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Directory:Electric Vehicles

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Directory of technologies and resources relating to electric vehicles.

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Related Directories at PESWiki:

Directory:Electric Cars

Directory:Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations

Directory:Hybrid Vehicles

Directory:Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles -- PHEV

Directory:X Prize:Automotive

Directory:Fuel Efficiency Vehicles

Directory:Clean Fuel Conversions



An electric vehicle, or EV, is a vehicle with one or more electric motors for propulsion. The motion may be provided either by wheels or propellers driven by rotary motors, or in the case of tracked vehicles, by linear motors.

The energy used to propel the vehicle may be obtained from several sources:

from chemical energy stored on the vehicle in on-board batteries: Battery electric vehicle (BEV)

from both an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fueled propulsion power source: hybrid vehicle

generated on-board using a combustion engine, as in a diesel-electric locomotive

generated on-board using a fuel cell: fuel cell vehicle

generated on-board using nuclear energy, on nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers

from more esoteric sources such as flywheels, wind and solar

from a direct connection to land-based generation plants, as is common in electric trains and trolley buses

The fuel cost for an electric car is one quarter that of a gasoline car. Lithium-ion batteries extend the range and top speed. Choose from several new models or convert a conventional car into an electric car.

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Directory:Electric Vehicles > PopSci Archive Gallery: The Electric Car, 1916-Present - Starting with August of 1916, which was their first issue to cover a hybrid gasoline-electric automobile then passing through 1920, when electric cars were preferred because of the high price of gas, dropping in interest as gas dropped in price then through several iterations in between including a 1968 GM stirling engine hybrid and their 1990 EV1 ending with the rebirth in 2008 PopSci gives 17 snapshots through EV history. (Popular Science July 23, 2010)
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Directory:Trends / Directory:Electric Vehicles > Directory:Electric Cars > VIDEO: Inhabitat Sees Green at the 2011 Detroit Auto Show! - 2011 seems to be the year of the electric car! From super-sexy electric race cars (from Porsche), to a retina-searing electric yellow sports cars (from Mercedes), to practical electric commuter cars (like the Ford Focus EV and Ford C-MAX Hybrid), nearly every major car manufacturer at the Detroit Auto Show this year unveiled a new electric car or a new hybrid. (Inhabitat January 15, 2011)


Electric Vehicle Technologies Featured at PESWiki

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Latest: Directory:Electric Vehicles / Directory:Electrolysis > OS:Bob Boyce Electrolyzer Plans / Directory:Electromagnetic > NEW: Directory:Bob Boyce Hex Controller >Child Rides EV Toy on Boyce Free Energy! - A South African experimenter has modified an electrolysis circuit developed by Bob Boyce so that now it recharges his daughter's electric vehicle riding toy. What makes this remarkable is that the energy is not drawn from the wall but from the environment somehow. He's done this around 35 times now and knows of three replications by others. (PESN Nov. 12, 2009) (Comment)
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There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2] - Tesla Roadster is 100% electric, not hybrid. A high power, high efficiency inverter combined with a powerful AC induction motor and large lithium ion battery pack make it faster than most sports cars (0-60mph in under 4 seconds it also has a 250+ mile range and is more than twice as efficient as a Toyota Prius (135 mpg equivalent energy usage, station-to-wheel).

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Directory:Phoenix Motorcars - Phoenix Motorcars, headquartered in Ojai, California, is an early leader in the mass production of full function, freeway speed electric automobiles. Entertaining fleet orders for Sport Utility Trucks (SUT).

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Directory:TN Hydraulic Battery-Powered Electromagnetic Generator - A trio of inventors from Tennessee have design a hydraulic, battery, electromagnetic system than they say can fuellessly run a home or a vehicle, or other devices. Several working prototypes have been built. Presently awaiting "pending" patent status, they are ready to build a business to bring this technology to market.

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Directory:Feel Good Cars - A Canadian developer, manufacturer and supplier of electrically powered vehicles currently sells two models in the U.S. The ZENN is an affordable Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) with a regulated maximum speed of 25 mph and a range of 35 miles on a full charge. The vehicle can be recharged overnight from a standard electrical outlet.

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Directory:Surge Motor Technology by Troy Reed - In around 1994, Troy Reed claimed to have a fuelless, pollution-free motor with around 7 kilowatts of output, powerful enough to run a house or a car. The technology received a flurry of high-level interest, including major media. Actor Dennis Weaver organized a cross-country demonstration. What happened to the technology?

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There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3] - High performance X1 electric race car humiliates Ferrari and Porche both off the line and in a 1/4 mile. All with a 150 mile range, and recharge time of 4.5 hours.

Directory:Azeev - Advance Zero Emission Electric Vehicle. - A startup company doing research for the production of Zero Emission Electric Vehicles is planned to be 100% electric, not hybrid. Both Two Wheel and Four wheel drive (in-wheel motors) is contemplated. Planned range is about 500 Miles per charge. Self-funded company debuted the prototype on September 20, 2006 in Edison, NJ.

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Directory:Lightning Car - Lightning Car Company is planning on releasing a 700HP, electric sports car, called Lightning GT sometime in 2008. They estimate to deliver top speed of more than 130mph and accelerate from 0-60 in under four seconds.

