wind resistance , and it is safe to operate the motor with in certain parameters (testing and idling for short periods) with out having to worry for the necessity of the fan.

Part 1:

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Get a large flat blade screwdriver and look for the indent in the fan side endplate. Use the screwdriver and pry or use a small hammer and tap the screwdriver and get the fan side endplate to separate from the motor frame.

Part 2:

Image:Panacea rv 004.JPG

You might have to go around the end plate and tap in different places to get it to come off. Once it comes loose you should be able to remove it. i.e. it should come off the shaft. The bearing will still be on the rotor shaft. Now do the same procedure to the output shaft endplate.

This end plate will stay with the rotor. (pictured in part 2) Next slide the rotor out of the motor like the picture above. The rotor is heavy. Just take the rotor out slowly & try not to drag it across the stator core DO NOT DRAG THE ROTOR ACROSS THE STATOR.

Part 3:

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Part 4:

Image:Panacea rv 006.JPG

Now take the rotor and front plate (pictured above) and insert it in the other side of the motor where the fan endplate was (opposite side). You will have to use a hammer (or rubber mallet) to tap the endplate back into the motor housing. Make sure to align the bolt holes to the same position they were before disassembly. Next put the fan endplate back on (use mallet and align the bolt holes). Last screw in the long bolts. Check that the rotor spins freely. Wallaaa Your done (pictured below)

Part 5:

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Note motor is switched around in the opposite direction for alignment to proper acceptation as an alternator coupled to the prime mover with both junction boxes able to face together.

Part 6

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Note the original end plate where the fan was is removed and switched to the opposite side whilst the rotor was take out, and the casing of the motor turned around, (inverted) then the rotor with the end plate still attached was placed back inside the motor and all was refasten.

Rv junction box

All credit is given to the mystical one peter (nick is mystic) for this eloquent (meaning Expressing yourself readily, clearly, effectively) organized setting, (as he is a bit of an original hehe )

Make up for a neater presentation and clearer definition of values that the motor is designed for, A Junction box with the values marked out for assigning both the prime mover and the alternators values . The prime mover is wired to 460 V and the alternator is wired to 260. remove the junction box and drill holes for assigning the numbered poles of the motors (wires).

Next assign the values in this casing 460 V for the prime mover by the instructions on the junction box , and connect the values too available outlets.

Here is a model directly off the baldors web site.

Image:Panacea rv 009.JPG

the numbers are correct from the list then this is not the standard color code---- according to this list one would wire

4 to 7 yellow to pink

5 to 8 black to red

6 to 9 purple to gray

1 (blue)to (Hi in) & then connect caps junction to here

2 (white) connect to other caps junction (white)

3 (orange)to (Neutral in)

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Finished unit should look easily recognizable and readable.

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The configurations are in easily recognizable and visible in the order allocated by the voltage assignment from the motors generic schematic (white picture on top of the junction box describing the low/high voltage lead wiring.)

Do this for both the prime mover and the chosen alternator. This will save you having to open the junction boxes all the time and re configure the wiring.

Frame measurements

If you stick to the recommended motors in the guide then your measurements will coincide with the aforementioned but I recommend you measure them your self just to be sure. Otherwise it is not much involved in attaining the perfect alignment measurement base for the motors. You only basically need to measure out the width of the holes in the baldors motors being in my case of 10 mil holes and adequate spacing for the shaft coupling from the end of your desired beam size.

Even though we measured 10 mil holes we found that 10 mil screws didn’t go in very well, therefore we used 8 mill nuts and bolts with washers for better fit.

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10 mil holes with from the ends. And leave some spacing after the end motor fitting on the out side of the frame.

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Finished product.

switching box for start of prime mover

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Here pictured we have leads for the battery inverter, caps and a shunt which you will need for tuning. The switch box has two switches assigned for the start capacitor and the run capacitor of the prime mover. (thanks peter mystic!!!)


you will need to get the key that’s taped inside the shaft, and file and or grind it down to the specifications of your coupling fits. In our case we grinded it down to 7 mil form its original width.

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That’s peter, I was taking the photos like a Japanese tourist, and not paying attention to what he was doing.

Next fit and align the motors on the frame and connect coupling. If you have the same motors as this guide Your shaft is 1 3/8 inches. I recommend aluminum shafts as opposed to what Dan and I used as they are heavy iron. Rubber coupling is lighter and easier to work with and doesn’t corrode. But iron shaft coupling will allow magnets to be on it, as well as a belt drive. I mention this as some may want to experiment with more capturing.

Image:Panacea rv 016.JPG

Those wrinkles were caused by my nagging and obvious questions :) - Next get your shunt and battery and inverter wired up.

Image:Panacea rv 017.JPG
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The shunt can be on either positive or negative of the battery lead. I choose the negative.

Connect solar panel to charge battery, in our case it came through at 5 amps charging the battery. Well worth the 700$ I had to give to a hippy to acquire it. Peter suggested we use a battery charger that you plug in, that’s just what we need an alternative energy device that you have to plug in to the wall in order for it to work. Eventually I caved and bought one, comes in handy incase testing needs to be done and the sun isn’t shining.

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Use a voltage regulator to regulate the charge form the panel to the battery. Mine is rated for 20 amps

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connect cord from inverter to switching box and connect start and run caps to the prime mover junction box.

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It is advisable to first acquire rotation and proper function of the prime mover coupled to the generator with out a load first. This is important to get a feel of what you are doing and experience in the tuning of the run cap of the prime mover.

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Connect start and run caps to your rig.

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Solar panel is to the left. Connect your volt meter onto the shunt before powering it up so you can tune and monitor the LOW current draw from the prime mover for when a load is connected to the generator.

