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:Problem With Science:Our Understanding of Thermodynamics

:by Congress:Member:Leslie R. Pastor

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James Clerk Maxwell http://www.clerkmaxwellfoundation.org/ stated: "The truth of the second law is … a statistical, not a mathematical, truth, for it depends on the fact that the bodies we deal with consist of millions of molecules… Hence the second law of thermodynamics is continually being violated, and that to a considerable extent, in any sufficiently small group of molecules belonging to a real body." [Maxwell, J. C., "Tait's Thermodynamics II," Nature 17, 278–280 (7 February 1878)].

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Maxwell 'discovered' the Electromagnetic Wave and originated the first [partial] unified field theory formally known as Maxwell's Equations. [Not the truncated version curtailed by Heaviside, Gibbs and Lorentz]. http://www.cheniere.org/references/maxwell.htm Tom Bearden explains: http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/030706.htm

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Reducing Our Dependence on Fossil Fuels

http://www.cheniere.org/articles/Reducing%20Our%20Dependence%20on%20Fossil%20Fuels2.doc

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The second law of thermodynamics, in simple language, says that in a closed physical system, useful energy decays into waste heat, and you can't win it back. A machine that produces, say, electrical energy from ambient heat is impossible according to the second law, and termed a "perpetuum mobile of the second kind".

But the second law is under siege, and it may turn out that this alleged rock-solid law of nature is only a reflection of the limitations of 19th and 20th century engineering.

In a paper titled A Solid-State Maxwell Demon[74] D.P. Sheehan and A.R. Putnam of the departments of Physics and J.H. Wright of the department of Mathematics and Computer science of the University of San Diego propose a semiconductor device that would generate useful energy from the thermal noise of an electronic circuit. The authors successfully tested their model on a commercial semiconductor simulator and estimate that the technology necessary to construct a laboratory model will be available by 2007. In their introduction, they write:

"Over the last ten years, an unprecedented number of challenges have been leveled against the absolute status of the second law of thermodynamics. During this period, roughly 40 papers have appeared in the general literature, representing more than a dozen distinct challenges the publication rate is increasing. Recently, for the first time, a major scientific press has commissioned a monograph on the subject and a first international conference has been convened to examine these challenges."

One would think that given the implications (defeating the second "law" means nothing less than solving the human energy crisis permanently), governments, corporations and the scientific establishment would be interested. But there is very little interest. The prevailing (circular) reasoning remains that machines that violate the second law are impossible because they would contradict the second law.

Source: http://www.suppressedscience.net/physics.html

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James Clerk Maxwell's "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field"

http://www.zpenergy.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1949

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In a recent email [12.05.06] Tom Bearden has clarified his position regarding our currently accepted view of thermodynamics: "Here’s a fact sheet I’ve been working on for some time, which I believe is also on my website http://www.cheniere.org/techpapers/Fact_Sheets/Fact%20Sheet%20-%20Leyton%20Hierarchies%20of%20Symmetry%20-%20trial2%20-%20corrected.doc

This is the basic fact sheet I would be updating and expanding, for the thermodynamics paper I hope to produce eventually (few months from now). Maxwell – who was also a noted thermodynamicist of his time – understood that the old second law was easily violated, particularly by the FINER PARTS of a larger system. Quoting Maxwell:

"The truth of the second law is … a statistical, not a mathematical, truth, for it depends on the fact that the bodies we deal with consist of millions of molecules… Hence the second law of thermodynamics is continually being violated, and that to a considerable extent, in any sufficiently small group of molecules belonging to a real body." [J. C. Maxwell, "Tait's Thermodynamics II," Nature 17, 278–280 (7 February 1878)].

As stated in the fact sheet, Australian electrodynamicists (Evans et al.) have well-established violation of the old second law, and Wang et al. have proven it experimentally as well, in real physical systems (chemical solutions) for up to two seconds, when negative entropy instead of positive entropy is being produced in little volumes of a cubic micron in size.

