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Perpetual motion refers to a condition in which a mechanism provides usable There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6]). Perpetual motion machines (the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7]. It is generally accepted that perpetual motion machines cannot work. Specifically, perpetual motion machines would violate either the first or second There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96].

If a working machine is called a perpetual motion machine, what is more likely is that the unseen input energy source is not recognized or understood -- not that the device is actually a perpetual motion machine.

Perpetual motion machines are a class of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] sources that render them useless in practice others remain untested.

Basic principles

Perpetual motion machines violate one or both of the following two laws of physics: the First law of thermodynamics and the Second law of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics is essentially a statement of conservation of energy. The second law has several statements, the most intuitive of which is that Heat flows spontaneously from hotter to colder places the most well known is that Entropy always increases, or at the least stays the same another statement is that no heat engine (an engine which produces work while moving heat between two places) can be more efficient than a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97]. As a special case of this, any machine operating in a closed cycle cannot only transform thermal energy to work in a region of constant temperature. See the respective articles, and Thermodynamics, for more information.

Machines which claim not to violate either of the two laws of thermodynamics but rather claim to generate energy from unconventional sources are sometimes referred to as perpetual motion machines, although they do not meet the standard criteria for the name. By way of example, it is quite possible to design a clock or other low-power machine to run on the differences in barometric pressure or temperature between night and day. Such a machine has a source of energy, albeit one from which it is quite impractical to produce power in quantity.

There are two types of perpetuum mobile:

A perpetual motion machine of the first kind produces strictly more Energy than it uses, thus violating the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98]. Perpetuum mobile of the first kind are those devices that violate the First law of thermodynamics, the principle of conservation of energy, creating energy out of nothing. Most attempts fall into this category.

Perpetuum mobile of the second kind are devices that violate the Second law of thermodynamics. Even though they obey the principle of conservation of energy, they attempt extraction of work from a single heat reservoir, violating the principle of no Entropy decrease in an isolated macroscopic thermodynamic system. Basically the device would harvest the Kinetic energy and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99] of molecules in a heat reservoir, thereby cooling the reservoir, all the way to possibly absolute zero. Such an attempt of entropy decreasing is the theoretical There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100] thought experiment that attacks the macroscopic system at the microscopic level, which is not yet technologically feasible, and its theoretical possibility is still undecided. Such devices would also surpass the theoretical efficiency limits of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101]. A machine that produces (in still-usable form) exactly as much energy as it uses is a perpetual motion machine of the second kind, which continues running forever (not necessarily doing any usable work) by converting its waste heat back into mechanical work. This need not violate the law of conservation of energy, but does violate the less fundamental Second law of thermodynamics (see also Entropy). More generally, any device that converts heat into work without loss can be considered a perpetual motion of the second kind, since it could be used to make something that moves perpetually.

By minimizing friction and other causes of dissipation, it is possible to produce a good approximation to a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. Planetary systems (such as the earth and moon) could be considered an example. Planets, moons, and stars spin without any fuel, batteries, muscle, cost, or other limited power. Planets don't rotate forever however energy in such system is dissipated via There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102], by friction with the dust and gas in space, and presumably also very slowly via There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103]. In an otherwise completely empty Newtonian universe, a single particle could travel forever at constant velocity with no violation of the laws of physics&mdashthough of course no energy could be extracted from it without slowing it down. For example, an electron can spin around a nucleus in an atom of matter indefinitely unless it or the atom is disrupted in some way.

Just how impossible is impossible?

Scientists and engineers accept the possibility that the current understanding of the laws of physics may be incomplete or incorrect a perpetual motion device may not be impossible, but overwhelming There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104] would be required to justify rewriting the laws of physics. Any proposed perpetual motion design offers a potentially instructive challenge to physicists: we know it can't work (because of the laws of thermodynamics), so explain how it fails to work. The difficulty (and the value) of such an exercise depends on the subtlety of the proposal the best ones tend to arise from physicists' own There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105]s. Because the principles of thermodynamics are so well established, serious proposals for perpetual motion machines are met with disbelief on the part of physicists, which makes a discussion of the merits (if any) of the proposal difficult if not impossible.