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Directory:e-Traction System - Whisper™ buses in the Netherlands get 13.9 mpg by using a diesel engine with an electrical generator to produce electricity which runs electric motors that are directly connected to wheels.

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Directory:Venturi Automobiles - Features three electric models, including the Eclectic -- an urban 3-seater electro-solar or wind vehicle is the first production energy-autonomous vehicle in history. Eclectic takes advantage of moments of immobilisation to store energy in its NiMH batteries. It offers a range up to 50 km at a speed of 50 km/hr and can also be recharged from the grid in 5 hours. Production of 20 vehicles has commenced and 200 will be launched in June 2007.

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Directory:Axel Corporation's Hybrid Bike - Tokyo based Axle Corporation has introduced a new electric motorbike with a hybrid plug-in, electromagnetic-permanent magnet motor, and is seven times more cost-efficient than scooters running on petrol.


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70 MPH Electric Airplane Costs $0.70 to Charge - Randall Fishman, a retired Jeweler, created the ElectraFlyer-C because he wanted a silent plane that would be "as smooth as a magic carpet." Video (Ecogeek Dec. 4, 2008)

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Boeing tests battery-powered plane - "For the first time in the history of aviation, Boeing has flown a manned airplane that was powered by a hydrogen battery," Boeing chief technology officer John Tracy told a news conference at the firm's research centre in the central Spanish town of Ocana. (The Age April 4, 2008)

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Electric Propulsion System for Sport Aircraft - Sonex Aircraft and AeroConversions introduced their E-Flight Initiative, including a proof-of-concept prototype electric powerplant. The companies’s goal is to determine the feasibility of commercializing a line of electric aircraft products. Initial top speeds will reach 130 mph, with flight times of 25-45 minutes. (Green Car Congress Jul. 26, 2007)

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Superconductor electric airplanes - Scientists have unveiled research that would enable high-powered, ultra-reliable electromagnetic engines to be built for airplanes using lightweight superconductors and emission-free hydrogen fuel cells. These electric planes would be eco-friendly, exceptionally quiet, highly energy efficient and low maintenance. (Gizmag Jun. 19, 2007)

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Solar Flight - SUNSEEKER, a manned solar powered aircraft, has an electric motor, planetary gearbox, a folding propeller and 40 lbs of Lithium batteries installed in the wings. It was flown from Ramona to Tehachapi and back, over the Mojave Desert, San Gabriel mountains, Ontario, and Lake Elsinore. Flight time on the return was less than 3.5 hours.

Pipistrel's all-electric aircraft - So what is the big deal in a glider going around in the sky? Well, it is powered by an electric motor. The Electro Taurus boasts similar performance and characteristics to their gas-powered Taurus 503. The Taurus 503 is completely self-launch able, as adapted to a specialized Pipistrel retractable pylon mounted propeller system and twin parallel main landing gear. (EcoFriend Dec. 28, 2007)

Conventional Light Aircraft with Electric Motor Makes First Flight - A conventional light aircraft propelled by an 18 kW electric motor powered by lithium polymer batteries made its first flight late in December in France. The 48-minute flight of the “Electra" covered more than 50 kilometers (31 miles). The wood and fabric Electra is 7m in length, with a wingspan of 9m. Weight of the aircraft without batteries is 134 kg. The battery pack weights 47 kg. Maximum takeoff weight is 265 kg. The aircraft has a cruise speed of 90 km/h. (Green Car Congress Jan. 4, 2008)

Electric Aircraft Corporation - The technology of electric motors and high capacity batteries has finally reached the level of development where pure electric flight is now possible. The ElectraFlyer trike now makes this dream a reality!

Bicycles, Motorbikes and Scooters

Directory:Electric Scooters (Separate Page) - There is great alternative to city commuting -- electric scooters. The cost to travel 10-20 miles is well below $0.2 as opposed to $2 on city bus (NYC). Scooters require less mass to be moved, and hence can be far more economical.

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African Cats - Hybrid Electric Catamaran - A Dutch company has developed a hybrid version of its 43-foot catamaran, using Valence lithium-ion batteries that recharge from the motor/generator while sailing. Dual wind generators and solar panels provide additional charging capacity. (Green Car Congress 4 May 2006)

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transatlantic21 - "sun21" is a 14-meter-long electric catamaran powered exclusively by solar energy that will undertake the first motorized crossing of the Atlantic without using a drop of gasoline. It will leave Spain the end of November 2006 and is due to arrive in New York in May 2007.

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Solar-powered 42-passenger boat - The SolarShuttle solar powered electric boat, designed by SolarLab, is entirely pollution-free and silent running. It can carry 42 passengers in all daylight conditions, has reserve power for night-time running and even generates surplus energy that can be fed back into the national grid. (Gizmag Mar. 17, 2007)

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Lear Baylor - The Lear 204 electric boat cruises waterways silently without the environmental impact of sooty exhaust, irritating noise, or large wakes to spoil the moment. It is safe, stable, and simple to operate, with almost no maintenance and operational costs are only a dollar a day.