I used that "entropy reversal volume" approach to generate a proposed mechanism for cold fusion (because in such a volume the normal repulsion of like charges could be an ATTRACTION of like charges for up to two seconds!). And with that presumption, I was able to write the actual reaction equations for three of the ubiquitous and novel cold fusion reactions found in most successful cold fusion experiments.

In other words, the normal "coulomb barrier" can become the "coulomb attractor", in such volumes for up to two seconds. So very different reaction equations are possible when the normal law of attraction and repulsion between charged particles is momentarily reversed!

The cold fusion work is in my book, Energy from the Vacuum: Concepts and Principles, Cheniere Press, 2002, Chapter 10. Cold Fusion: Low Spatial-Energy Nuclear Reactions at High Time-Energy.

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Ilya Prigogine - The Father of Modern Thermodynamic Theory as explained by Thomas Eugene Bearden in a series of informal writeups

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I have some write-ups (informal) which I’ll try to dig out and send you. I had tentatively "scheduled" my work on a thermodynamics paper for my website, to occur after I get the "retranslation of EE into vacuum engineering" paper done.

The best reference(s) are by, or involve, Nobelist Ilya Prigogine who was one of the main scientists that established the far more modern thermodynamics of systems far from equilibrium. Here are a few pertinent quotes for openers:

Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, New York, 1998, reprinted with corrections 1999. Areas known to violate the old second law are given on p. 459. One area is strong gradients (as used in the MEG) and another is memory of materials (as used in the MEG in the nanocrystalline core materials and layered crystalline structures to invoke the Aharonov-Bohm effect). We strongly comment that these known, recognized mechanisms allow macroscopic and significant violations of the Second Law that are directly usable in real systems and circuits.

Kondepudi and Prigogine: "One aspect is common to all these nonequilibrium situations, the appearance of long-range coherence. Macroscopically distinct parts become correlated. This is in contrast to equilibrium situations where the range of correlations is determined by short-range molecular forces. As a result, situations which are impossible to realize at equilibrium become possible in far-from-equilibrium situations. This leads to important applications in a variety of fields. [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998, p. xii.]

Kondepudi and Prigogine: "Equilibrium thermodynamics was an achievement of the nineteenth century, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was developed in the twentieth century, and Onsager's relations mark a crucial point in the shift of interest away from equilibrium to nonequilibrium. … due to the flow of entropy, even close to equilibrium, irreversibility can no more be identified with the tendency to disorder… [since it can] … produce both disorder … and order…" [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998, p. xv.]

Kondepudi and Prigogine: "…the thermodynamic theory of fluctuations … has its origin in Einstein's famous formula that relates the probability of a fluctuation to decrease in entropy." [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998, p. xv.]

Kondepudi and Prigogine. “We then have the case of strong gradients, where we expect the failure of linear laws such as the Fourier law for heat conduction. Not much is known either experimentally or theoretically. Attempts to introduce such nonlinear outcomes into the thermodynamics description have led to 'extended thermodynamics' [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, New York, 1998, reprinted with corrections 1999, p. 459].

Kondepudi and Prigogine. "One general point to note about the First Law and the Second Law is that both laws must be local laws. In fact, to be compatible with the principle of relativity, and to be valid regardless of the observer’s state of motion, these laws must be local. Nonlocal laws of energy conservation or entropy production are inadmissible because the notion of simultaneity is relative." [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, New York, 1998, reprinted with corrections 1999, p. 459].

Kondepudi and Prigogine. "According to relativity, events that are simultaneous but occurring at different locations to one observer, may not be simultaneous to another. Hence the simultaneous disappearance and appearance of energy as seen by one observer will not be simultaneous for all. For some observers, energy would have disappeared at one location first and only some time later would it reappear at the other location, thus violating the law of conservation of energy during the time interval separating the two events." [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, New York, 1998, reprinted with corrections 1999, p. 44, footnote.].

