Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 14, 2016 at 9:15 pm.
Title changed to "Two Particles Universe Theory of Science".
Luxon-like theory consisting of two elementary particles, positive and negative particles, and one electric force in three dimensional volume.
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By Yaniv Stern
First published here May 27, 2010
My name is Yaniv Stern and I got a PhD in biology from the University of Leeds in England. The theory of evolution has reduced all of biological diversity to a single cell. When I broke this cell further down through its constituent molecules and atoms at the sub atomic level I discovered increasing complexity with many elementary particles and forces and this did not make sense to me. I felt that as matter is broken down further and further, fewer elementary particles and forces should exist, the simpler the rules of science should become. So I decided to reconstruct physics. I took basic physical properties of matter, light and gravity and linked them using only two elementary particles, positive and negative particles, and one electric force in three dimensional volume. Outlined is a brief description of my theory, please hold on because I will end by describing an experiment that could distinguish between my theory and traditional physics.
The most fundamental units of matter in the universe are positive and negative particles. I wanted to name these particles and as elementary positive and negative particles were already discovered and named I thought to name an elementary positive particle a "positron" and an elementary negative particle an "electron". So when I use these terms think of charged elementary particles only – NOT in terms of their allocated masses and spins. The universe is asymmetrical with many more positrons than electrons. Positive repulsive forces between positrons push the expansion of the universe and light and heat are made up of electrons. Nuclear matter is made up of protons and neutrons which are themselves made up of positrons and electrons and I will explain in the next two slides and cationic matter is made of interactions between nuclears and electrons. In a neutral universe with equal number of positive and negative particles one would expect neutral atoms to form – but in a positively charged universe with many more positrons than electron there is not sufficient number of electrons to neutralise the positive charge of nuclears so most atoms remain positively charged cations.
Elementary interactions are based on the rules of electricity: similarly charged particles repel each other and oppositely charged particles attract each other (Benjamin Franklin, 1750). Two positrons repel each other, two electrons repel each other, a positron and an electron are attracted to each other and interact to form a neutral particle named "neutrino". A simultaneous interactions between two positrons and one electron form a "proton" and a simultaneous interaction between two electrons and one positron forms an "anti-proton". A proton and an anti-proton interact to form a "neutron". (A neutron could also consist of two positrons and two electrons). These interactions occurred early in the universe when it was small and dense. A proton decays into a positron and a neutrino, an anti-proton decays into an electron and a neutrino, and a neutron decays into a proton an electron and a neutrino.
This image shows the first nuclears of the periodic table. A single proton constitutes hydrogen. A proton and an anti-proton constitute a neutron. A proton plus a neutron form another isotope of hydrogen. This isotope plus another proton could form helium and an additional proton could form lithium. Additional neutrons are also required to stabilise the increasing repulsive forces inside nuclears. These interactions are repeated inside stars to form heavier nuclears.
Charged particles in nuclears move around and change positions (curvy grey arrows). At any point on the surface of nuclears charges rapidly alternate. Electrons are attracted (arrows) to nuclears by more positive charges but repelled (flat headed arrows) by negative charges. Unable to establish permanent contacts electrons form a cloud around nuclears.
Heat consists of negative particles, faster than light electrons, and atomic charge is temperature-dependent. At cold temperature atoms are positively charged and positive charge of atoms decreases at increasing temperature. Matter is made up of positive cationic matter. Positive repulsive forces between nuclears are balanced by contributory electric forces, the negative adhesive charge of electrons and the counteracting positive charge of the environment – the entire universe. In solids nuclears share many electrons and retain fixed positions. When solids are heated and more electrons are introduced cations absorb electrons, share fewer electrons, and are free to move around and melt into liquid. Further heating and negative repulsive forces between electrons push cations apart forcing evaporation.
(a) A positron (+1) at close proximity to an electron (-1) is attracted to the electron more strongly than is repelled by the nuclear. At longer distance the positron is repelled by the overall positive charge of the cation. The cumulative effect of static electrons in a cathode creates an extended negative field. This field weakens at increasing distance and subsequently turns into a positive field. (b) In an electric field between a cathode and an anode a high charge particle (+2) experiences stronger attractive and repulsive forces than a low charge particle (+1) and accelerates faster. (c) An electron in an electric field is deflected more than a proton because some of the force exerted on a nuclear positron is spent on dragging the neutral constituent (positron plus electron) of the proton. (Neutral particles are not deflected in an electric field). Slow electrons deflect more than faster electrons and very fast electrons (light) pass virtually undeflected.
