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Directory:Andrea A. Rossi Cold Fusion Generator:Rossi's Hints

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by Jed Rothwell ( of mirrored to PESWiki by Esa Ruoho with further editing by Directory:Hank Mills

Pure Energy Systems News

April 20, 2011

The purpose of this directory is to collect and organize the many hints we have about the function of Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer. A great number of hints have been posted on various websites, forum and blogs.

Many of the following bits of information come from Andrea Rossi's personal blog and forum, the Journal of Nuclear Physics. The inspiration for this compilation came from a topic started by a user on the Vortex-L email list. Many users contributed to the thread and the result is this directory.

The most significant question about the Rossi device is the catalysts used. Once that is known, then replications could be relatively easy. That is the portion closely guarded by Andrea Rossi, and is a primary topic in the patent they have filed and are awaiting to be awarded.

PESWiki is a publicly editable site, so if you know of some information that belongs here, or if you wish to correct something, feel free to log in.


Sources are sometimes shown in parentheses after the item. SL = Shirakawa List, Focardi = Focardi radio interview, April 5, 2011, Essen and Kullander = report published in NyTeknik, 4/3/2011

Andrea Rossi's Hints


This list is not comprehensive. These are items I thought are significant.

Sources are sometimes shown in parentheses after the item. SL = Shirakawa List, Focardi = Focardi radio interview, April 5, 2011

Some items are marked "CONTRADICTION" at the end, where two or more statements appear to contradict one another.

To avoid confusion, the term "turn off" here refers to turning on or off the resistance heaters used to control the reactor. "Quench" means stop the reaction itself.

Calorimetry is not addressed in detail here, since it has been discussed elsewhere.


The volume of the 15 kW reactor cell (officially rated at 10 kW) is about 1 liter. The smaller 4 kW reactor cell (officially rated at 2.5 kW) volume is ~50 ml.

During the Feb. 10 test, the 15 kW reactor (officially rated at 10 kW) was operated for about 18 hours ~ 250 kWh (Levi). (

Smaller devices are safer to operate. Potentially, due to the fact that the reaction does not "spike" at start up and shut down.

The 1 MW (thermal) device will be made of many smaller ones ganged together. It was originally planned to be made up of 50 modules of 20 kW each (Rossi, 3/26/2010), then later ~130 10 kW units, where 30 were held in standby to replace or augment older ones as the power decreased. Also, by having extra modules some of them can be pulled and re-fueled without disruption to power production. As of April 2011 they now plan to use ~300 units of 4 kW each (the smaller one).

Power density for a module as a whole, including the container, is 1 W/cm3. (Rossi, 3/28/2010)

The power density of the one liter reactor (not including the volume of other components) can be much higher.

These cells ("modules" - Rossi) are designed to be connected in series and in parallel. (SL)

Maintenance and operation is similar to that of a conventional boiler. (SL "normal boiler" comment)

A 20 kW module has a volume of 20 L and weighs 30 kg. (Rossi, 3/26/2010)

The minimum power of the e-Cat reactor unit is presently 2.5 kW, with the present design and engineering. Smaller units may be engineered in the future.

These cells are made of stainless steel. The stainless steel used does not include any copper. Rossi has posted in his blog the exact type of steel used. In the mini-Rossi unit, the stainless steel cells are inside a larger copper pipe. Cooling water flows around the walls of the cell.

The device does not produce gamma rays that escape the shielding, except for a slight increase over background (Rossi, SL) The device produced a large burst of gamma rays when it started up. (Celani) CONTRADICTION

The device produces 100 keV and 300 keV particles. (Rossi? – Iverson reports)

There is no ionizing radiation detected outside the reactor. (6/13/2010)

The device produces no radioactive nuclear ash. At least, no radioactive nuclear ash is found the day after the machine is operated (Rossi, NyTeknik, 3/18/2011). There may be intermediate radioactive products during operation. “We are not able to know which instable atoms are produced DURING the operation of the reactor, but we can analyze the composition of the powders left AFTER the operations: in such powders we do not find instable elements.” (SL)

The device requires 1-cm thick lead shielding, presumably for safety. It was designed by Focardi. The shielding has often been reported as being 2-cm thick. (6/13/2010).