Image:Panacea rv 025.JPG

Pictured here we have the battery with meter on the shunt, plus the inverter with the chord running to the switch box. Run the prime mover first to get a feel with the performance.

Next step is to connect caps to your alternator. Construct a cap bank for this. Have your cap bank with adjustable switching for tuning the values. An example and guide line for these values is presented further in the next sections.

The whole thinking around the concept of the RV is to tune to the most efficient individual performance of your motors. It is therefore advisable that you have a vast array of cap values to experiment. The idea is to get the prime movers run cap down to the lowest draw from the load of the generator.

Cap bank with switching.

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Below is a basic configuration with the cap, inverter battery and shunt connected

Image:Panacea rv 028.JPG

Prime mover is right, alternator is left.

Image:Panacea rv 029.JPG

RV input being 11 volts and 30.6 amps

Image:Panacea rv 030.JPG

Rv out put being 165 volts at 10amp ACA

Connect up volt meters and she is ready to go. Refer to the step by step guide for alternator trouble shooting below if your alternator is not generating.

For a next generation tuning cap bank, it is advisable you build a binary switched bank and have values of 0.5 uf and 1uf. Here is one a friend made for me with extra switches available to put in 0.5 uf steps. This bank is perfect for tuning the RV prime mover as it can switch from 1-uf to 127uf in 1uf steps!.

The 2 versions of binary value cap box shown in the pictures were made from block mount, motor run, poly capacitors, 450VAC, arranged to give the binary values, so a wide range of capacitance can be selected.

Image:Panacea rv 031.JPG

This was the first one made, and allows 0 to 127uF in 1uF steps.

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Next we made three of these smaller ones that allow 0 to 31.5uF in 0.5uF steps. Same type of capacitors, but smaller box. These caps were only available in a few values, so some combinations were needed to make up the needed values.

The 0.5uF value was made from 4 x 2uF in series.

The 1.0uF was made from 2 x 2uF in series.

These 3 were made with reduced value range to keep the cost down, but can be paralleled with other caps to give fine tuning at a higher capacitance value. If a 20uF is hooked in parallel, then the box becomes a 20 to 51.5uf box.

Image:Panacea rv 035.JPG

Here are some ideas for the construction of a smooth-switching cap box for simple, electronic tuning……

The idea of making a binary cap box that can be adjusted by a simple turn of a knob, or automatically by the motor current is a good one, but there are a couple of things to bare in mind about it.

We are dealing with large inductance and voltage, so switching of the Caps needs to be very robust, and there should be no time when a cap is not connected (ie switching down from 8uF to 7.5uF should be smooth - no gap between). This tends to rule out using a binary sequence, unless you use some very fancy switching.

Instead look at using a heap of small value caps that are just added in parallel. Say use 20 x 0.5uF caps to make a 0-10uF box in 0.5uF steps. To switch the caps in, use cheap and simple relays. Use a couple of cascaded bar-graph chips to drive the relays, and you have a pretty simple voltage controlled cap box. Reasonably cheap as well since the caps and relays are common components

Now you are ready to connect a load. Best advice I can offer is to start with a set of bulbs on the alternator connected as outlined in the ‘Connecting your load to your alt options’ in the index. But First start to search for maximum voltage out put from your alternator by adding and or subtracting cap values. Do this whilst doing the same for tuning the lowest capacitance from your prime movers run cap. This will change when you connect a load, so make sure you have some values on your bank enabling you to be able to switch back up on the prime movers run cap(s). This is so you can start to tune from the lowest setting when your load is connected.

After you are confident that you have acquired maximum voltage and the lowest run cap with no load, take a magnet up to the alternator and see if it vibrates when approaching the LC. This will tell you that you have radiant energy and resonance in the alternator LC which occurs when maximum voltage is attained.

Running directly from the grid

Australia power supplies at 230V and on 50hrtz. If are using the above recommended motors and are on 60 hrtz and running from a 110V grid then you will have no troubles using the two terminals of the prime mover into the power socket. If not You may use step down transformer 230V to 120V in order to run in RV mode. A Variac (variable transformer) you can set any voltage you want. From 230V to 270V till 0V. So you have another parameter to play with other then capacitor tuning. Capacitor is also parameter because you can change what ever value you need by switching on & off (capacitor bank).

If you want run RV using fixed transformer 230V to 120V with high watt rated, no problem at all. A Variac (variable transformer) is to replace normal step down transformer. You don't have to buy normal transformer if you use a variac. The primary input will be 230V (house power). The secondary you can set between 0V to 270V. So 120V is in between that range and you can set it.

To set desired voltage, just need to turn the knob on top of the variac. It's very simple.If you plan to buy variac, just ask the electric shopkeeper as below:

Item : Variable Transformer

Phase : Single phase

KVA : 5KVA or 7KVA.

Amp : above 20 amp

Sample picture of variac :

for the capacitor switches regarding making capacitor banks,

If you plan to buy on off switch, just ask the electric shopkeeper as below:

Item : On & Off switch

Amp : 20 to 30 amp

Voltage : 230V

Terminal (legs) : 2

Sample picture of on off switch :

Tuning the alternator for radiant energy

You must wire the alt motor for 220vac and resonate it with the as shown in alternator cap arrangement picture here . You adjust the caps so the alt is resonating at about 220vac, then you should have radiant energy . According to hector you then take a magnet and place it near the alt ,LC it should vibrate in your hand giving you the confirmation. An explanation of such phenomena is touched on here, but more detail is available in the first e-book of this series entitled RV laymen’s theory.