Electric Boat and Watercraft Businesses

Duffy Electric Boat Company

Tamarack Lake Electric Boats

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MW-Line - The Aquabus 1050 electrosolar boat can transport 24 passengers on lakes and rivers or up to 5 km offshore in silence, cleanliness and comfort. It is equipped with electrical propulsion and modern solar panels to provide operating costs that are 40 times less than with a Diesel engine.

ElectraCraft - environmentally-friendly electric leisure boats

Elco Electric Launch


Nauticraft - Unique pedal and electric boats.

Hammacher Schlemmer - Solar-Powered Personal Boat

Ecocats - 40 pax electric ferry

Solemar - Passengers' ships and pleasure boats exclusively powered by solar energy.

American Marine Electric Motor Corp. - Announcing the first SELF-COOLING, permanent magnet, brushless DC motor, super efficient, all-electric outboard motor.


Directory:Electric Cars (separate page) - Put solar PV panels on the roof of your garage or carport and "fill up" at home for free. These cars are designed for short range daily commuting, not highway use.

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Army Announces Historic Electric Vehicle Lease - The 4,000 non-tactical electric vehicles will be used on Army bases for passenger transport, security patrol, and maintenance and delivery services. (Army .Ml Jan. 12, 2009)

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Custom ride legal for road or 18th tee - Made by the California company American Custom Golf Cars, the "neighborhood electric vehicle" goes up to the state-mandated maximum speed of 25 miles per hour and can be had for a little under $12,000. Models are miniatures of the Cadillac Escalade, Hummer and California Roadster. (Delaware Online Oct. 12, 2008)


Hybrid Center - Links to a Buyer's Guide, a Comparison Chart, Tax Incentive database and some Reviews.

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PowerPedia:Hybrid Adapter - A hybrid adapter, or HYBRAD, is a device which turns any passenger class vehicle into a multi-fuel / hybrid vehicle. One example is a hybrid adapter that simply plugs into the back of your vehicle and pushes it. Hybrid adapters run simultaneously, or in parallel, with your existing drivetrain.

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Excess Nightime Energy Could Fuel Over 158 Million Plug-in Hybrids - One common critique of an electric car revolution is that the increased energy demand might just lead to the generation of new power plants, negating some of the cars' positive environmental benefits. Not so, according to a new study by the U.S. Department of Energy. (TreeHugger Sept. 4, 2007)

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Run Your House on a Prius - Not only can the plug-in vehicle serve the purpose of using low-demand, often inexpensive night-time grid power, but it can also serve as a back-up generator in the case of grid outages such as are caused by major storms. (Pleiades Enterprises Sept. 28, 2007)

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Google to Spend $10M to Jump-Start Hybrid Car Development - Google plans to give away money to people and companies that have what appear to be practical ways to get plug-in hybrid automobiles to market faster, including supporting Pacific Gas and Electric's push to unveil a future in which cars and trucks are partially powered by the country's electric grids, and vice versa. (USA Today June 19) (NY Times) (See Slashdot discussion)

Consumers want plug-in hybrids-once they know what they are - Number of customers wanting a plug-in went from 24% to 64% once they understood that the vehicles can be recharged overnight by plugging them in, storing enough electricity to power daily commutes. For longer distances, a gasoline engine kicks in, assisting the electric motor and recharging the battery. (MIT Technology Review May 17, 2007)

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Savings Not There Yet For Plug-In Cars - A study finds that high purchase prices and expensive batteries negate any financial benefits and in some regions, plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles may simply trade one sort of pollution for another. (CBS News Sept. 25, 2006)

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Toyota gives in to plug-in hybrid pressure - Having previously held a near hostile stance, Toyota is now the latest (and arguably most important) big car manufacturer to reveal that, yes, it's working on plug-in hybrids behind the scenes. (Clean Break June 19, 2006)

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Alternative Fuel Cars: Plug-In Hybrids and Electric Cars - Some drivers are modifying their hybrids to enable plug-in charging, even though it voids the warranty.

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Modified Prius gets up to 180 Miles Per Gallon - By modifying a Prius so that it can be plugged in, Ron Gremban of CalCars claims to have gotten anywhere from 65 to over 100 miles per gallon. (Slashdot / NY Times California April 2, 2005)

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Plug-In Hybrids Get Up To 250 MPG - While politicians and auto makers say "plug-in" hybrid cars are still years away from being marketable, some engineers have already built models that can get up to 250 mpg. (CBS Aug. 16, 2005) (See Slashdot discussion)

[That's not counting plug-in power from grid.]

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Leads Charge for Plug-in Hybrids - Municipal leaders in Texas' capital city, Austin, announced the formation of a new coalition of city governments and electric utilities united to lobby automakers to step up production of a new breed of plug-in hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles. (eMagazine Feb. 1, 2006)


Green snowmobile - Check out the competition at the Clean Snowmobile Challenge, hosted recently at the Michigan Technological University. See why these snowmobiles are sweeping the industry with a storm. ( March 29. 2005)

Solar Vehicles


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Swedish Green Train Project Breaks Speed Barrier - The Swedish Railway Industry Group is counting on a two-car electric-driven train type called Regina (from Canadian company Bombardier) retroffited with better bogies (wheel-carrying chassis) and noise-proofing to be faster, energy-efficient and comfy. solar (TreeHugger Sept. 15, 2008)

