Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 14, 2016 at 10:06 pm.
For a quantum computer to run, it depends on the quantum phenomenon named entanglement.
Then, if entanglement does not exist, then a quantum computer cannot work.
So, the question is : is entanglement actually real, as claimed by the physicists ?
The physicists claim that quantum entanglement has been confirmed by several experiments. However those experiments have been interpreted from the foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Then the question actually is: are the foundations of Quantum Mecanics correct ?
When the researchers tried to apply the entanglement for the development of the quantum computer, they discovered that something very strange happens: the entanglement misteriously disapears.
The theorists called such phenomenon as “entanglement sudden death” (ESD), and they believe that it happens because in Nature everything exhibits the trend of vanishing itself.
However the actual meaning of ESD is another one: it just shows that entanglement does not exist.
And when the physicists try to apply it to the construction of a computer, the machine cannot work, because the entanblement exists only in the theories of Quantum Mechanics, it does not exists in Nature.
Herein we will undestand the reason why the physicists believe that there is sudden death of entanglement, and we will also understand why entanglement actually does not exist, as shown in the book Quantum Ring Theory1.
Quantum theorists believe that entanglement do exists because of the Alain Aspect experiment, which was interpreted according to the foundations of Quantum Mechanics.
First of all, there is not a model for the photon in Quantum Mechanics. Unlike, in Quantum Ring Theory the photon is composed by a particle and an antiparticle that move with helical trajectory.
The helical trajectory of the photon has been confirmed by an experiment published in 2010 in the journal Phys. Rev. Letters:
Unveiling a Truncated Optical Lattice Associated with a Triangular Aperture Using Light's Orbital Angular Momentum2
According to the experiment, the light can have an "angular orbital momentum", a kind of rotation which is more similar to a planet orbiting the Sun than a planet gyrating about itself.
THE PHOTON MODEL PROPOSED IN QRT
This sort of light's angular orbital momentum detected in the experiments is according to the the model of photon proposed in Guglinski's Quantum Ring Theory...
In the model proposed in QRT, the photon is composed by a particle and an antiparticle, and they move with helical trajectory.
The particle and antiparticle gyrate about the center of the helical trajectory (like the planets gyrate about the Sun).
So, the existence of the helical trajectory of the photon is obvious. Look:
1- the photon has an angular orbital momentum (which means that the photon has a circular motion about a center , like the planets turn about a center: the Sun).
2- the phton has also a rectilinear displacement
3- Consider the combination of these two motions of a particle:
a) circular motion
b) rectilinear displacement
4- well, the combination of these two motions perform a HELICAL TRAJECTORY.
5- CONCLUSION: the experiment published in Phys. Rev. Letters is the proof of the existence of the helical trajectory of the photon, as proposed in the photon model of Quantum Ring Theory
So, concerning the entanglement, we have now a good reason for taking seriously the interpretation of Quantum Ring Theory.
Einstein would be glad to consider it, since he has never be convinced of the existence of the entanglement.
Quantum Ring Theory explains the Aspect experiment by considering the model of a photon composed of two corpuscles, a particle and its antiparticle, moving with a helical trajectory.
Let us start up by explaining what the polarization of a transverse wave is. We will use a string for the illustration.
Figure 35 shows a string whose left-hand end is moved in circles by the hand of somebody, so that to propagate of transverse waves in all directions. The right-hand end is attached to a cylinder.
There is only one string. In order to explain the polarization of the wave propagation of the string, the figure 35 is shown in four different collors:
1- The red collor shows the component of the wave in the vertical.
2- The collors gray and blue shows the component in 450.
3- The yellow shows the component in the horizontal.
By placing a plate with a thin vertical slit in the path of the waves, the slit will filter out all waves except those propagating vertically. In this case, the wave on the string is said to be vertically polarized. Here, a mechanical polarizer, which was a plate with a thin vertical slit, was used.
In figure 36, if a second polarizer plate is inserted into the beam with its slit inclined at 450 to the vertical, the wave in the string disappears.
Light is polarized when it crosses some translucent materials. If we use light and optical polarizers in the above experiment, it is observed that the light may, or may not, pass through the second polarizer. The probability that light polarized 90sup>0 by the first polarizer, also passes through the second polarizer is 50% that is, half of photons pass through the second polarizer and, in this way, they acquire a new polarization of 450. The other half does not pass through. This indicates random behavior.