Hilbert, D. Quoting: "I assert... that for the general theory of relativity, i.e., in the case of general invariance of the Hamiltonian function, energy equations... corresponding to the energy equations in orthogonally invariant theories do not exist at all. I could even take this circumstance as the characteristic feature of the general theory of relativity." [D. Hilbert, Gottingen Nachrichten, Vol. 4, 1917, p. 21.].

Logunov and Loskutov. Quoting, p. 179. "In formulating the equivalence principle, Einstein actually abandoned the idea of the gravitational field as a Faraday-Maxwell field, and this is reflected in the pseudotensorial characterization of the gravitational field that he introduced. Hilbert was the first to draw attention to the consequences of this. … Unfortunately, … Hilbert was evidently not understood by his contemporaries, since neither Einstein himself nor other physicists recognized the fact that in general relativity conservation laws for energy, momentum, and angular momentum are in principle impossible." Logunov and Loskutov, "Nonuniqueness of the predictions of the general theory of relativity," Sov. J. Part. Nucl., 18(3), May-June 1987, p. 179.

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'''Tesla's Fuelless Generator & The Second Law of Thermodynamics

http://home.comcast.net/~onichelson/Thermodynamics2.pdf

http://tesla.nichelson.googlepages.com/home

http://www.zpenergy.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2194

"[T]he A field [for the potentials] was banished from playing the central role in Maxwell's theory and relegated to being a mathematical (but not physical) auxiliary. This banishment took place during the interpretation of Maxwell's theory... by Heaviside... and Hertz. The 'Maxwell theory' and 'Maxwell's equations' we know today are really the interpretation of Heaviside... Heaviside took the 20 equations of Maxwell and reduced them to the four now known as "Maxwell's equations." [Terence W. Barrett, "Electromagnetic Phenomena Not Explained by Maxwell's Equations," A. Lakhtakia, ed., Essays on the Formal Aspects of Electromagnetics Theory, World Scientific Publishing, River Edge, NJ, 1993, p. 11.]

Reference: http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/050207.htm

Link: http://peswiki.com/index.php/Site:LRP:Evaluation_of_the_M.E.G.

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VYtUL8OU7s4 _on5Xvw1sEY -9anvz_y_Zs

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'Excellent article by Hank Mills:'

Aether Flow -- The True Electric Current? - Could it be that the flow of aether in the form of electric field is the true "electric current", and electron flow is only a byproduct? Some researchers, including potentially Nikola Tesla, seem to think so! (PESN January 27, 2012)'''

Pretty much sums up what I've been presenting to the New Energy Congress via my research papers, along with my collaborated research with Tom Bearden and demonstrated via my applied research via the 30 coil monopole system, designed, engineered and built by Renaissance Charge LLC and paid for by me personally. John Bedini has effectively vindicated Nikola Tesla via the 30 coil monopole system, licensed by him, and paid for my myself, giving Rick Friedrich the right to build it for me.

Tesla’s radiant energy was Dirac’s ‘negative’ energy captured via the mechanism of the ‘monopole.’ Eliminate the current flow within the circuit and the ‘negative’ energy which Tesla termed as radiant energy will flow within the circuit. Structure the circuit, so that the negative energy can be captured, stored within a capacitor (battery), so that it can then be redirected as ‘static’ voltage. Then, re-structure the circuit converting the ‘static’ voltage into alternating current flow.

For those who are not aware of it, the 30 coil monopole system is the upgrade to the original Jim Watson machine from the 1984 Conference at Colorado. Site:LRP:The Thirty (30) Coil MONOPOLE System

I elected to have Rick Friedrich build the 30 coil monopole at Renaissance Charge LLC because of the close proximity to Energenx and John Bedini. I knew that those two gentlemen would effectively permit the construction of my device, under absolute and rigorous protocols of quality control. Since my device contained thousands of parts and involved significant protocols, pertaining to magnetism and timing protocols involving movement, I knew the serious difficulty that could be encountered, which at any time could derail the project. Because of the tenacious persistence of Renaissance, and Rick Friedrich's dogged desire to provide quality results, I knew that eventually they would succeed in providing the result hoped for by myself and Tom Bearden. My hopes were not in vain, they were successful and as a result they have literally vindicated Nikola Tesla regarding his claim of Radiant Energy and the 'wheel-work of nature' Site:LRP:James Clerk Maxwell