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Directory:Electric Vehicles > Directory:Electric Vehicles > All-Electric Freight Train Makes Debut in Pennsylvania - Norfolk Southern unveiled a prototype all-electric, 1,500 horsepower locomotive that gets its power from 1,080 12-volt lead-acid batteries, the same kind found under the hoods of most cars. It includes a brake regeneration system. solar 'Doesn't say what it does for a jump start. (Gas 2.0 Oct. 8, 2009)

Trucks and Utility Vehicles

Directory:Electric Trucks (separate page)

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Support Technologies


See also: Directory:Batteries - separate index page

Directory:Batteries / Directory:Electric Vehicles / Directory:U.S. Government and Energy > US government investing billions in battery technology for electric vehicles - The Obama administration has invested $2.4 billion in the advanced battery industry, in an attempt to make the United States the world's foremost supplier of batteries for electric cars. (Directory: Mike Adams and Natural News November 08, 2010)

Electric Vehicle Battery Information

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Directory:Batteries > Directory:EEStore - Texas company is working on an "energy storage" device made from ceramics. It's not technically a battery because it doesn't use chemicals. It can allegedly charge within 5 minutes with enough energy to move a car 500 miles on about $9 worth of electricity -- about 45 cents a gallon.

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Directory:Batteries > Altair Nanotechnologies - The NanoSafe battery with a nano-titanate negative electrode is high powered yet safe from fire or explosion hazards seen in lithium-ion batteries. Tests confirm that after 15,000 deep charge/discharge cycles the cells still retained over 85% of their original charge capacity, allowing 40 years of daily charging for electric vehicles.

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Directory:Batteries > Directory:Vanadium Redox Batteries - Low cost deep cycling battery can be mechanically refuelled in minutes with liquid electrolyte. This raises the opportunity for the establishment of refuelling stations so that electric vehicles could exchange their electrolyte and then continue on their way with no more delay than if refuelling with petrol or diesel.

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Directory:Batteries > Advanced Battery Technologies - ABAT’s Polymer Lithium-Ion (PLI) batteries for electric vehicles offer a high energy density with quick charge, long usage time, 199 mile range and are non-polluting. There are no liquid electrolytes or leakage problems, they are chemically stable, have no “memory problem", and are full function at temperatures as low as -20 C.

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Directory:Batteries > Directory:Lithium Sulphur Batteries > Directory:SION Power - Lithium Sulfer batteries have the potential to be an enabling technology for both Plug In Hyrid and Pure Electric Vehicles. With over 350 Wh/Kg today, Li-S can achieve a driving range of 300 miles and improves the overall payload capability. As sulfur is much less expensive than other battery components, the material cost is lower than lithium-ion or lithium-polymer batteries.

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Directory:Batteries > New long range EV battery - Device Conduit Technologies says its DCT RackPack™ Massively Intermoduled Battery (MIB) pack can finally deliver 100 to 300 mile range to electric and hybrid vehicles at affordable prices. Their solution combines off the shelf systems in a novel manner combined with a new technology. (Inside Greentech Jul. 20, 2007)

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Directory:Batteries > German battery could jump-start electric car production - Li-Tec has designed a ceramic lithium-ion battery membrane (Separion) that provides greater thermal stability and could finally make electric cars common. Their battery takes up 30% less volume than Toyota's and allows 3x more range than French models. (PhysOrg Dec. 10, 2007)

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Directory:Fuel Cells > Powerzinc Electric - Dynamic Quick-refuel Fuel Cells (DQFC) are high power, high energy, long-lasting, low cost and environment-friendly zinc-air fuel cells for electric vehicles. The company is developing an all-Electric passenger car with a range of 400 km and a fast refuel service platform.

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Directory:Fuel Cells > Swift Enterprises - The Swift Direct Proton Fuel Cell developed at Purdue University is based on simple and easy to produce materials. It runs on ethanol to extend an electric vehicle’s range to over 100 miles per gallon, at a cost of about $2,000.

American Electric Vehicles - lithium-polymer battery packs for extreme performance

Foxx Power - Our LiFePo4 (Prismatic) batteries are perfect for electric the right price.

Nilar - The Nilar Membrane Battery (Nickel Metal Hydride) provides EV owners and EV OEMS with an alternative that provides the power, range, safety, and cycle life that is required.

ElectronVault - ElectronVault's patent-pending designs have been engineered to provide the long-sought energy storage capacity and power required for PHEV applications in an affordable package.

Electric Motors

See Directory:Electromagnetic > Directory:Electric Motors

Under-Road Cables
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Korean electric vehicle solution - Researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) have developed an electric transport system where the vehicles get their power needs from cables underneath the surface of the road via non-contact magnetic charging. (GizMag August 20, 2009)

Gasoline to Electric Conversion
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DIY Electric Car Forums - EV Conversion Community - A new grassroots forum of do-it-yourself electric vehicle conversion enthusiasts.

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Solar Van - Bedford Rascal van with a blown engine was converted to electric motor with Li-ion batteries. Rooftop solar PV panels provide 10% of the daily energy and a stowable wind turbine could make the vehicle energy independent on a sunny but windy day. Maximum speed is 50 mph and range is 75 miles.