The control box contains 5 simple PLCs controlling the resistance heaters, and weighs ~7 kg. (Levi)


Minimal operating temperature is 400°C. (SL)

The optimal operating temperature is 600°C. (Source unknown)

H gas pressure in the cell is 25 bar (~360 psi) (Essen and Kullander)

The effect is triggered with resistance heaters. There are five in the 15 kW device.

The reaction is modulated with the resistance heaters. The pressure of hydrogen is also an important factor.

The resistance heaters are used at high power to trigger the reaction, then power is reduced to maintain the reaction. In the Feb. 10 test, 1000 W triggered the reaction, and 80 W maintained it.

The power can be regulated continuously, from "0 through 100%" by adjusting the preheating input. (Rossi, 4/16/2011)

Hydrogen pressure may also play a role regulating power. See Unanswered Questions (below).

The reaction can be made self-sustaining with the resistance heaters turned off. This was done in a preliminary test with U. Bologna professors. (SL) However, this mode is not recommended because it is unsafe and it is difficult to quench the reaction. There is a "risk of explosions" (SL). The device is inherently safe "if you violate [safety rules] the reactor [quenches]." (SL) CONTRADICTION

To ensure safety, Rossi prefers the control electronics be externally powered rather than powered by the device itself with a thermoelectric or a steam turbine generator.

The input output ratio has been as high as 200 in recent tests 80 W in 16 kW out, sustained, and it went over 1600 during the 130 kW burst. The ratio is "always over 6" (SL). (Footnote. I do not think the input/output ratio is meaningful for this device – Rothwell)

The device will need maintenance and new catalyst every six months.

Picograms of Ni and H are consumed (SL)

There are 100 g of nickel in the larger cell. There are "several milligrams" of Ni in the larger cell but "not all of the nickel in the reactor reacts." (SL) [Could this mean nuclear active material?]

The actual consumption to make 10 kW is about 0.1 g of nickel and 0.01 g of hydrogen per hour. This is the "mass of Ni that you need in the reactor" but not all of this actually reacts. "The efficiency is very low, due to the probabilistic issue." (SL).

The Ni lattice can be disrupted to a certain extent. (SL: "Does the integrity of the Ni lattice have to be maintained ? do damage, disruption, and melting impede the results? No, it is not necessary within certain limits.")

The effect can be quenched with the following methods:

Where hydrogen is injected with electrolysis, stop electrolysis to cut off the supply of hydrogen. (Focardi)

De-gas the cell.

Increase the flow rate to cool the nickel powder and catalyst. (This may have to be done quickly, to induce a thermal shock – Rothwell)

A small percentage (2% to 3%) of deuterium will quench the reaction.

Piantelli reported that he used N to stop a runaway reaction with his bulk Ni-H device. Rossi says he has not tried this.


The catalyst is composed of two elements.

The elements are not copper, iron or a precious metal. It is not a gas inserted along with the H. (No copper, 7/2/2010)

The catalyst is not radioactive.

The catalyst is not expensive.

The catalyst is not Raney Nickel

The additional element is not in gas phase.

The Ni processing system increases the cost of Ni by ~10%.

Much of the Ni transmutes to Cu during the reaction.

The Cu has slightly unnatural isotopic ratios. (Rossi) The Cu ratios are natural. (Essen) CONTRADICTION

Fe appears in the Ni catalyst whether from transmutation or contamination is not clear.

The Ni isotopes in the starting material are enriched, by some revolutionary technique that costs little. (Rossi, 4/8/2011) "We use regular Ni, so the isotopic composition is the normal one." (Rossi, SL) "We use Ni in its isotopic composition natural." (Rossi, 6/20/2010) The Ni isotopes are normal, not enriched. (Essen) CONTRADICTION

Heat production changes the Ni isotopes, according to a study with SIMS at U. Padua (7/2/2010)

"We think that all the Ni participates to the reactions, even if some isotopes should be more efficient." (7/14/2010) "[O]nly Ni 62 and 64 react." (3/25/2011) CONTRADICTION

(Footnote. The Ni is called a "catalyst" but that may be a misnomer, since in other cold fusion system it is not used up. Rothwell)

Andrea Rossi has stated one of the most important bits of knowledge they have is how to produce atomic hydrogen from diatomic hydrogen and use it appropriately.