All the Best,

'Leslie R. Pastor'

http://peswiki.com/index.php/Congress:Member:Leslie_R._Pastor

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZeHtIC80NE

http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/bedini_monopole2/message/14266

John Bedini - Radiant Electricity

See also

:Symmetric versus Asymmetric Electromagnetic Systems

:Source: http://www.energeticforum.com/renewable-energy/11563-symmetric-versus-asymmetric-electromagnetic-systems.html

:'I wanted to start this thread before I move on to disclose the type of motors and generators that took me to the paths of Radiant Energy in another Thread.'

As they are based on Asymmetric Technology, I certainly believe it will help understand the concept better, avoiding future comparisons-conflicts between this two completely different systems.

It took me a while to put all this material together, it is back up by several tests with many different types of sizes and configuration Models that I have built over more than two decades. Plus all the research and developed work that goes back in our history to more than a Century ago...'

:I will keep this document as simple as possible, in order to be understood easier.

:'The main body of this document is written by me, and please forgive any misspellings or not to well redacted text, whenever I copy-paste paragraphs, I will insert a reference to a link at the bottom of this thread. I will try to maintain it as brief as possible.'

:The History

:'The Father of Magnetism, James Clerk Maxwell , gave Us an Incredible and great Dynamic Theory of Electromagnetism, his analysis extends to the deepest interactions basically from space , the Vortex Theory of Molecules. The Scientists of his time found his Theory very hard to accept not only because of its complexity, but the way he refers to as an Electromagnetic Field, something intangible and not simple to analyze ..."Maxwell's Theory becomes simple and intelligible only when you give up thinking in terms of mechanical models. Instead of thinking of mechanical objects as primary and electromagnetic stresses as secondary consequences, You must think of the Electromagnetic field as primary and mechanical forces as secondary..."' (2)

:At his final developments He derived into two main fields to calculate-study his Electromagnetic Theory:

:1- The Symmetric Systems

:2- The Asymmetric Systems

:'The Symmetrical Systems were the ones adopted by All EE (Electrical Engineering) Universities in the World since the fall of the 19th Century (1880-to late 1890's), right after the death of Maxwell in 1879, the Heaviside Vectorial Equations started to suffer a "Process of Symmetrization" by Nobel Prize Scientist Hendrik Lorentz , financed by J.P Morgan and Thomas A. Edison...'

:Asymmetrical Systems were completely disregarded from further teachings in any Technological Center or Universities of the related fields in the World.

:Lt. Colonel Thomas Bearden writes:

:'"H. A. Lorentz was the man who was elicited to do the necessary "symmetrization" with ease, thereby accomplishing exactly what Morgan decreed to his own advisors that must be done: Get rid of those Tesla systems capable of taking and freely using EM energy from the active medium. H. A. Lorentz (with the "t") simply lifted and used what L. V. Lorenz (without the "t") had already done.'

:'For the deliberate "fixing" of the already sharply curtailed Heaviside equations, see H. A. Lorentz, "La Théorie électromagnétique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvants," [The Electromagnetic Theory of Maxwell and its application to moving bodies], Arch. Néerl. Sci., Vol. 25, 1892, p. 363-552. [Also in H. A. Lorentz, Collected Papers, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, vol. 2, pp. 168-238, esp. p. 168.] This is the work that Lorentz cites later (in 1895) for his proof of the symmetrical regauging theorems (the two equations of symmetrical regauging).'

:'This is the "symmetrization" (at the direction of J. P. Morgan) of the Heaviside equations that arbitrarily discarded all remaining asymmetrical Maxwellian systems – thus discarding all systems that receive excess EM energy freely from the "active medium" (active vacuum) and could use this free energy to power loads and themselves. With this "fix", Morgan was assured that Tesla’s discovery of the active medium – and that EM energy could be extracted from it – would never be taught.' (1)

:All the Motors that we have access up to now are symmetrical.