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Solar-electric Mowers & Tractors - A farmer has converted six farm tractors to run on rechargeable batteries and electric motors, rather than a gas or diesel engine. Some carry their own power source: a canopy of solar panels suspended over the machine. They generate less than a kilowatt, but for planting and harvesting, that’s enough to run the tractor. (Mother Earth News Aug/Sep 2006)

ForkenSwift - Electric car conversion on a beer budget. A team of EV converters took an electric motor from a forklift and dropped it in a Geo Metro.

Build an EV - Why wait for Detroit when you can custom build an Electric Vehicle yourself.

Electric Avenue - The street-legal electric car of the future is coming--not from Japan or Detroit--but from your neighbor's garage. You must subscribe to read this article. Remove the engine from a donor car and replace it with batteries and a refurbished forklift motor to create your own electric car. If your daily driving range is under 40 miles and you have a second car for the highway, this could be for you. Conversions can be done for as little as $2000 with used parts. - ‘Helping people get rid of Gas since 1995’

Electro Automotive - Electric Car Conversions Since 1979

Alternativ inc. - Canadian company converting gas vehicles to electric

DIY Advanced High Performance Electric Vehicle Conversion Project

Conversion Kits at Cloud EV

Solar Assisted 2000 Chevrolet S-10 Electric Vehicle Conversion

Electric Echo

Left Coast Electric - We're converting current gasoline-powered cars to pure electric!

Wilderness Electric Vehicles - Home of the True electric vehicle conversion kits , and completed electric cars!

Ampmobile Conversions - Conversions of Gasoline powered cars, trucks and (motorcycles soon) to totally electric vehicles

Jeep Cherokee converted to battery electric vehicle

Electric Vehicle Conversions of Australia

Electric Cars and Clean Air, What a Concept! - The 2nd Annual Commuter Conversion Electric Car Class for Teachers, (Instructors: Abran Quevedo and Mike Parker), was sponsored in part by the Electric Vehicle Association of San Diego. "It brought total strangers together from different parts of the country to learn the basics of how to do the conversion. Differences did not prevent our group from achieving a common goal - because we all agreed in principle to what we were doing. It was our belief in 'doing the right thing' that helped [us] to overcome the small bumps on our EV road trip," quipped the quirkily quixotic Mr. Q upon completion of the newsmaking EV conversion course. Learn how to Go Electric and Declare your Independence from failing fossil fuels today. The Electric Car is not dead! (FREE DVD Download)

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Solar Charged Electric Lawnmower - Plans to convert an older non-working gas mower into an electric powered mower by replacing the gas engine with an electric motor that runs from a 12 volt battery that will be charged using a PV solar panel. It will be easier to use, there is no messy dangerous gasoline to deal with, and it eliminates the emissions of an internal combustion mower.

Electradrive - ElectraDrive is developing an extended-range electric drivetrain to replace the gas drivetrain in a wide variety of vehicles. You will no longer have to settle for a plain-vanilla hybrid from the automakers. You can have the car you want with the drivetrain you desire.

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SUNN Solar Electric Car Kit - Art Haines, mechanical designer of Maine, built a solar car kit called the SUNN Electric Vehicle, with the help of high school students. (YouTube Video Sept. 6, 2008)

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So, you want to build an electric car - Forum post gives an overview of what is involved, from planning, to sourcing, to optimizing designs. (PeakOil forum Jan. 9, 2006)

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DIY Electric Car Forums - EV Conversion Community - A new grassroots forum of do-it-yourself electric vehicle conversion enthusiasts.

Futurista - Electric Car Kit from ElecTrans. As with any Thunder Ranch kit that tom has designed, it is easy to assemble. The kit comes complete with the body, frame, All electrical components and batteries, Front suspension & steering and rear differential parts. Incorporating our new hidden bumper design. The Velociter is also available in the LURP model with a range of 180 MPC at 60 MPH.

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Latest: Directory:Electromagnetic / Directory:Electric Vehicles > Directory: Jurgen Parysek's Free Energy for Electric Vehicles - German inventor has a website that claims to have a generator technology that will enable indefinite range for electric vehicles so they do not have to stop to be recharged. No evidence is provided. No photos, no video, no data, no witness statements, no specs. (PESWiki November 28, 2013)
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Michelin Unveils Active Wheel in Affordable Electric Car - The Active Wheel frees automobile designers from the restrictions posed by the need for engine, transmission, drive shaft, differential and exhaust systems. Michelin's Active Wheel system is the holy grail of wheel technology: a wheel with an integrated drive motor that has succeeded to meet unsprung weight limitations. Michelin Active Wheel: the reinvented wheel (7-page PDF) (TreeHugger Nov. 30, 2008)

Range Extending Trailers

The idea of the pusher trailer and/or generator trailer is to give the normal EV long-range capability with fast fuel stops without permanantly installing an IC hybrid system in the vehicle. These are considered Hybrid Adapter as the vehicle becomes a Directory:Hybrid Vehicles.

AC Propulsion generator trailer - The efficient, high specific-output, gasoline-fueled, trailer-mounted generator maintains battery charge, allowing unlimited driving range at speeds up to 75 mph.