Advice is for the first timer trying this is to put a 15a fuse (as a precaution) in series with the alt motor resonant cap. In an example of this arrangement an alternator was resonating at 220vac, the current was between 10 and 11 amps.

A simple example

You've got two motors coupled shaft to shaft. PM is 3500 and alternator-to-be is 1725. wire your alternator-to-be for 240v (480 is easier but you might blow your caps) and hook an oil capacitor (try 10 mfd-- 2 20mfd caps in series to be safe -- to start) between two legs. Put a wire nut on the other leg. it won't be used initially.

Then start up the RV PM(prime mover). Pretty shortly, you should hear a hum of rising volume. If you play with the capacitance on the alternator, you should be able to hear a different hum and possibly load down the PM below slip (be ready to pull the plug if it slows way down)

Once you have tuned to the most intense hum, put your clamp meter around one of the motor to cap leads. You should be able to measure a considerable amount of current "circulating" between the motor coils and the capacitor. You should also put a voltage meter across the two cap leads and from one cap lead to the wire-nutted unused motor lead record these voltages for future reference --should be well over 200V. Right now, your alternator is not doing any work except magnetizing the rotor and possibly generating some heat. But you are getting the alternator to generate voltage and "imaginary" current. And you should see some increased current draw -- or at least changed current draw on the PM side.

The only problem you might have is the fact that you are driving your alternator at twice its synchronous speed. It will put out higher volts, start generating more quickly, and require more torque from the PM then if it were running at its design speed. Therefore, you may not hear a rising hum as it starts generating --it might start generating before the PM gets up to full speed. And it may put too much of a load on the PM to even get up to speed. And it's possible that it might generate close to 480V even though its hooked up as 240 (since it's being driven twice as fast) so you might blow a cap if it's not rated for that much voltage. (blowing a cap is not dangerous -- they have fuses inside that melt and the cap just quits working)

Once you know what voltages and current your alternator "accepts" we can talk about the best load suited.

on the PM (prime mover) you are dealing with a parallel resonance and are tuning for PF=1 and minimal input current draw. on the alt motor you are tuning for a series resonance and will have to monitor the current circulating & voltage across the resonant loop. To get the alt motor to generate power you will need to put a cap across two of the motor leads. Use a cap box so you can adjust the resonance.

As you increase the cap value the resonant current and voltage will rise. So you need to make sure you don’t exceed the motors output voltage spec as well as it max current spec. If you go over the spec values you might see the motor core saturate and the sine peaks flatten.. the author as stated in the beginning recommends the use of a fuse in series when tuning. when you try to load the alt directly you will detune the resonance and have to adjust the capacitance to get it back up to VA.

For a load the author used a couple of 100w light bulbs. The alt motor is the same setup as 7.5hp in this guide. When bringing the alt motor up to volts get the system up and running and then switch in the alt caps. As you switch in the alt motor caps and it goes into resonance the load on the PM will increase and you will have to retune the PM run cap for minimal current for the increased load. If the alt motor won’t come up, take a 12v gel cell and quickly zap a phase of the motor with it and that will put some magnetism on the rotor.

Then power up the system again and it should work. Your 1750 motor spinning at 3500 should yield a doubled line frequency. So the alt capacitance for resonance will likely be smaller than then that needed at line freq. Once you get it working other options for a load is then try using a diode plug arrangement to isolate the virtual circulating current from the real.

Goals and advice

At first try to get the radiant energy and apply a load later, after this first step It’s no big modification. You need to know how much energy you get and in what a manner (what voltages, what amps) to know what you could choose for a load.

The motor specs call 20a ac for 220vac & 10a ac for 440vac (standard running configurations). This tells you the two motor coils in series/(each coil) are rated for 10a ac and two of the motor coils in parallel good for 20a ac. The PM will be configured 440vac and run on 120vac. In this configuration it would be hard to damage the PM motor coils. The alt motor when resonated will generate higher currents @ voltages so consider fusing. You might also consider fusing/circuit breaking other system components.

For the cap box switches i used some surplus rocker types rated at 240vac @ 16aac. Got them for $1.00 each from All Electronics Van Nuys calif. Use higher rated voltage caps for alt testing. For wiring the system i used 12awg wire. Try to keep the wiring short. Less I^2R losses. Larger wire (10awg)requires larger crimp lugs and terminal blocks.

Link your motors face to face.

First thing is to get the prime mover to run from inverter in RV mode.

One start cap, one run cap and a switch to disconnect the start cap(s) after the motor reached its normal rpm's.

If you got your RV to run , then link your motors face to face. Alternator wiring. Switch off your RV first!!

For getting radiant energy you don't need to wire your alternator for 3 phase circulation. Take one Phase at first. It's simpler. Wire your alternator for the lowest voltage possible.

Connect your cap bank to 2 of the 3 connectors on your alternator, no matter which you choose (but not the ground connection! Leave it always as it is.) Connect a volt meter parallel to alternator output.

Now switch your RV on. Switch cap after cap parallel to your alternator output and watch the output voltage. Be careful with the high voltage. It's not a toy.

With no caps connected, there will be no voltage. As you connect the caps, you will get some voltage. Alter the whole capacitance until you reach maximum voltage (near resonance). If using the particular motors listed in this guide it has been reported by an experimenter previously that the alternator resonated on a 130 uF value. This value depends on your grid frequency if using a variac, plus no two motors behaviour reacts the same.

As the alternator starts to generate, it will sound different. You will hear that. Try this at first. This is important experiences to get a feeling, what you deal with. After them you choose a load.

Important: If you disconnect a cap while tuning and leave it disconnected, the cap can keep the charge! Don't touch the cap connections after a run (just unconnected caps the connected ones will always be discharged through the alternator windings)!