Though perpetual motion may be impossible, near-perpetual motion&mdashmotion lasting thousands to billions of years&mdashmay be possible in a machine. Near-perpetual motion is a reality in nature: in the rotation of planets, stars, and electrons, for example. If such a thing could be duplicated in a lab, man-made near-perpetual motion could become a reality. Planets and electrons have no significant drag/friction because the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[106] of the object is thousands of times stronger than the slowing effect caused by the friction in the system.

Thought experiments

Serious work in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[107] often involves thought experiments that test the boundaries of understanding of physical laws. Some such thought experiments involve apparent perpetual motion machines, and insight may be had from understanding why they either don't work or don't violate the laws of physics. For example:

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[108]: a thought experiment which led to physicists considering the interaction between entropy and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[109]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[110]'s "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[111]": a "perpetual motion" machine which extracts work from thermal fluctuations and appears to run forever but only runs as long as the environment is warmer than the ratchet

"Cosmic background space drive": where redshift/blueshift of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[112] is used to drive a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[113]'s engine

Techniques

Some ideas recur repeatedly in perpetual motion machine designs, such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9]s of "space-time", and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[114]. In the real world, friction is always larger than zero, so an object in perpetual motion implies work being continuously done to overcome this natural retarding process. Furthermore, the always present element of friction wears and degrades a device's moving components (shortening it's lifespan). Several designs have attempted to minimize such a factor, with varying levels of success.

The seemingly mysterious ability of magnets to influence motion at a distance without any apparent energy source has long appealed to inventors and been incorporated into thier devices. Unfortunately, a constant magnetic field does no There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] because the force it exerts on any particle is always at right angles to its motion a changing field can do work, but requires energy to sustain. A "fixed" magnet can do work, but energy is dissipated in the process, typically weakening the magnet's strength over time. Thus, when a magnet does work by lifting an iron weight, some of the work that was put into magnetizing the magnet is being used to lift the weight, and the strength of the magnet is reduced correspondingly. When the weight is removed from the magnet, the work required to do this restores the strength of the magnet, minus losses due to friction.

Gravity also acts at a distance, without an apparent energy source. But to get energy out of a gravitational field (for instance, by dropping a heavy object, producing kinetic energy as it falls) you have to put energy in (for instance, by lifting the object up), and some energy is always dissipated in the process. A typical application of gravity in a perpetual motion machine is There was an error working with the wiki: Code[115], whose key idea is itself a recurring theme, often called the overbalanced wheel: Moving weights are attached to a wheel in such a way that they fall to a position further from the wheel's center for one half of the wheel's rotation, and closer to the center for the other half. Since weights further from the center apply a greater Torque, the result is (or would be, if such a device worked) that the wheel rotates forever. The moving weights may be hammers on pivoted arms, or rolling balls, or mercury in tubes the principle is the same.

Gravity and magnetism are an attractive combination indeed, and a frequently rediscovered design has a ball pulled up by a magnetic field and then rolling down under the influence of gravity, in a cycle. (At the highest point, the ball is supposed to have acquired enough speed to escape the magnet's influence.)

To extract work from heat, thus producing a perpetual motion machine of the second kind, the most common approach (dating back at least to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[116]) is unidirectionality. Only molecules moving fast enough and in the right direction are allowed through the demon's trap door. In a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[117], forces tending to turn the ratchet one way are able to do so while forces in the other direction aren't. A diode in a heat bath allows through currents in one direction and not the other. These schemes typically fail in two ways: either maintaining the unidirectionality costs energy (Maxwell's demon needs light to look at all those particles and see what they're doing), or the unidirectionality is an illusion and occasional big violations make up for the frequent small non-violations (the Brownian ratchet will be subject to internal Brownian forces and therefore will sometimes turn the wrong way).

Atmospheric pressure varies widely on the Earth and shows a diurnal (daily) rhythm. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11]s. These would not be a source of true perpetual motion, since they rely on an external and "limited" (though long-lived and vast) energy source. These would be more near-perpetual motion machines, theoretically possessing a very long lifespan. In addition, proposed devices that would utilize zero-point energy, vacuum energy, or the quantum fluxuation of "space-time" to run could not be true perpetual motion, since they rely on an external energy source.

History

The history of perpetual motion machines (also known as the history of free energy and history of over unity machines) dates as far back as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[118], and probably further. For millennia it was not clear whether such devices were possible, but the development of modern Thermodynamics has led virtually all engineers and scientists to agree that they are impossible. Many have attempted to construct the holy grail of energy production in spite of this. Proponents of perpetual motion machines often use other terms to describe their inventions including Free energy devices, mechanisms, or formulas and over unity machines.