EV Pusher Trailer - Top Speed: >100 mph with electric and gasoline use. Range: >300 miles (13 gallon capacity) before refueling.

Recharging Stations

See Directory:Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations - separate index page

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Rooftop Solar Panels

Photo-Voltaic grid connected household rooftop solar systems lower peak daytime electric demand, and generate credits for using cheap night-time electric capacity for charging plug-capable electric cars.

Solar-Shell™ - electric bike PV charging station and bike locker.

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Directory:Electric Vehicles > Directory:Electric Vehicles > Electric Cars May Be Made Noisier by Law - The Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act would require electric cars and hybrids to make noise, and would fund the Department of Transportation to create a set of rules for automakers, who would be allowed some leeway in how they carry out the guidelines. (GreenCarReport December 20, 2010)
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Latest: Directory:Electric Vehicles > Choosing Vanity Tones for Electric Vehicles - Suggestions for researchers at the University of Warwick, who are experimenting with sounds that could eventually be applied to all EVs to apprize pedestrians of oncoming electric vehicles, which are too quiet. The artificial sounds would assist with info about size, direction, speed, accelerating, decelerating. (PESN September 28, 2010)

Alpha Listing

AC Propulsion, Inc. - Manufacturer of battery and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. Making the TZero.

AeroVironment Inc. - Supply products and technology for clean energy and efficient vehicles. Products include unmanned aerial vehicles, electric and hybrid vehicle systems, distributed energy and atmospheric systems.

Alke - Manufacturer of compact high performance utility vehicles for professional uses. Includes company profile and product overview. [Italian, English]

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Directory:Aptera - The Aptera prototype by Accelerated Composites, which is halfway to completion, will go for up to 330 miles on a gallon of gas thanks to an aerodynamic design and the lightweight composites that make up the chassis. (PESN Jan. 21, 2006)

ATT R&D - Manufacturer of battery powered vehicles in light-weight aluminum and composite bodies.

Azure Dynamics - Manufacturer of control systems for hybrid electric and electric vehicle powertrains. Includes company profile and product overview.

BD Otomotiv - Owns and operates charging infrastructure, retrofits light commercial vehicles from diesel to electric and distributes BYD & FISKER branded vehicles in Turkey.

Bigetti - Manufacturer of electric powered scooters, bicycles and other transport alternatives. Includes company profile, tips and FAQs.

Bluebird Automotive - Manufacturer and distributor of electrical cars. Includes product specifications.

Electric Avenue AutoMall - Supplier of efficient electric cars. Includes product overview.

Electric Vehicles (Thailand) Co., Ltd. - Electric scooters, bicycles, golf and utility cars, three-wheelers and shuttles.

Electric Vehicles International -Manufacturer of electric and hybrid vehicles, including trucks, trams and shuttle buses for use primarily in off-highway applications. Includes product information. Based in Anderson, Indiana, USA.

Electric Vehicles of America, Inc. - Electric Vehicles of America, Inc. is a leading component supplier for electric cars, electric trucks, electric boats, fork lifts, golf carts, mining vehicles, material handling and prototypes.

Esoro AG - Swiss company developing concept vehicles, including electrically powered, hybrid, and fuel cell designs, as well as plastic component development.

Evader - Provides a range of electric powered scooters. Includes product catalog.

Frazer-Nash Research Ltd. - Go-karts, utility vehicles, golf buggies, tour trams, and city cars.

General Motors Plans on producing the Volt.

Global Electric Motorcars - Four-wheeled transportation for two or four people, with a maximum speed of about 25 miles per hour.

Gorilla Vehicles - The Gorilla Electric All Terrain Vehicle (ATV), used as a neighborhood electric vehicle, golf cart, utility vehicle, and for recreation.

Hybrid Technologies - Making the L1X-75.

ISE Research-ThunderVolt - Low-emission electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (buses, trucks, tow tractors, trams) and components.

Luyuan Electric Vehicle - Manufacturers of electric bicycle in China. Includes product overview and data.

MINI Cooper - Uses PML In-Wheel Motor for a Hybrid MINI.

NEV Accessories - Manufacturer and retailer of fine accessories for electric vehicles. Includes product catalogue and data.

Mitusbishi - Producing the iMiEV.

Nu-Kar Electric Vehicles - Manufacturer and Supplier of parts for the Sebring Electric CitiCar, ComutaCar and Postal Van

Personal Electric Transports - Designs alternative vehicle. Includes concepts, technical data and product overview.

Reva Electric Car Co. - Makes Reva two door hatchback 2 adults, 2 children top speed: 65 kmph, range: 80 km. India's first electric car (EV), to be produced by the Maini Group.

Reva Romania - Manufacturer of the Reva electric car.

Smith Electric Vehicles - Manufacturer of electric vehicles for municipal, airports and urban delivery. Includes product overview and company profile.

Tanfield Group - Manufacturer of battery powered vehicles. Includes company profile and service overview.

Trans Lectric -Manufacturer of electric vehicles for a variety of industrial uses. Includes product overview and company profile.

'''Tesla Motors - developed the Tesla Roadster.

Twike Organisation - Links to Twike related sites.

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Venturi Automobiles - French manufacturer of the Fetish.