Tungsten as a Possible Catalyst - Atomic Hydrogen is known to be produced by heated tungsten and similar alloys. This is used in H+ and H- production for the Atomic Hydrogen Blow torch, previously used in the 19th century. It was noted by Rossi in an interview that the catalyst functions to break the hydrogen from it's natural state of H2 to H+ and H- after which the nickel absorbs the proton in the LENR process releasing the excess heat and radiation. Atomic Blowtorches have long been known to have anomalous heating effects as the torch flame will not burn to the touch but can vaporize materials well past 3200c.

This may possibly be related to the previously noted Hot Balls article -


Rossi will not address the following issues:

The identity of the two elements added to the nickel.

Loading, or "ratio of hydrogen atoms to metal atoms" to reach the preferred operating level (SL)

The reasons self-sustaining operation is difficult and dangerous "are very difficult to explain without violating my confidentiality restraints."

"We give [no] information about what is in the reactor beside Ni, H" (SL) (Not true!)

Q: Do you control the rate of energy production by adjusting hydrogen pressure? A: Actually, it is more complex. You are asking confidential issues. Sorry. (Rossi, 2/16/2010)

Q: Is the reaction primarily surface or bulk? A: That is an "industrial secret." (8/30/2010)


Assembling the cell and working with the nickel catalysts is dangerous and requires expertise.

Rossi does not have a precise theory but he has empirical data. The only thing he knows for sure is the amount of mass loss per unit of energy. (SL)

The RH meter in the Jan. 14 test was a Delta Ohm HD 37AB1347. Reader comment: "The sensor is based on capacitance, which should provide a good measure of the amount of water present." (SL)

Regarding the wet versus dry steam controversy in the Jan. 14 test: "When we run the reactor with water, not steam, the measured power is the same as when we produce steam and I deem this is the proof of the correct measurement made with steam. We made many tests with water and the operation with steam has just confirmed the same efficiency." (SL)

Not related to Mills. "My method and technology is not at all related with [Mills]. If you read my patent (go to and click on Patent) and the description of the method you mentioned, there is no relationship at all." (SL)

Temperatures in the cell range from 150°C - 5000°C. (Rossi agrees he said this previously 2/10/2011) This has to be a misunderstanding. Ni melts at 1453°C.

Standard module consumed 500 W control current and produced 4 kW in 2010. (7/14/2010)

Over the course of development, 37 devices have “blown up.” (Rossi, 4/23/2011)

In the News

[Rossi Portal - collection of articles and web-presence on Rossi's E-Cat|httP://]

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Latest / Directory:Best Exotic Clean Energy Technologies: Directory:Nuclear > Directory:Cold Fusion > Directory:Andrea A. Rossi Cold Fusion Generator > There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1] - The purpose of this directory is to collect and organize the many hints we have about the function of Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer. A great number of hints have been posted on various websites, forum and blogs. (PESWiki April 20, 2011)

See also


Directory:Andrea A. Rossi Cold Fusion Generator (E-Cat)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1] | News:2012:Rossi Cold Fusion

Mainstream News:Andrea Rossi's LENR E-Cat

Directory:Industrial Heat, LLC - acquired Rossi's technology

PowerPedia:Energy Catalyzer

OS:Replicating the E-Cat

Directory:Andrea Rossi's E-Cat Validations

News:E-Cat Fuel Analysis and Validation Paper Posted October 8, 2014

News:October 28, 2011 Test of the One Megawatt E-Cat

Archive News:Archive:Page 1:October 28, 2011 Test of the One Megawatt E-Cat | News:Archive:Page 2:October 28, 2011 Test of the One Megawatt E-Cat | News:Archive:Page 3:October 28, 2011 Test of the One Megawatt E-Cat | News:Archive:Page 4:October 28, 2011 Test of the One Megawatt E-Cat | There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2]

News:Real-Time Updates on the October 6, 2011 E-Cat Test

Archive News:Archive:October 6, 2011 E-Cat Test Updates:Page 01 | News:Archive:October 6, 2011 E-Cat Test Updates:Page 02 | News:Archive:October 6, 2011 E-Cat Test Updates:Page 03 | There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3]

News:Photos of the October 6, 2011 E-Cat Test

Directory:Andrea Rossi's Cold Fusion Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat): Frequently Asked Questions

Directory:Andrea A. Rossi Cold Fusion Generator:Rossi's Hints

OS:Cold Fusion E-Cat Case Design Competition

News:Defkalion Hyperion

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