The recorded history of perpetual motion machines dates at least as far back as the 8th century. An early description of a perpetual motion machine was by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[119] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[120]. He described a wheel that he claimed would run forever. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[121] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[122] described, in a thirty-three page manuscript, a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[123], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[124] (with the help of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[125]) developed a working perpetual motion machine of sorts: a clock (known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[126]) powered by changes in atmospheric pressure. Cox was quite open about the workings of his machine, unlike many perpetual motion inventors. The clock still exists today (but was deactivated by the clock's relocation). There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1] Johann Bessler (also known as Orffyreus) created a series of claimed perpetual motion machines in the 18th Century.

In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[127], the invention of perpetual motion machines became an obsession for many scientists. Many machines were designed based on electricity, but none of them lived up to their promises. Other early prospectors in this field included There was an error working with the wiki: Code[128] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[129].

Gamgee developed the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[130], a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. Varley, though, did discover in 1867 that an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[131] did not need to be started with a conventional prime mover. He used the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[132] to induce enough field strength in the stator windings to get a generator running. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2]

Other 19th century inventors such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12]. The energy would be derived from the "running river" of the aether. Several demonstrations by Moray were done where 50 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] of power were generated for several days from an antenna connected to a series of transformers, capacitors, and other components. However, all plans and knowledge were kept secret by Moray, demonstration was not verified, and patents were never granted.

Devising these machines is a favourite pastime of many There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14]s, who often come up with elaborate machines in the style of Rube Goldberg or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[133]. These designs may appear to work on paper at first glance, but have various flaws or obfuscated external power sources that render them useless in practice. This sort of "invention" has become common enough that the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[134] (USPTO) has made an official policy of refusing to grant Patents for perpetual motion machines without a working model. One reason for this concern is that a few "inventors" have used official patents to convince gullible potential investors that their machine is "approved" by the Patent Office. The USPTO has granted a few patents for motors that are claimed to run without net energy input. These patents were issued because it was not obvious from the patent that a perpetual motion machine was being claimed. Some of these are:

Johnson, Howard R., US4151431 "Permanent Magnet Motor", There was an error working with the wiki: Code[135], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[136]

Baker, Daniel, US4074153 "Magnetic propulsion device", There was an error working with the wiki: Code[137], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[138]

Hartman Emil T., US4215330 "Permanent magnet propulsion system", There was an error working with the wiki: Code[139], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[140] (this device is related to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[141] (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[142])),

Flynn Charles J., US6246561 "''Methods for controlling the path of magnetic flux from a permanent magnet and devices incorporating the same", There was an error working with the wiki: Code[143], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[144]

Patrick, et al., US6362718 "Motionless electromagnetic generator" , March 26, 2002

Proponents of perpetual motion machines use a number of other terms to describe their inventions, including "Free energy" and "over unity" machines.

Timeline of

Below is a comprehensive listing ot "free energy" devices and attempts to develop such devices. An impressive devices was developed in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[145], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[146] (with the help of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[147]) developed a working perpetual motion machine of sorts: a clock (known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[148]) powered by changes in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[149]. Cox was quite open about the workings of his machine, unlike many perpetual motion inventors. The clock still exists today (but was deactivated by the clock's relocation). There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3] Another early prospector in this field included There was an error working with the wiki: Code[150]. Varley did discover in 1867 that an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[151] did not need to be started with a conventional prime mover. He used the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[152] to induce enough field strength in the stator windings to get a generator running. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4]

Some 19th century inventors, such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15]. The energy would be derived from the "running river" of the aether. Several demonstrations by Moray were done where 50 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] of power were generated for several days from an antenna connected to a series of transformers, capacitors, and other components. However, all plans and knowledge were kept secret by Moray, demonstration was not verified, and patents were never granted. Hermann Plauson, an Estonian engineer and inventor, also investigated the production of energy and power via There was an error working with the wiki: Code[153].