It was the random character of light that induced Einstein and Dirac to be convinced that it would be impossible for a theoretical physical model for the photon to exist. A photon with well defined physical structure, which therefore could be represented by a theoretical model, could not produce that statistical behavior.
An atom emits two photons A and B, as shown figure 37.
The two photons are twins. Photon A goes by one route and its twin brother goes by another for instance, photon A goes to a room where there is a laboratory but photon B goes to a different room where there is another laboratory. However, both travel by the same process first they pass through a 900 polarizer, and after that through a 450 polarizer.
When they fall upon the 450 polarizer, the chance of each passing is 50%. In this case, any one of the following could occur:
a) photon A passes and photon B does not pass
b) photon B passes and photon A does not pass
c) both pass
d) neither passes
If all four outcomes are equally likely, it is easily seen that the chance of always achieving the result that either both pass or both do not pass is only 50%.
However, there is something mysterious happening here since, in Aspect’s experiments, the result was always the same only outcomes “c” and “d” were observed in which, when photon A passes, photon B passes also and, when A does not pass, B does not pass either. Situations “a” and “b” never occurred.
The interpretation is that, when photon A is observed, it immediately transmits information to photon B saying: “Look, I passed, you have to pass as well” . According to quantum theory, photon B doesn’t even need to be observed at once. It can be travelling in the space for years but, at the instant somebody makes an observation, it should be verified that it coincides with that of photon A. It also does not depend upon the distance, the two photons can be apart by thousands of kilometers, and the information from A arrives at B instantaneously - at the same instant photon A is observed. It is called entanglement. Physicists hoped to apply it to developing a new technology for computers. The last news I read on the subject said that the researchers were disappointed to find that it will not be possible to produce computers by using the idea of entanglement. It seems that reality might not correspond to what physicists had hoped.
Let us see if we can keep the local action principle, which Einstein did not reject, by interpreting the EPR paradox and the Aspect experiment via the model of the photon proposed in QRT.
According to QRT the photon is composed of two corpuscles, a particle and its antiparticle, which move in a helical trajectory, rotating in contrary directions.
The polarization of the light depends upon the position of the two particles when they cross one another. In the left of figure 38 we see vertical polarization, in the central part of the figure we see horizontal polarization, and at right we see polarization of 450.
When a photon is emitted, we don’t know what the position between the particle and the antiparticle is that is, we don’t know how the photon is polarized. Only after we make it to pass through a polarizer and it acquires the polarization of that polarizer do we know its polarization.
Each photon also has another characteristic: the distance between the particle and the antiparticle, as seen in the figure 39.
In the photon Ph-1 at left the distance between them is a minimum. In the photon Ph-2 the distance is “a”, and in the photon Ph-3 the distance is “b”. As each corpuscle produces electromagnetic fields, the phase shift between the fields in a photon depends on that distance. Also, the polarization of a photon depends upon that distance between the corpuscles, because the polarization is a resonance phenomenon between that distance and the atomic planes of the crystal polarizer. If the distance between the two corpuscles does not resonate with the distance of the atomic planes, the photon will not cross the polarizer.
When the photon is divided in the Aspect experiment, the particle and the antiparticle are separated, each going in a different direction. However, at the instant when the particle breaks its partnership with the antiparticle, another antiparticle is created immediately and this new antiparticle replaces the old antiparticle exactly resulting in the same original features the photon had before its division in the Aspect experiment. The same happens to the antiparticle. At the instant it leaves its partnership with the particle, a new particle is created which replaces the old particle of photon. So, in this way the Aspect experiment creates two identical photons A and B, and obviously they will have the same behavior when they cross a polarizer.
Up to now even a child can understand the result of Aspect experiment because, since the two photons are twins, there is the same distance “d” between the particle and the antiparticle in each case and, since this distance is what decides whether or not the photon passes through the polarizer, it is clear that, if one passes, the other ones passes also and, if one does not pass, the other one does not passes either.
Hence, end of the mystery!
According to Quantum Ring Theory, ESD actually is a demonstration that entanglement actually does not exist.
Probably, after many unsuccessful attempts trying to develop the quantum computer, finally the physicists will realize that there is not such a thing named “entanglement sudden death”. Because it’s impossible to have a death of something that does not exist.
1- W. Guglinski – Quantum Ring Theory , Bäuu Institute Press, 2006
2 - (http)//prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i5/e053904