:'Symmetrical Systems are Closed Systems that equals Zero in a "Balanced Equation" of Energy Conservation.'

:'They balance by canceling and constant reverse electromagnetic interactions.(Motors Related)'

:The Main Concept

:'The Symmetry or Asymmetry does not necessarily relate to the Geometrical and Structural Disposition of any given Electromagnetic System Components, but to the way they Interact Internally or Externally with each others. Example: We could have a Three Pole Armature Motor, (very asymmetrical) and two stators, but still falling within the Symmetrical Systems Category.'

:'The Asymmetric Systems are Open Systems, when applying them to Motor Structure Coils configured in a fashion as not to interconnect them as a whole "pack" in a serial or parallel circuit, but disposed Independently Connected by pairs or by Groups of Sequenced Pairs.'

:'Asymmetric Systems expands to all Electric-Electromagnetic Systems that includes Transformers and Capacitors. A typical Asymmetrical transformer is the Tesla Core less Coil, and all derivations from different Inventors through decades, like Don Smith or Tariel Kapanadze models.'

:'The Typical Symmetrical Motors we are familiar with and mostly used up to now in daily applications, is the Lap or Overlapped Winding, it applies to all PM Brushed Motors and also to Universal Motors, the only difference in the last one is that it uses a Stator as a winded coil or Field versus a PM, Permanent Magnet Stator. This type of winding connected in series all coils in the armature, overlapping between coils, it is also known as a "Short Circuit Motor"...'

:'Depending on the design, two or four brushes-stators, the 360 degrees turn will be divided in Two or Four Sections, where sequences of coils change voltage and magnetic polarity as soon as it leaves a section. This cancels all external magnetic resonance or feedback of every coil, electron and flux collision galore generates undesired heat, therefore must of this machines require a fixed fan to the end of shaft. This is the "Symmetrical Obsolete Systems" we use everyday, from an Automobile window, windshield wiper, seats adjustments, Starter, Fan Blowers, etc,etc...all the way to Drills, handheld or AC, hair blowers, Air Conditioning Fans, Vacuum Cleaners, etc,etc...the list is endless.'

:'An exception to the brushed motor ,also Symmetrical, would be the lately used BLDC Motor, (Brush Less Direct Current) which uses a DC Three Phase Square Wave, generated by Three Channels of Heavy Duty MOSFET's, since their windings could be only two types: Star (Y) or Delta. Both connect in series with each others.'

:'However, this type of motors does not have yet the powerful starting torque like a Brushed motor. It could be achieved, but by heavy duty and expensive controlling-management circuitry, and not applicable in limited small space like a brushed motor could be installed. Lately is being used in EV and small Utility Recreational transport vehicles, like Golf Carts, Bikes, Scooters, etc.'

:'It is understood that all AC Motors, by the nature of its type of sine wave that fluctuates between Negative-Positive every 50-60 Hertz/Second plus the type of windings they utilize, will be also included in the Symmetrical Closed Systems.'

:Symmetrical Systems explained by Tom Bearden...

:'"...It is that Lorentz symmetrical regauging of the equations -- and the ubiquitous use of the well-grounded closed current loop circuit containing both the external (transmission) circuit and load, and the basic source of potential (i.e., the generator) in it -- that is the problem. The closed current loop circuit physically enforces Lorentz symmetrical regauging, which in turn guarantees back emf (or mmf) is equal to forward emf in our EM circuits and systems. Hence it forces half of the free regauging energy (from the vacuum) appearing in the external circuit to be used for nothing but destroying the main source of potential (the main source of dipolarizing the circuitry). The other half of the energy is used to power the loads and losses in the external circuit. So less than half is used to power the load, while a full half is used to destroy the source dipolarity. To RESTORE the dipolarity requires that we then input at least as much as was used to destroy it. Hence we are forced always to input and pay more energy to restore the source dipolarity (that actually extracts the energy from the vacuum) than we get out there as power in the load. I.e., we always have COP

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