There can be several 100 volts within the cap. Always discharge them first or use a high ohmic resistor over each cap, so that the caps always discharge via this resistor after each run! Safety first!

The cap values at alternator you have to tune you also have to tune (switch between higher/lower values) This single cap in the ALT schematics in reality are SOME caps in parallel. This is the point where a cap-bank becomes valuable.

At first, 470 Volts caps sounds ok. If you wired your motor for 110 V and drive it with original RPM, it will suffice. Higher rpm->lower capacitance needed, but higher voltage. But the uF must be tuned. So you need some caps, some bigger, some smaller.

Connect them as it is shown in this picture.

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Every cap is connectable to the alternator via switch. the capacitance (uF) of all switched caps simply adds. Start with about 80uF (depends on your alternator).

Turn the system on. If 80 uF is ok, you can now read a voltage over the cap.

Always look at this voltage. Now change the whole capacitance a bit via switches in small steps, while system is running. Try to find the maximum voltage.

This is the tuning-part. At maximum voltage you have radiant energy.

Remember your Prime mover run capacitance is much lower. One took 105 uF for start (not critical...can be 150 also), and just 15 uF for run. Prime mover tuning goes same way like alternator tuning. Connect some small caps in parallel as run cap.

Things to be aware of are , when you tune alternator, the load (run cap value needed to adjusted) for prime mover changes a bit, and prime mover can be detuned therefore again a bit. Retune PM, so maybe rpm changes a bit, results in low alternator detuning.

But this mega-tuning you will just need if you do OU-tests.

High efficient PM and RE is already shown with roughly tuned system

Planning ahead by the numbers

1)Get a mounting platform i.e. 12" steel U channel and layout the mounting holes for both motors mounted face to face to face (note the mechanical drawings for the baldor motors are on baldors web site).

Next drill tap the motor mount holes. Note an example used was 1/4-20 (undersized hardware) on the alt motor so it would have some adjustment room to align the alt to the PM which also had to shim it as well.

2) wire the PM like the drawing, because that doesn't change much while you experiment with alternator configurations.

3)build a cap switch box for tuning the PM. (can use terminal blocks and crimp lugs to wire the circuit. It makes it a lot easier to change/reconfigure that way).

Once you get to this stage you can test the PM ,inverter, and cap tuning for minimum no load operation. Then progress to the alternator.

Basic tuning essential steps

If not using a variac for running directly from the grid. Get your battery and inverter and connect RV's prime mover to this 110V inverter. Also get the RV alternator to generate properly and put some load on this alternator. Then, with this load connected, tune the prime mover's vector cap to minimum current draw from the battery/inverter).

Try first to get the alternator to generate while driving with RV prime mover. Then measure the voltage on the alternator outputs and put about 500W of suitable-voltage lamps there. Then you should tune the prime mover's vector cap for minimum input draw.

You can (and probably should) also tune the alternator's vector cap size for stable generation (too small and it does not want to start to generate, too big and it will kind of oscillate - when generating, the drag on prime mover will be big and RPMs drop a bit, then generation and drag diminishes, RPMs grow again etc).What you certainly need, is 2 precisely tunable capacitor banks. Without them it is almost impossible (or very time consuming) to tune to RV mode.

Measuring the current relation in the RV

To measure the current relation in a RV, use 3 current shunts (can be resistors) 0.1 ohm in WYE. One leg goes to the source battery, one to return (generator to be tested, DC output), and the third to the load (inverter) A common ground is used for all devices (G).The inverter current must be the sum of return and battery current. As the return equals inverter current and battery current is 0 that is UNITY. When the battery voltage equals Return voltage=unity. As current reverses into battery and battery voltage becomes lower than Return voltage, that signals you got over unity. RV (bigger than) BV=OU COP = RV/BV condition under full load. a simple shunt is all that is needed to demonstrate OU (Current charging battery) and a voltmeter to monitor voltage 12.7 optimal a series of loads must be provided to prevent overcharge and create the hyper wave OU- non-OU HI-LOW wave cycles normal to a well tuned system . regulating load can be at any stage. - Hector quote

Note that a further undisputable accurate debunking and current relation measurement is available via earls submission in the third compilation of this series entitled RV energy saving applications.

Troubleshooting with Alternator exciting

Step by step instructions.

Disconnect any caps at ALT.

Use crocodile clip and connect the multi meter leads to L1 & L2 at ALT. Set the multi meter to 600VAC and not DC.

Now take another two crocodile clip and connect your caps at L2 & L3. Leave the cap clip connected at L2 but disconnect L3.

Now start your PM and get the max RPM. Very important.

Now touch the other cap clips at L3 and wait for a moment. Or you may just leave it on and wait for a moment.

Watch your multi meter and check if the voltage rise above 100V. If after 10 seconds and still no sign of voltage increase then just off the PM.

Go increase the cap value then repeat steps from step 1 until you can see some voltage increase.

The humming sound or voltage increase then your are done. The motor acting as generator. Just use rubber gloves when clipping the caps to the motor leads.

If you planned to add more caps without switches, make sure you discharge the caps before and after touching the permanently attached caps to alternator.

Example using 130 uF attached

Now you have 130uF attached to alt. Take another 10uF caps then touch both cap leads to 130uF cap bank leads. Hear the sound of ALT if changes or not. To be more accurate, check AC voltage at any two leads from ALT. If the it goes above 100V, yes the ALT is started generating.

If doesn't work, discharge the 10uF caps then add another 10uf caps to make it 20uF. Now again touch both cap leads to 130uF cap bank leads.

