PesWiki.com

Menu

PowerPedia:Waste to Energy

Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 14, 2016 at 8:55 pm.

  • 93 errors has been found on this page. Administrator will correct this soon.
  • This page has been imported from the old peswiki website. This message will be removed once updated.

: ''For a directory of sites, see Directory:Waste to Energy

Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) in its strictest sense refers to any There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1] that creates energy in the form of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2] that would have been disposed of in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16], also called energy recovery.

Waste-to-energy and incineration

Waste-to-energy has become synonymous with modern There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3] practices in the field of waste management. New incinerators are often termed waste-to-energy plants as it is deemed to be a more publicly acceptable title than "incineration". This term is often associated with antequated systems that produced high levels of emmissions and polluted the air of the surrounding There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17].

Incinerators and WtE plants are generally considered not to produce renewable energy as a large fraction of the power which is generated comes from plastics (derived from fossil fuels) and other non-renewable sources. It could be debated that the energy generated from the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] fraction is renewable however many countries do not credit this.

Incineration is a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] involving Combustion of waste at high temperatures. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19]". In effect, incineration of waste materials converts the waste into Heat (that can be used to generate Electricity), gaseous emissions to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20] and residual There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21].

A waste-to-energy plant (WtE) is a modern term for an incinerator that combusts wastes to produce electricity, deemed to be more publicly acceptable than incinerator. This type of incineration is sometimes called an energy-from-waste (EfW).

Incineration functions as an alternative to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22]ing and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23] treatment methods such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24] and Anaerobic digestion.

Incineration has particularly strong benefits the treatment of certain There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] in niche areas especially for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26]s and certain There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27]s where pathogens and toxins must be destroyed by high temperatures.

Modern waste-to-energy incinerators are very different from the incinerators that were commonly used until a few decades ago. Unlike modern ones, those plants usually did not include There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] to remove There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7] materials before burning. These incinerators endangered the health of the plant workers and the nearby residents, and most of them did not generate electricity.

The potential of electricity generation using incineration and other non-There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] methods of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] such as Anaerobic digestion are being increasingly looked at as a potential energy diversification strategy.

Incineration is particularly popular in countries such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] where land is a scarce resource. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] has been a leader in using the energy generated from incineration over the past 20 years and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32] also extensively uses incineration in localised There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] facilities supporting There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34] schemes.

How incinerators work

An incinerator is a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35] for burning refuse. There are various types:-

Simple incinerators

The older and simpler kind of incinerator was a brick-lined cell with a metal There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36] over a lower ash pit, with one opening in the top or side for loading and another opening in the side for removing incombustible solids called There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37]s. Many small incinerators formerly found in apartment houses have now been replaced by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38]s.

Rotary-kiln incinerators

The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] incinerator used by municipalities and by large industrial plants has a long, slightly inclined cylindrical tube through which refuse is moved continuously. In the first section, the refuse is dried. In the second section, the dried refuse is moved onto a rocking grate where it is ignited and partially burned. The third and last section is a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9]. Ash drops through the grate, but many particles are carried along with the hot gases. The particles and any combustible gases may be combusted in an "afterburner". To control There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39], the combustion product gases are further treated with acid gas There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40]s to remove There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42] emissions, and then routed through bag houses to remove There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43] before the gases are released into the atmosphere.

Uses for heat produced by the incinerator

The heat produced by the rotary-kiln incinerator can be used to generate steam which may then be used to drive an Electrical generator. The typical range of net electrical energy that can be produced is about 500 to 600 kWh of per ton of waste incinerated. Thus, incinerating about 2,200 tons per day of waste will produce about 50 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44] of electrical power.

Pollution

Incineration has a number of outputs such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45] and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] to the atmosphere of combustion product gases and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47]. Waste-to-energy plants emit less There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48] than There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49] plants, but more than Natural gas plants.

Gaseous emissions

The Combustion product gases exhausted to the atmosphere by incineration are a source of concern. The main There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50] in the exhaust gases include acid gases such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53] (referred to as NOx), and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54]. The most serious environmental concerns about the incineration of municipal solid wastes (MSW)is that it produces significant amounts of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56] emissions to the atmosphere. Dioxins and furans are considered by many to be serious health hazards. However, advances in emission control designs and very stringent new governmental regulations have caused large reductions in the amount of dioxins and furans produced by incinerating municipal solid wastes.

The quantity of pollutants in the emissions from large-scale incinerators is reduced by a process known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] as well as other processes.

Solid outputs

Incineration produces There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58] just as is the case when coal is combusted. The total amount of ash produced by municipal solid waste incineration ranges from 15% to 25% by weight of the original quantity of waste, and the fly ash amounts to about 10% to 20% of the total ash. The fly ash, by far, constitutes more of a potential health hazard than does the bottom ash because the fly ash contains toxic metals such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62] as well as small amounts of dioxins and furans. The bottom ash may or may not contain significant levels of health hazardous materials. In the United States, and perhaps in other countries as well, the law requires that the ash be tested for toxicity before disposal in landfills. If the ash is found to be hazardous, it can only be disposed of in landfills which are carefully designed to prevent pollutants in the ash from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63] into underground There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64]. In the UK, all incinerator ash is classed as hazardous and must be disposed of in a hazardous waste designated landfill.