Some free energy devices are devices that absorb ambient electromagnetic fields (known as Radiant energy) and converts the incoming energy into a useful form of power or function. Here the term is categorised more as Renewable energy. Other "free energy devices" are Solar cells and Thermocouples which do the same for light and heat. Of course "free energy" here is something of a misnomer, it is simply that the energy used is generated elsewhere. These devices are not perpetual motion machines in the strict sense of breaking thermodynamic laws and being unworkable.

An early "free energy" device that was widely used was the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[154], which consisted of a coil made of insulated wire and a galena crystal. It used no batteries. Over the course of history, powerful versions of these "wireless" machines were built by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[155], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[156] and Nikola Tesla. Lastly, the Testatika is an electromagnetic generator based on the 1898 Pidgeon electrostatic machine which includes an inductance circuit, a capacitance circuit, and a thermionic rectification valve. Allegedly a perpetual motion machine, the Testatika resembles in some respects a Wimshurst machine. It was built by Swiss engineer Paul Baumann, and promoted by a Swiss community, the Methernithans.

Pre-1800s

About the 700s There was an error working with the wiki: Code[157], the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[158] or magnet wheel, was basically a wagon wheel that spun by itself. Magnets with lead plates on their backs were affixed to the wheel, like the seats on a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[159]. Each magnet was attracted to a magnet affixed to the base on the ground. The lead allegedly blocked attraction as each magnet passes by it, so the wheel would keep moving for a time before friction stopped it.

In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17] master There was an error working with the wiki: Code[160] and architect. The sketchbook is made up of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[161] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[162]. http://www.newcastle.edu.au/discipline/fine-art/pubs/villard/album-1.htm

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[163] made a number of drawings of things he hoped would make Energy for free. He designed a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[164] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[165] and the "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[166]". The chimney jack was used to turn a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[167] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[168] (a reaction-type Turbine).http://www.tpub.com/fireman/44.htm

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] and an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[169] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[170]. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[171] had earlier noted such a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[172] which made use of the strength of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[173] stone. This runs into trouble because the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[174] of force on a closed loop in a magnetic field is zero. Taisnerius passed Maricourt's work off as his own, which explains the similarity.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[175], Mark Anthony Zimara designed a "self-blowing Windmill". Zimara designed a self-blowing windmill that generated power from a set of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[176]. The bellows blow the windmill There was an error working with the wiki: Code[177]s round.

In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20]), but wasn't allowed a closer look.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[178], designed a slow perpetual motion machine that told the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[179], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[180], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[181]. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[182] machine was mounted in a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[183] on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[184]s and was powered by changes in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[185] (a sealed glass tub with liquid varied in volume through atmospheric pressure changes, rewinding constantly).

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23], proposed many machines. People were trying to patent variations of Fludd's machine in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[186]. Fludd's machine worked by recirculation by means of a Water wheel and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[187]. The device pumps the water back into its own supply tank. [http://www.windmillworld.com/mills/images/fludd1618.gif

After There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24] perpetual motion machine There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] 80 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[188]s). By [[1903], 600 such patents had been granted.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[189], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[190] developed a perpetual motion machine. He gained a royal appointment as an Inventor and builder. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[191] on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[192], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[193], gave a 99-year patent for his "Watercommanding Engine" (a Steam engine). Somerset demonstrated many water wheels to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[194], that had something to do with perpetual motion. http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/dircks/HIS111chap2.html#551

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[195], Ulrich von Cranach, a war engineer, of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[196] designed a perpetual There was an error working with the wiki: Code[197] moving machine that did not work in practice. The ball machine had a rotary cannon ball which descended by an Archimedean screw along the periphery of a wheel (like a water wheel), rolled through a track, and then were carried back to the top using an archimedean screw (powered by the ball-wheel). Arthur Ord-Hume illustrated this machine.[http://www.database.com/~lemur/rb-perpetual.html#von-cranach

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27].

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[198], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[199], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[200], designed 'self operating' self-powered There was an error working with the wiki: Code[201]s and several perpetual motion machines using balls using variants of Archimdes screws. One of Böckler's machine used an overThere was an error working with the wiki: Code[202]d There was an error working with the wiki: Code[203] and archimedean screw.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[204], Johann Bessler, a.k.a. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[205], investigated 300 different perpetual motion models and claimed he had the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[206] of perpetual motion. Though allegation of fraud surfaced later (from a maid in his employment), investigators at the time, such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[207] Willem Jacob 'sGravesande, reported no such fraud.