Make sure the PM runs at max RPM. Normally when we add caps at alternator, it takes some time to start generating. few seconds unless the caps value is big enough. Be patient.


On the alt just put a cap box on it and a scope (might want to resistive divide the signal to stay in scope range)and switch the caps in one at a time then you should see the alt come to life. If not zap a phase with a 12v bat into the alternator windings to allow the residual magnetism to build up and try again. P.S. if you grounded your rig you might want to float your scope ground.

If you need to add more caps, just touch caps leads at alternator caps connection. You don't have to open the cap bank boxes. Just connection points which goes to ALT leads. NOTE - If you touch the caps leads, the blue spark can be seen and the sounds like fire cracker. Don't be scared as long as you use rubber glove, you are safe.

2 other Options:


The experimenter describes that his alternator was 3000 rpm as well, wired for 380 volts. And used 80 uF capacitance to get resonance with single phase. If your alternator is wired for 110 Volt, you could need more capacitance. than 120 uF (Depends on grid frequency too).

you will definitively need more than 80 uF. And I think you will need even more than 120uF.


If you read 0 Volt AC (not 3 Volt or 2 Volt, but ZERO VOLT), you could have a short-circuit in your cap bank. Check this.

If cap bank is ok, your alternator core is fully de-magnetized. You need a small magnetic imbalance in rotor to get alternator to work. Remove the wires from your alternator. Take a car battery and 2 wires, and touch for about 1 second 2 of the 3 phases with battery wires. This should re-magnetize your alternator rotor. Rewire the alternator and test again.


If you can read some low voltage, your capacitance isn't correct. Tune it towards higher voltage by adding more capacitance.

If the alternator is wired to 220V, its better as gives more inductance where you need less capacitors. RPMs higher than 50cps are even better what I've found out.

One tip - if you need to start the system to GENERATE use something like 100uF capacitor in series automatic mechanical FUSE (5A or so). Then the rest of the 30uF caps are in parallel.

If your alternator starts to generate finally - 100uF caps will be too heavy and will certainly lug it down, usually it requires fast kung-fu skills to switch it off at the right time and let only 30uF (cap bank) to keep it working. If you're not fast enough you need to spark the alternator with battery to make it magnetically alive again. An 'auto-fuse' may save you from those problems.

The lower the voltage the higher capacitance the narrower tolerance and hi Q cut off sensitivity , will be harder to tune it Specially in reverse induction modes unless using PM rotors. Its normal for alternator to take 10 to 30 seconds starting at selected capacitance value, no need for instant boost ones. unless you degaussed dead by overloading.

From another angle and method

To get it to alternate the first time or two you almost need to shock the alternator, that is, no caps hooked up to alt at start up (or stop, in a minute) Bring it up to full speed, THEN switch in capacitor. It takes a few seconds. if you've got it right, then she will squat down and grunt! Look for a definite pitch change from benign to a meaty growl.

If you go TOO big you will stall the PM, no big deal BUT stalling it under load can sometimes (most times) de magnetize the rotor. So always remove the load on the alternator before you shut down the PM.

Check also that your cap box is parallel switched not series switched. And that there is no miswring.

If all else fails.

If using the same motors described and recommended.

revise the internal phases wiring numbers. Star (WYE) low voltage alternator wiring Group (4,5,6) centre wye common. remember there is another internal wye centre non connected to this one )then Phase A (1,7) phase B (2,8) Phase C (3,9)

Check continuity of lines 1,4 2,5 and 6,9 if 2 are open try to trace to another if one is open you are in the wrong and have got an internal open lines 7,8,9 will read to each other if no, then you are twice in the wrong as you have got an open inner star. check this and try again.

Tuning guide lines for a pulse length frequency adjustable inverter

Replacing your inverter which is usually only 90 percent efficient is the logical next step for RV operation off the grid as standard inverters are not that efficient.

Also frequency adjust is a must to permit maximum benefit of RV operation.

Please check the first e-book in this series entitled laymen’s RV theory for instructions and schematics for building one.

Here is a picture of one built for by a dear friend PHIL. With hectors feet.

Image:Panacea rv 037.JPG


With this inverter I made, it’s a square wave but with using a capacitance and relying on the inductance of the transformer and your motor, it is partly sign wave. It has the switch too lock it on 60HZ and if you want you can switch this out and wind the frequency up from 60HZ too 120HZ.

An AC motor works very well on square wave voltages. They do sound a little noisier than pure AC but who cares. Now the other thing involved is that I am using any Back EMF from your motor and also from the transformer to give you extra energy gains. Plus I am using my other techniques of recycling energy on the primary side of the circuit.

It is only a 12volt Inverter but uses 2 batteries where one pulses a polarity and the other pulses the other polarity. The circuit, flip flops between the two and hence creates a charging stage for the battery not being used. There is also a buffering circuit on board that also does some charging even if there is no back EMF.

View the circuit exactly as if it is your inverter, so you are now not using the inverter you already have. With this circuit and your Toroidal Transformer you now have an inverter that is more efficient than what you already have. The circuit allows you to adjust the frequency to also tune the optimum speed and efficiency of your motor, but at the same time it recycles as much energy as it can through a semi closed loop sequence.

This is where you need two batteries for the optimum performance where one is charging while one is discharging and where you don't need to worry about your diode plug circuit if you don't want to. The two batteries can be of a less capacity than what you are using, or you can use what you have it doesn't really matter.

With the circuit it allows you to run any load at the 110 volts but it will recycle what it can to extend the run time. So we have a concept where if your current inverter was running a load the batteries may last 1 hour but with this inverter circuit they may last 2 hours or even longer depending on the type of load and the battery efficiency.