The magnetic force can be explained using electrons, holes and an assumption that charged particles moving in opposite directions interact more strongly than charged particles moving in the same direction. (a) Currents moving in the same direction along conductors and around nuclears in magnets attract because attractive forces between electrons and holes is stronger than repulsive forces between electrons and repulsive forces between holes. (b) Currents moving in opposite directions along conductors and around nuclears in magnets repel because repulsive forces between electrons and repulsive forces between holes are stronger than attractive forces between electrons and holes. (c) Interactions between electrons and holes in a compass and a conductor are strongest and most stable when the compass is aligned perpendicularly to the conductor. Magnetic fields of planets and stars could be generated by internal convection currents and magnetic fields of galaxies by rotation of gas, dust and stars towards the centre of the galaxy. Material from stellar collisions jets out along magnetic field lines.
White light shines through a prism refracts into distinct colors. The theory proposes white light consists of electrons traveling at different speeds. Fast electrons carry more speed and are refracted less than slower electrons when pass from one medium to another. The theory predicts red light consists of electrons traveling faster than blue light electrons.
Light passes through a single slit diffracts in all directions (a). The bright and dark stripes observed in double slit experiments could be explained if light travels in pulses and particles accumulate at points of intersections. (b) Red light consists of longer distance between pulses (wavelength) hence diffracts more than blue light.
Blue light shines on a charged metal ejects faster electrons than red light (a). (b) Blue light consists of slower electrons that exert longer and stronger repulsive forces on electrons in the metal. (c) Red light consists of faster electrons that exert shorter and weaker repulsive forces on electrons in the metal.
Radiation curves are explained with intensity and speed of electrons emitted from stars. The intensity of electrons depends on the temperature and size of a star. A hot and large star emits more intense radiation than a cool and small star. The speed of electrons depends on the positive charge of a star because electrons lose speed as they escape the pull of the star. A hot and small low charge star emits faster redder spectrum than a cold and large high charge star.
As in traditional theory an observer facing an approaching object experiences shorter distance between pulses (higher frequency) than an observer facing a receding object.
Polarisation of light requires an asymmetry and could be explained with discs, say, fast electrons flatten into discs. An electron with a vertical plane could pass through a polarising material with a vertical alignment but an electron with a horizontal plane collides with the material. Polarization of radio waves could be a different phenomenon such as alternating electric and magnetic fields.
The positive charge of earth creates a positive field. A cation (or a nuclear) located at close proximity to earth experiences this field. The field pulls on electrons and pushes on positrons forming a dipole with a weak positive pole facing the earth and a strong positive pole facing away from the earth. The weak positive pole of the cation decreases the force from the direction of earth and the strong positive pole of the cation increases the repulsive cosmological force from above pushing the cation down.
The positive charge of the sun creates a positive field. Charged particles in a planet respond to this field, forming a weak positive hemisphere facing the sun and a strong positive hemisphere facing away from the sun. The weak positive hemisphere decreases the repulsive force from the direction of the sun and the strong positive hemisphere increases the cosmological repulsive force from the opposite direction to the sun pushing the planet towards the sun into orbit.
Stars have a measured angular separation. When the sun is located between the stars they appear to be further apart with increased angular separation. The theory proposes negative light particles are bent inwards by the positive field of the sun.
(a) The universe began as a primordial sphere made up of positive and negative particles. This primordial sphere had two important properties one it was asymmetrical with many more positive than negative particles. Positive repulsive forces inside this sphere triggered its expansion (the big bang) and push the universe apart to this day and forever. The second property of this primordial sphere was that density of particles was not homogenous, but patchy, with higher density regions and lower density regions. Higher density regions developed into stars, galaxies and the large scale filamentous structure of the universe and low density regions developed into inter galactic voids.