Other pollution issues

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65] pollution can be a problem when the plant is not located in an isolated area. Some plants store the waste in an enclosed area with a negative pressure with the airflow being routed through a boiler or filter which prevents unpleasant odours from escaping into the atmostphere. However, not all plants are implemented this way, resulting in complaints.

An issue that affects community relationships is the increased road traffic of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66]s to transport municipal waste to the incinerator. Due to this reason, most incinerators are located in industrial areas.

The debate over incineration

Use of incinerators for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67] is controversial. The debate over incinerators typically involves business interests (representing both waste generators and incinerator firms), government regulators, and local citizens who must weigh the economic appeal of local industrial activity with their concerns over health and environmental risk.

People and organizations professionally involved in this issue include the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68] (U.S. EPA) and a great many local and national air quality regulatory agencies worldwide.

The argument for incineration

The concerns over the health effects of dioxin and furan emissions have been significantly lessened by advances in emission control designs and very stringent new governmental regulations that have resulted in large reductions in the amount of dioxins and furans emissions.

Incinerators can be used for generating There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11]. Such a use is known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69] or energy recovery.

In densely populated areas, finding space for additional landfills is becoming very difficult.

Incineration of medical waste produces an end product ash that is sterile and non-hazardous.

The argument against incineration

There are still concerns by many about the health effects of dioxin and furan emissions into the atmosphere.

The expense of building and operating an incinerator.

Although waste incineration can be used to generate energy, a significant amount of that energy is consumed by the use of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70]s and other methods to clean up the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71]es.

With increased recycling of waste, the fuel quality of the municipal waste is decreased because there is less paper and other combustibles in the waste. In fact, additional fuel (i.e., natural gas) may be needed to burn the waste.

The safe disposal of the end product ash must still be dealt with.

SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) countries agree that incineration as well as unproven technologies such as Plasma, should not be considered as an option for the treatment of their municipal solid wastes for low calorific value and environmental pollution potential.

Trends in incinerator use

The history of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12]. The merits of incineration are inevitably judged in relation to the alternatives available. Since the 1970s, recycling and other prevention measures have changed the context for such judgements. Since the 1990s alternative There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] have been maturing and becoming viable.

Incineration is a key process in the treatment of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73]s. It is often imperative that medical waste be subjected to the high temperatures of incineration to destroy There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75] contamination it contains.

Incineration decline in the United States

The use of incinerators has been on the decline in the United States. Of the 186 MSW incinerators in 1990, only 112 remained by 2003, and of the 6200 medical waste incinerators in 1988, only 115 remained in 2003. The primary reasons for the decline are most probably the public's opposition to such plants and the newer, stricter governmental emission regulations. Other reasons might be: that it is quite expensive to safely dispose of the residual ash that it is sometimes less expensive to dispose of municipal wastes in landfills and that it is politically difficult to replace aging plants.

Incineration in the United Kingdom

The technology employed in the UK waste management industry has greatly lagged behind that of Europe due to the wide availablility of landfills. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14] of waste treatment. It is the UK Governments position that incineration will play an increasingly large role in the treatment of municipal waste and supply of energy in the UK.

Energy from waste in other technologies

There are a number of other new and emerging technologies that are able to produce energy from waste without burning the waste directly. These technologies are considered to generate renewable energy and are widely perceived to be more publicly acceptable.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15]:

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76] (partly renewable)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77] (partly renewable)

Non-thermal technologies:

Anaerobic digestion

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78]

MBT-Anaerobic digestion (renewable energy)

MBT-There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79] (partly renewable)

Related pages

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82]

Anaerobic digestion

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93]

External articles and referecnes

General

Waste-to-energy plant in Onondaga County, New York processes 990 tons/day of waste

Waste-to-energy plants

European Union Directive on waste incineration

ISWA Working Group on thermal treatment of solid waste

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

Overview of incineration Knox, Andrew, An Overview of Incineration and EFW Technology as Applied to the Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), University of Western Ontario, Canada, February 2005

Rotary-kiln incinerators An excellent detailed description of rotary-kiln incinerators

Photos of rotary-kiln incinerators with afterburners.

The ABC of Integrated Waste Management

Waste-to-Energy Compared to Fossil Fuels for Equal Amounts of Energy (Delaware Solid Waste Authority)

Beychok, M.R., A data base of dioxin and furan emissions from municipal refuse incinerators, Atmospheric Environment, Elsevier B.V., January 1987

University of Toronto, PhD Thesis Chan, C.C., Behaviour of metals in MSW fly ash during roasting with chlorinating agents, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 1997.

Dhaka Declaration (2004)

Waste Incineration: A Dying Technology

Burn Barrels

: Burn Barrel Organisation

: EPA Fact Sheet

: EPA Report

: Emissions Information

EU Information

: EU Directive on waste incineration

: BREF Drafts & Papers

Tutorial

: Incineration Tutorial from Rensaleer Polytechnic Institute

ISWA International

: ISWA Working Group on thermal treatment of solid waste

Overviews

: Incineration article

Incinerator Manufacturers

: Inciner8 International

: 3Ts International

Directories

Waste Energy - A visual directory of waste to energy websites. (EnergyPlanet.info)

See also

Waste-to-EnergyIndex of organizations and processes that use sewage, garbage, and other waste products to generate energy efficiently and cleanly.

- PowerPedia

- Main Page

Comments