Instructions given to me are Check the input voltage of the inverter (12V or 24V?). Connect the inverter to your battery(ies) of same voltage.

For now connect just a light bulb to the output, and see it works OK. Measure the voltage with a voltmeter. The output of the inverter is likely a modified square wave. So the RMS value of the voltmeter will not be correct, and those are tuned for sine waves. You will be 11% off Adjust the frequency (you should not see any luminance difference I guess).If you have a scope, connect it in parallel over the output, then you can measure the frequency.

Important to know the frequency swing, and where 50 or 60Hz is. (I don't want to connect this straight to the RV without checking the freq, as if it were at 200Hz, your RV will accelerate to 12000rpm....)

For RV connection:

- switch off inverter

- connect RV as normal to it

- set the inverter freq to the lowest

- start inverter

- see what motor does

if the lowest freq of inverter is 0Hz, then your motor will not spin

if the lowest is eg. 10Hz, then your motor will start up to 1/5 of the rpm, (so for a 3000rpm motor, you'll get 600rpm)

- SLOWLY increase freq you'll see motor running faster

(reason for "slowly" is that you need to give your motor time to catch up with the speed WITHOUT drawing too much input current)

- go to 50/60Hz - you can go faster if you believe your RV setup can handle it (be careful) test if can go to 100Hz (6000rpm).

In fact if I think about this, it believe you don't need start caps with your RV, only run caps. Start caps are only needed if you start straight from the grid with is fixed 50Hz.

Further notes from Phil on this concept

Everyone will have their own points of view but mostly there own focus on how the energy gains should be achieved. Hectors resonance concepts are important and is a must for power savings. My focus has been by using auto resonance tuning and known scientific capacitor behaviors.

The ultimate system is the RV controlled by an auto resonance tuning AC inverter with a battery parallel and series charge circuitry.

This way any subjected loads too the RV will be auto adjusted for the ultimate performance and all energy returned too the original sources. Using step up transformers this is easily monitored on the low voltage primary side and will auto tune out any variables.

Notes on freq adjust by hector

The rotor is virtual inductor and capacitor makes it synchronous to specific speed and ac current frequency. If you accelerate using frequency inverter and de-accelerate the rotor makes the power goes negative as rotor angle of rotation becomes leading acting as generator the capacitor tends to lead the angle (over-speed) as you switch to low capacitance this leading slip turns for an instant in asynchronous generation state where rotor provides energy to source and the current goes to 0 or negative.

(Refer to asynchronous generation, cogeneration & power factor rotary condenser machines, read this in RV energy savings R and D doc located at the EDGRAY and RVreplication yahoo groups in the file sections.)

Some may experience a shudder happening near full RPM just before the next cap should be switched out. This is because the Rotor becomes a reverse inductor to the LC at a lower frequency and the LC brakes the rotor by inductive braking the LC tends to generate at higher frequency harmonics ( refer to chorus motor patents as to existence of this harmonics) (other application).

That is due to excess capacitance and over running (tendency of rotor to spin at higher frequency than line frequency) as ANGLE of rotation imposed on the 3 phase lines exceeds and overlaps the next creating a counter rotation null field (braking ).

If you have found that if you don't get the caps changed over quick enough this shudder happens and the RPM drops dramatically, and have to reboot again and go though the same sequence.

Use less starting capacitance were motors hums in frequency beat mode but not exceeding the slip limit.. or use centrifugal start switch to drop off capacitor at bellow maximal rotation speed a centrifugal switch from 1 phase motor can be used for this at proper speed of course , if you got 3200 RPM at 60cps you must use a switch for 3450-3600 RPM range if 1800 then 1725 to 1800 and so on .

EMP warfare resistant is a centrifugal start switch installed in fan housing external for easy maintenance.. Mostly cleaning if not sealed.

For variable frequency a switch to 3 phase inverters is recommended the RV one phase set up is test bed to understand phase relation to frequency capacitance and impedance , in 3 phase alone is a bit nightmarish without the single phase inverter experience needed to attain OU conditions were in 3 phase this is attained with pulse length frequency and amplitude , here we reach a point were the hi level engineering must be addressed in a well funded R&D lab were all of us can participate ( out current stagnation point).

Connecting your load to your alt options

Since the disclosure of hectors RV looped schematic, there have been many independent replications and attempts to emulate the extraction and looped results. To date hector has been the only person to loop the beast and tune and extract the proper parameters. Looping and extraction involves an advanced knowledge in Radio frequency principles. Hector has provided the necessary encouragement and information for others to learn and progress to this stage.

There have since been different routes taken to try and extract the OU residing in the LC. The individuals involved are at a very early stage of the research and development of the RV. Currently through individual open sourced experimenters

The following options have been proposed and experimented with.

This options include resonance collection circuits, diode plug and FET switching circuits. Hector has stated to hook up three same size caps in what he calls a "triple flux delta". There is also a consensus that switching two caps out (C1 charging C2 and C2 charging bat) as a way of not killing the resonance.

If you kill the resonance, your load is to high. Oscillation depletes due overloading.

Using 3 caps for triple flux configuration creates rotational resonant field.

Experiences showed that rotating resonant 3 phase field has higher Q than single phase at same machine.

You have to tune 3 caps at alternator. If you use delta configuration, you need to rectify the output with 6 diodes, putting 2 diodes to every phase, one +, one -.

Merge the 3 plus-diode-outputs and the 3 minus-diode-outputs.

You will get low ripple DC, and you can try different loads now. Again, if you overload the system, the oscillation depletes fully, and if so, your alternator sometimes does not IGNITE any longer. Then you have to give a short current boost (car battery or something for ~ 1 second) through the coils ( at resting system! ) to re-polarize the rotor a bit.