In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[208], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[209] (with the help of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[210]) develops a working perpetual motion machine (known as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[211]). The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[212] device is powered from changes in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[213] via a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[214]. The clock still exists today [but was deactivated due to the clock's relocation].

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29], made the statement that the Academy "will no longer accept or deal with proposals concerning perpetual motion". The reasoning was, that perpetual motion is impossible to achieve and that the search for it is time consuming and very expensive. According to the members of the academy, those bright minds dedicating their time and resources to this search, could be utilized much better in other, more reasonable endeavors. Nevertheless, many individuals continued to propose and build various "perpetual" machines in a quest of attaining thier end goal of free energy.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] driven There was an error working with the wiki: Code[215]. He also offered a machine in which several balls powered a water wheel and a bucket-chain (again raising the balls). http://www.database.com/~lemur/rb-perpetual.html#schiviers Others tried to adapt his designs unsuccessful a century later.

1800s

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[216], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[217], in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[218], claimed to have developed a "generator" that could power other machines. Upon investigation, it was deduced that the power was being routed from the other connected machine. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[219] exposed Redheffer's schemes during an exposition of the device in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[220] (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[221]). Removing some concealing wooden strips, Fulton found a cat-gut belt drive went through a wall to an attic. In the attic, a man was turning a crank to power the device.<pesn type= [http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi438.htm"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32], an English Inventor and rocket pioneer, tried a machine running on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[222] that would disobey the law of never rising above their own level, so to produce a continual ascent and overflow. The device had an inclined plane over pulleys. At the top and bottom, there travels an endless band of sponge, a bed and, over this, again an endless band of heavy weights jointed together. The whole stands over the surface of still water. Congreve believed his system would go on continually. <pesn type= [http://67.1911encyclopedia.org/P/PE/PERPETUAL_MOTION_OR_PERPETUUM_MOBILE.htm"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33]d There was an error working with the wiki: Code[223].

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[224], an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[225]n, Alois Drasch, received a US patent for a machine that possessed a "thrust key-type There was an error working with the wiki: Code[226]ing" of a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[227]. The vehicle driver could tilt a trough depending upon need. A heavy ball rolled in a cylindrical trough downward, and, with continuous adjustment of the device's levers and power output, Drasch believed that it would be possible to power a vehicle. http://www.hp-gramatke.de/pmm_physics/german/page0300.htm

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[228], E. P. Willis of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[229] made money off a "proprietary" perpetual motion machine. A story of the overly complicated device with a hidden source of energy appears in Scientific America article "The Greatest Discovery Ever Yet Made". Investigation into the device eventually found a source of power that drove it. http://www.genealogyimagesofhistory.com/images/amotion.JPG

John Ernst Worrell Keely invented, reportedly, an induction resonance motion motor. He is supposedly to have used etheric 'technology'. In 1872, Keely announced that he discovered a principle for power production based on the vibrations of tuning forks. Scientists investigated his machine which appeared to run on water, though Keely endeavored to avoid this. Shortly after 1872, venture capitalists accused Keely of fraud (they lost nearly five million dollars). Keely's machine, it was discovered after his death, was based on hidden air pressure tubes.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[230], John Gamgee developed a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[231] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[232] machine which could operate at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[233] from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[234]ation by radiant Heat. The resultant expansion would drive a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[235]. The vapor does not condense to liquid to start the cycle over again, however, thus making the system inoperable. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[236] approved of the device and showed it to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[237] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[238].

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34].

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35] of Italy had a huge air-powered machine (basically another attempt at a self blowing windmill). http://www.chem.unsw.edu.au/staff/hibbert/perpetual/1stviol.htm His device is described in Tallmadge G. Kasten's "The Perpetual Motion Machine of Mark Antony Zimara".

The United States, Horace Wickmam, received a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36] balls.

A There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38]ic based machine which later was discredited.