(b)Stages early in the evolution of the universe. At first elementary particles interacted to form protons and antiprotons. More positrons implies that more protons were synthesized than antiprotons. Protons and antiprotons interacted to form neutrons, and neutrons interacted with protons to form heavier nuclears. Next, nuclears interacted with electrons to form cations and cations interact together to form molecules. Unbound antiprotons and neutrons from the nuclear stage decayed radiating light observed as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). The theory predicts CMBR consists of low intensity, long wavelength, very fast electrons.
A luminosity and colour graph (HR diagram) showing small low charge red stars and large high charge blue stars. Blue stars are larger, denser, hotter, more luminous and have shorter lives than red stars. At high pressure and density inside a star electrons interact with protons to form neutrons and neutrons interact with protons to form unstable radioactive isotopes which decay and emit light and transformed into more stable heavier nuclears.
Young galaxies appear bluer than older galaxies because young galaxies have higher rates of star formation. Distant galaxies recede faster than closer galaxies hence have red-shifted emission/absorption lines. The most distant objects observed in deep field infrared images could be heat signatures of collapsing galactic nebulas.
Time is a measure of change and change is driven by the positive charge of the universe. The positive charge of the universe pushes its expansion – changes in distances, and pushes the formation of stars and galaxies - changes in shapes and colours. Change/time is one directional – future.
So I came up with a theory that reduces the four fundamental forces of nature to one, elementary particles to two, dimensions to three, and provides many other connections, as well as links the physical, chemical and biological sciences. But is it right? Well, a scientific theory has to be tested by experiments and my theory certainly provides many experimentally testable predictions. But I looked for a simple and fundamental experiment to test a prediction of my theory against a prediction of traditional physics. And I found one.
The theory predicts weight should decrease at increasing temperature. (a) In a positive universe positive matter experiences positive repulsive forces from all directions. When forces from opposite directions balance an object remains suspended in space and weightless. (b) When forces from opposite directions are unequal, an object is pushed by the stronger force towards the weaker force. A free object moves towards the weaker force while a stationary object gains weight (W). (c ) The difference between opposite forces determines weight, large difference is heavier and small difference is lighter. So if you heat up matter, introduce negative heat particles, lower the positive charge of an object, you lower the difference between forces and its weight.
(Rate of fall (g) is determined by the ratio between forces).
In traditional physics w=mg. Since mass is conserved and gravity is a constant, weight should not change at increasing temperature.
Electric forces account for gravity and expansion of the universe. An object (+1) at close proximity to a celestial body (+2) forms a strong dipole and experiences a stronger push towards the celestial body than away from the celestial body. At longer distance from the celestial body the object has a weaker dipole and is repelled by the celestial body plus the cosmological charge (+10) more strongly than by the cosmological charge alone.
So I searched the literature and found several papers showing weight of heated metals indeed decreases at increasing temperature.
This graph shows weight changes of 20 grams metal rod and tube. The metals were cooled by 5.4 degC, placed on the balance, and allowed to warm back up to room temperature. The rod lost 100 micrograms and the tube lost 200 micrograms. The author proposes ‘’heat convection’’ is responsible for weight reduction. At thermal disequilibrium between air and metals heat flow creates air currents which are responsible for weight reduction. The observation that the tube and the rod with different surface area to volume ratios changed weight by different amounts support a role for ‘’heat convection’’ in weight reduction. But from this experiment you can NOT tell if a fixed amount, say 50 micrograms, is not due to intrinsic temperature of metals.
This graph is from another paper showing weight of a heated thermal insulator, a dewar vessel, also decreases at incresing temperature. In this experiment ‘’heat convection’’ was significantly reduced and weight reduction was recorded. This result suggests intrinsic temperature of metals may also have an effect on weight.
The authors of this paper propose temperature decreases the force of gravity. If so, hot objects should fall slower than cold objects and this has to be incorporated into the curvature of space-time and the hot big bang model with explosive consequences. In the theory rate of fall is determined by the ratio between opposite forces so hot and cold objects should fall at the same rate.
I am looking for scientists to weigh a heated metal in vacuum and find the missing weight predicted by my theory. I am looking for scientists to test the most basic of scientific laws – Conservation of Mass.
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