Try these tests:

1. Remove the lamps or load from the alternator side but keep the alternator cap and tune it to minimum value, that still gets the voltage up and alternator generating. So now you have some load on prime mover (PM).

2. Now tune the PM cap and record the results - note the point where the cap is too small to sustain the generation at alternator side (PM gets too weak) and then try to increase the capacitance in small steps and record the prime mover input current and input voltage (your cap bank should be tunable in 0.5 or 1uF steps).

This will give you a very interesting characteristic or graph (especially the current is interesting, as the inverter tries to keep the voltage quite constant anyway).

Most probably you might discover, that by increasing the PM C at some point the input current starts to decrease instead of increasing (the alternator part should be always generating though and having it's virtual LC power up). When you see the input current decreasing part, then you are now playing with the resonance stuff.

Find the sweet spot where the PM input power is minimal, while the alternator is generating. If you have found this spot, then you are operating the RV in the right mode - the current resonance in the PM will give it a very big torque with quite small input current.

3. Only now when you have found this sweet spot, add some load to the alternator part. But first try so, that do not put lamps or load in series with the cap, but instead connect them so, that one end of the lamps is at the Y centre (0) and the other at the third phase C output (when the Cap is connected between phases A nad B).

4. Now when you have lamps connected (also make them tunable - start with lesser load and increase with small steps), the PM load should have increased a bit - so you need to re-tune the PM. Add some more C at the PM tunable C to again find the sweet spot where the PM input is minimal.

This is called "Tuning to the load" - always tune the resonance condition at the input to be suitable for you applied load.

5. Now add some load and re-tune the system with PM cap to minimal draw again, do it until the PM still can sustain the alternator generation or until you still can find the sweet spot with tuning the PM cap.

Also, if you run the RV from inverter, please use more than one 12V battery in parallel at the input, otherwise the consumed current from one battery could be too big and eventually your battery input voltage will drop too fast (although there might be resonance at the PM side, the active load at the alternator still needs some energy, which is needed to be compensated by the increased input power - but record the graph how input power increases versus the output power increasing).

5. Record also the input voltage and current and output voltage and current at the load for every test case with different load or PM cap. You can also play with the alternator cap value, if it does not want to generate any more with the bigger R load.


Looking at the pictures and diagrams of the particular motor junction box wiring here, there is no exposed Y common junction in this baldors connection box. Otherwise your connection (just for alternator) is OK as there are formed 2 Y stars in parallel as needed.

So going on the advice given above if you are modeling off this particular set up you cannot connect the lamp indicated in the above directions.

But instead connect it so, that when your vector cap is between/on connections 1 and 2 then connect the lamp between 2 and/on 3. Or when the cap is between/on 2 and 3 then connect the lamp between/on 1 and 2.

For the previously indicated connection system the both Y stars should have their central connections exposed and connected together. This is possible with 12-lead motors only I guess or if you have a single-winding motor with 6 leads (1 Y star only).

The principle is to just connect the cap between any 2 ends of the Y and the load between some other ends of the Y.

Or, you can even try to connect the vector cap and load in parallel, both between 1 and 2 or between 2 and 3 or between 3 and 1.

Here the guy has connected the load directly in parallel with the cap.

Actually just try and see which combination gives you the best output power with least input power. And tune, tune, tune. If you somehow can make the common connection of all windings available to the outside, (the centre junction of the internal Y, currently this connection is done inside the motor I guess as out come only 9 leads – 3 leads from the ends of internal Y-connected windings plus 6 leads from other windings),

You can even try the schematic here.

Image:Panacea rv 038.JPG

This needs 3 vector caps connected in delta. The load connection place is

indicated with 230V text. OR, Actually can achieve this connection when you just leave the Baldors internal Y unused (do not connect 7,8 and 9 to anything) and connect together the 4,5,6. This is now the new center junction of the Y. Now connect 3 same-value caps between 1 and 2, 2 and 3, 3 and 1.

Then connect the load between 1 and 4. But connect the load only after the generator is started to generate and remove the load before shutting down the RV. The values of caps should be determined experimentally, probably they will be in the range of 20-50 uF.

Of course leaving the internal Y unused increases the alternator part's internal resistance, but that might not be a big problem if the load's resistance is not too low.

To keep it simple.

The numbering scheme of all (most) motors is to start from 1 up to the number of winding-ends.

- So if you have a motor with 3 windings, you go up to 6 for the numbering.

- If you have a motor with 6 windings, you go up to 12. BUT some motors have the inner windings internally connected (you can't reach them), so you effectively have only 9 leads to the outside.

The numbers 1, 2 and 3 are ALWAYS where you connect the mains or load. The other numbers are for wiring your motor according to the needs (delta or wye, low or high-voltage...), in other words the electrical behaviour of your motor.

So it's now clear what 1, 2 and 3 are. As these are 3PH motors, they are typically connected to the 3PH mains (or a 3PH load in case of a generator).

BUT in RV mode, we connect the motor to a single phase mains (or inverter) and create a virtual phase with the aid of a cap, so to have rotating phasing (else the motor will not rotate). In terms of connections:

- connect your single phase mains to any TWO of the three wires (1, 2, 3).

- connect the 2 wires of your cap as follows: one wire to ONE same wire as above, and the other cap wire to the unused motor wire.