Wavecrest - Offers customized electric propulsion and drive system solutions. Includes company profile and product overview.

Wrightspeed Inc. - Start up enterprise from Silicon Valley, California, which is creating high performance, electric powered, sports cars. Page includes company profile and details about the automobiles.

Zallys - Manufacturer of electric vehicles for agricultural and industrial applications. Includes company profile and product catalogue.

Zap! - Distributor and manufacturer of bikes, 3-wheel cars and trucks, scooters soon to be known as "Detroit Electric".

Government & Politics

See also: Directory:U.S. Government and Energy

Directory:Batteries / Directory:Electric Vehicles / Directory:U.S. Government and Energy > US government investing billions in battery technology for electric vehicles - The Obama administration has invested $2.4 billion in the advanced battery industry, in an attempt to make the United States the world's foremost supplier of batteries for electric cars. (Directory: Mike Adams and Natural News November 08, 2010)

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Directory:U.S. Government and Energy > Obama Puts Up $2.4 Billion for Electric Vehicles - President Barack Obama Thursday unveiled a 2.4 billion dollar boost for electric vehicle development, vowing to compete with foreign nations in the race to be world leader on renewable energy. (TruthOut March 19, 2009)

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Site:LRP:General Motors Created The EV1:General Motors Destroyed The EV1 - Leslie R. Pastor argues that GM had a significant motive for scrapping the EV1: they intended to prolong the use of gasoline system engines in cooperation and collaboration with the International Oil Companies. (PESWiki Mar. 4, 2008)

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Review:Who Killed the Electric Car? - Mary-Sue reviews this film about how California's forward-looking environmental legislation met Oil-zilla.

Legal Background

Three More States Pass Medium Speed Electric Vehicles Regs - three more states in the United States have passed laws that permit the operation of electric vehicles at speeds above the current federal LSEV regulation known as FMVSS 500, which is limited to 25 mph. (EV World June 27, 2008)

Montana Enacts Law Enabling Medium-Speed Electric Vehicles - Montana has signed into law a bill that allows neighborhood electric vehicles equipped with the proper safety features to travel up to 35 mph on city and county roads. NEVs previously were in the same category as golf carts, and were prohibited from travelling faster than 25 mph. The state of Washington has passed a similar bill, but it has not yet been signed into law. (Green Car Congress Apr. 24, 2007)

Electric Bicyle Laws

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards for Low Speed Vehicles

Under the Qualified Electric Vehicle Credit (Internal Revenue Service Form 8834, current federal tax incentives offer up to a 10 percent credit based on the cost of an EV, up to $4,000 for each vehicle.

Tax Credits for NEVs and Rules & Regulations

3-Wheeler Laws and Regulations - United States of America



Two Cents Per Mile by Nevres Cefo provides a technical but accessible comparison of Electric Vehicles to combustion engines, and other alternative fuels. The book also provides a history of the suppression of EVs and argues for the government to enact eminent domain for the NiMH patents owned by Chevron.

The Electric Car provides a comprehensive picture of the history, current status, and likely future development of electric cars.

Build Your Own Electric Vehicle by Bob Brant

Convert It! - A step by step manual for converting an internal combustion vehicle to electric power.

Historical Perspective

EV Archive - The first online archive created to encourage electric vehicle enthusiasts to help preserve the recent history of electric vehicles.

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1914 saw 60-MPG Galt Gas-Electric hybrid car - Engineering masterpiece had a twin-cylinder, 10-hp, two-stroke engine that ran on gasoline and kerosene at a constant 800 rpm. The electricity generated was stored in four batteries located in running-board boxes. Could go up to 50 km/h with a range of 30 km on battery power alone. (Globe and Mail Mar. 29, 2007)

In the News

Google News > Electric Vehicles

Directory:Electric Vehicles:News:2008-2009 - Electric Vehicle News, 2008 - 2009

Directory:Electric Vehicles:News:2006-2007 - Electric Vehicle News, 2006 - 2007

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Electric Drag Racing - Oregon racer, John Wayland (Plasma Boy), has converted a 1972 Datsun B210? to become the world's fastest, street-legal, vehicle. Originally 69 HP, now ~300 HP, the "White Zombie" is all-electric, and it not only beats anything raced against it, but it sets world records, doing the 1/4-mile in less than 11.5 seconds, while topping 118 mph using Directory:A123 Systems Li-ion batteris. (Oregon Public Broadcasting May 7, 2009)

National Electric Drag Racing Association - Record Holders page. NEDRA is a coalition of drag racing fans, electric drag racing vehicle owners and drivers, individuals interested in promoting the sport of EV drag racing, EV parts suppliers, EV manufacturers and other environmentally concerned companies and individuals.