Example1: mains to 1 and 2 cap to 2 and 3

Example2: mains to 1 and 2 cap to 1 and 3

Example3: mains to 1 and 3 cap to 1 and 2

Example4: mains to 1 and 3 cap to 3 and 2

Example5: mains to 2 and 3 cap to 1 and 2

Example6: mains to 2 and 3 cap to 1 and 3

Note where I mention 'mains', this is for the prime-mover side. In case of alternator-side, replace this with 'load'. (mains is a power source, load is a power sink)...). Connections follow the same principle.

Laymen’s Theory

One phase (power) is used in powering the motor from its AC source to allow it to operate or draw 1/4 of its normally rated needed voltage/current.

1 phase out of three phase = 1/4

The motors normal operation is usually powered drawing voltage and current from using all three phases power from an AC source. The concept of three phases is centered around allowing constant voltage, as by the nature of alternating current, it is consistently changing polarity or direction.

For this type of motors operation we have stationary coils and a rotor inside which is the shaft. This is so the rotor will follow in the direction of the stationary coils (stator) via a rotating magnetic field from the stationary coils. This rotating field needs to be created by a three-phase power supply (into it) .

The three phases of AC in RV mode are caused by the addition of a capacitor and not the Ac source alone. The AC source is using two terminals into the motor and using the capacitor(s) to add the third (phase).

The prime mover motor is wired for high voltage instead of low to allow excitation or capacitance or maximum voltage (push) of the shaft for the generators operation. which is wired for low voltage to allow maximum current flow for a load out put.

The third terminal of the motor is through capacitor(s) in a series connected to the motors coils [by a Y configuration] . As This series connection is arranged to allow less input current to flow. A series connection with capacitors allows a bigger Q (reactive power or quality) or reactive capacitance power (push) from the AC source through the capacitors into the motors stationary coils.

capacitors create (build up) a charge when current is supplied to them via their electric field that’s separated by a dielectric and then discharge this push of current that is needed to excite the rotor inside the motor into rotation.

This is needed since we are dealing with AC going through an inductance from inside the motors coils, the coils resist the flow of current (inertia against electrons) and the coil(s) will make the current lag the voltage (from the source) by 90 degrees.

The use of capacitors compensates for this, putting it back to the 120 degrees, as when a current goes through a capacitor it will lead the voltage by 90 from the push or capacitance discharge of the capacitor.

3 phases are needed to be at 120 degrees each to excite the motor. 120 + 3 phases = 360 degrees. As in AC (alternating current) a complete cycle, is said to have 360 electrical degrees.

A lot of capacitance (voltage push) is needed to acquire rotation because of the design of the squirrel cage motor. The current goes into the stationary coils, and creates a rotating magnetic field ( there is always a magnetic field present when there is current). The rotating field in the stationary coil happens via the way the coils are wound and in the timing the three phases of AC hit them to produce north or south poles.

When the magnetic fields lines of flux from the stationary coil (from current hitting them) cut past the conducting material (aluminum) comprising the rotor a current will be produced. Thus another magnetic field will be present in the rotor from the current and then follow in the direction of the stationary coils rotating north and south magnetic fields. The rotation happens via the timing the current hits the wound coils to produce the rotating polarity of north and south’s.

Once the rotor being the shaft is turning, there is always a speed difference between the rotor and changing field in the stationary coils. This difference is called "slip". Or shit . :D This effects the efficiency of the motor, how ever a permanent magnet RV rotor counter acts this and contributes to the motors efficiency.

Of the two capacitors used to operate in RV mode, the start capacitor is used with a greater value (push) to help acquire the rotation of the squirrel cage [rotor] .Also the bigger value helps eliminate a reactive resistance of the capacitor and to allow the consistent frequency of AC to pass through.

The operation of the role of the squirrel cage rotor in RV mode is considered like a stepped up transformer, where you have a mutual inductance and step up of voltage.

Looking at what a transformer is, you can picture this, where one coil is close to an opposite (2nd) one, a current goes into the first coil it induces a voltage (via the magnetic field present cutting past the copper coil conductor) or push in the second.

The stator is like a shorted transformer, hence why more needs to be supplied [at the start] to create the rotating magnetic field. Once there is a rotating magnetic field present in the stationary coils, less current will be needed (drawn) from the source than was needed at the start.

When the rotor is at a stand still is described as a low impedance of current from your source. When rotating it is a higher impedance form your source, needing or drawing less current for operation.

The run cap is used to allow resonance in the motor. Its value is lower than the start cap and only needed to be of lower capacitance as there is already strong magnetic fields and current present in the motor at this stage . Resonance is present As the coils or inductor connected to the run capacitor will allow current to oscillate back and forth (via an electric field charge/discharge of the capacitor and the inertia of the electrons via the magnetic field of the inductor).

This concept (resonance) is about storing energy whilst in motion. Once energy is in a resonance or motion it requires not external input. The capacitor and inductor coils resonate current back and forth contributing to the torque of the motor as stored energy in motion going through practically no resistance.

When the motor is in resonance with the motor line input , it [the motor] is at a higher impedance of current draw (via the resonant action) , yet still able to operate and turn the rotor via the stored energy in motion (resonance) drawing less current from it AC source.

When the prime mover (shaft) is loaded with some torque or mechanical force (like having to turn the shaft of the opposite alternator) this alters the phases angles and requires an adjustment back to the proper phase angles. This is attained by adjusting the capacitive value of the run cap.

This is for attaining the concept of the RV which is configuring the prime mover tuned to resonance is so this resonance will contribute a lot of mechanical power to the alternator part while consuming minimal power from the power supply.

The RV prime mover turning from this resonant action will idle (the shaft) however the RV’s primary's input current will be capacitive instead of inductive as what would be normally via the three phase power driven motor. The shafts speed will idle more efficient from less energy. Thus the speed can be increased via the voltage or AC frequency, and the s