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Tesla versus Tango on the drag strip - The Commuter Cars Tango races against an older There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] - and wins! Video (AutoBlog Green Dec. 4, 2008)

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9 Sexiest Electric Cars from the Paris Auto Show - This year’s Directory:Mondial de l'Automobile is turning out to be the most electrifying one yet, with car makers from all over the world debuting their electric vehicles. The offerings range from far-flung concept cars to very real production models. Solar roofs are a popular theme and lithium-ion battery packs abound. (Earth2Tech Oct. 8, 2008)

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There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] / Directory:Green auto shows > Directory:Mondial de l'AutomobileElectric vehicles light up Paris Motor Show - Hybrids, plug-ins and pure electric vehicles arrive in force as manufacturers sort out battery woes. "Two years ago nobody said an electric vehicle was even possible," said Pitt Moos, marketing manager for Smart USA. "Today everybody is saying, 'We're going to make one.' " (LA Times Oct. 3, 2008)

Directory:Mondial de l'Automobile

International Geneva Motor Show - Salon International de l'Auto, Geneva Switzerland.

New York International Auto Show - New York, New York.

Tokyo Motor Show - Tokyo, Japan.

Research & Development

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New Induction Motor for Hybrid Vehicles - Raser Technologies, Inc. announces a new 100-kilowatt AC induction based electric motor design called the Symetron™ P-100. The electric motors used in today's mild hybrid vehicles typically deliver 15-20 kilowatts of power utilizing permanent-magnet synchronous motors that require expensive rare-earth magnets to operate. (The Energy Blog Oct. 20, 2006)

Hybrids in the Third World? - The kind of cars, houses, appliances and infrastructure that emerge in developing locations like China and India will have a profound effect of the future of the planet. Green cars cost more, but the consequences of inaction are huge. (Business Week July 31, 2006)

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Hybrid cars race ahead in 2005 - Helped by sky-high fuel prices and celebrity endorsement, US sales of hybrid cars more than doubled in 2005, but Japanese rather than home-grown auto makers are cashing in on the boom. (PhysOrg Dec. 27, 2005)

New York Taxis Will Go Hybrid - The New York Taxi and Limousine Commission (TLC) has approved the Clean Air Taxicabs Pilot Program Act, paving way for a hybrid car to be approved for NY taxi service by this fall. (Slashdot July 9, 2005)

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Honda Civic Hybrid Honda improves efficiency - 2006 Civic boasts 20% more power while being 5% lighter, with 5% better fuel economy. (TreeHugger July 12, 2005)

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Jay Leno takes delivery of special edition Lithium R-Car - Hybrid Technologies, Inc.'s car touted as the best hybrid available, with no emissions. Sports car capable of 100 mph. ( BusinessWire May 2, 2005)

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'TryBrid'car runs on gas, electric or alcohol - Tritec 1.6 litre four cylinder motor enabled to run on gasoline and alcohol or any combination plus an additional electric drive - effectively making it the world’s first “trybrid" automobile that can switch between three energy sources. (Gizmag Dec. 7, 2005)

STI - Small and efficient electric vehicles - Designed and manufactured in France, these electric vehicles have been carefully developed with particular attention to detail. The different types of motors and electronic control systems have been chosen to meet the most demanding requirements.


History and Links

Drive Electric - Drive-Electric Internet Service provides premium dial-up, DSL and email services that enable subscribers to provide financial support for the organizations that are building the Digital Universe.

Danny's Contentment - Describes driving EVs through London streets and other realities of life using the small all-electric vehicles that are currently available.

Electrifying Times - Bruce Meland's site, has magazine in print.

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EV World

How Stuff Works Electric Cars

Green Car Guide


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Directory:Electric Vehicles > Directory:Prizes > Around the world in 80 days race for zero emission electric cars - Louis Palmer is hoping a race to circumnavigate the globe in 80 days in zero emission, electric powered cars will harness public interest and inspire new ways of thinking about mobility, cars and renewable energy solutions. Starting Aug. 15, 2010 in Geneva, contestants will travel 30,000 km through 20 countries. (GizMag June 16, 2010)

Fuel Cost Comparison

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Real-World Electric Vehicle Stats - The Japan EV Club drove a Mitsubishi i MiEV and a Subaru R1e 533.57 miles from Tokyo to Hokkaido in the week before the G8 summit. The electricity fuel cost was $16.94, compared to $121.34 for a comparable gasoline car. (AutoblogGreen July 19, 2008)

In the May 2006 issue, Popular Mechanics magazine calculates the cost to travel from New York to California on various alternative fuels:

#$. 60 Electricity (EV)

#$110 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

#$183 B20 Biodiesel (20% Biodiesel 80% Petrodiesel)

#$212 Gasoline

#$231 B100 Biodiesel (100% Biodiesel)

#$425 E85 (85% Ethanol 15% Gasoline)

#$619 M85 (85% Methanol 15% Gasoline)

#$804 Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Vancouver Electric Vehicle Association - GREET Fuel Economy Ratios of Vehicle Technologies (Relative to Gasoline Vehicles) - Note that a BP EV (battery-powered electric vehicle) is all by itself at 3.5 times the fuel economy.

Electric City Cars (pdf) - The Current electric vehicle will cost only 2(two) cents per mile compared to an average 35 cents per mile investment with the average gasoline powered vehicle. In simpler terms, the average person spends 18 times more to drive their present vehicle.



The Electric Auto Association

National Electric Drag Race Association - Electric cars that burn rubber.

Austin Area Electric Auto Association

Megawatt Motorworks - Electric vehicle news

Drive an EV and Never Buy Gas Again - Article at Mother Earth News

Electrifying Times - Latest Electric Car News

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