1900 to 1950

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40] was rummaged through and disheveled upon a return visit by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41]. http://www.handpen.com/meg/free.htm

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[239] signed a resolution offering him protection. The device was a giant Flywheel that was charged up with energy slowly and put out a lot of energy for just a second. [http://www.heraldmag.org/archives/1926_8.htm

In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43], a graduate of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44]" or from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[240], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[241]. Perrigo had a pending application (filed There was an error working with the wiki: Code[242], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[243] Serial Number 78,719) for the "Improvement in Method and Apparatus for Accumulating and Transforming Ether Electric Energy". Investigators report that his device contained a hidden motor. <pesn type= http://www.twelvestar.com/Earthlight/issue03/Matter%20and%20Energy%203.html" str="[http://www.nuenergy.org/pdf/perrigo.pdf"></pesn>

In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[244], Thomas Henry Moray demonstrated a "Radiant energy device" to many people who were unable to find a hidden power source. Somehow, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[245] has been forgotten.

On There was an error working with the wiki: Code[246], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[247], Hermann Plauson receives Patent US1540998 which ultilizes There was an error working with the wiki: Code[248]s to convert There was an error working with the wiki: Code[249]. http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/netahtml/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=1540998.WKU.&OS=PN/1540998&RS=PN/1540998

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[250], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[251] got an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[252] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[253] to endorse his free energy machine. This motor device is said to have had a concealed power source. According to his sons, Lester's notes were lost. <pesn type= http://geoffreyegel.tripod.com/batfree.htm" str="[http://www.gewo.applet.cz/earth/grid/hubbard.htm"></pesn>

On There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47]" (Reading 4665-1).[http://all-ez.com/nofuel1.htm

After the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48] Patent, US4151431, on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[254], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[255]. There is little information about the ultimate fate of his device. <pesn type= [http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/netahtml/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=4151431.WKU.&OS=PN/4151431&RS=PN/4151431"></pesn>http://www.roperld.com/science/LinearMotor.pdf

1951 to 1980

Viktor Schauberger claimed to have discovered some special Vortex Energy in Water. Since his death in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[256], people are still studying his works. http://www.frank.germano.com/viktorschauberger.htm

Image:Testatika-Line.png

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[257], develops a machine referred to as the "Testatika". The devices operation has been recorded as far back as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[258] at a place called There was an error working with the wiki: Code[259] (near There was an error working with the wiki: Code[260], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[261]). Supposedly, the Community benefits from the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[262]. http://www.methernitha.com

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[263], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[264] postulated about a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[265] that would extract meaningful work from the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[266], though he went on to demonstrate how such a device would fail to work in practice.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50] but, during this showing, an observer was killed. Papf blamed the problem on an investigating There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51]. He disappeared shortly thereafter. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[267] recounted one story about Mr. Papf's Perpetual Motion machine. <pesn type= [http://www.greaterthings.com/News/FreeEnergy/Directory/Inventors/JosephPapp/"></pesn>

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52] water atoms into high-There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53] but in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54] William Bauer and Justice Philip Romiti both observed a demonstration in the 1954 case. <pesn type= http://quanthomme.free.fr/energielibre/systemes/PageChercheurAEC2.htm" str="[http://www.rexresearch.com/franch/franch.htm"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55]-styled There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56] endeavor. He also promoted There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[268]s . He claimed inspiration from Nikola Tesla, among others. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[269], his devices are being used by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[270]. <pesn type= [http://www2.ocn.ne.jp/~alloy/Fe01.htm"></pesn>

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58]s with a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[271] of 27 to 1, generated high Torque There was an error working with the wiki: Code[272]s, produced Heat, and had a solar and planetary There was an error working with the wiki: Code[273]s. <pesn type= [http://www.sumeria.net/free/mcelw.html"></pesn>

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59]. Skeptical investigation to examine the device was denied (and no neutral or knowledgeable person has tested the device. Skeptics state that the device contains 'depleted' Battery (electricity)). Supposedly, he unThere was an error working with the wiki: Code[274]ally raises funding from investors. Gray died in April, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[275], under mysterious circumstances. <pesn type= http://www.rexresearch.com/evgray/1gray.htm" str="[http://www.keelynet.com/evgray/tb1.htm"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60] man, develops device referred to as "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61] 33:3" (the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62] passage reads "Call to me, and I will answer you, and will tell you great and hidden things which you have not known"). Burke collects There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63]800,000 in investments for his "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[276]". In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[277], an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[278] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[279] is conducted and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[280]s reportedly discover a hidden power source of Electricity. Burke and associates later raise $250,000 to pay for a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[281] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[282]ion. Burke still claims his device operates. http://www.phact.org/e/z/Perpmtn2.htm

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64]. Adams has a lot of theories about the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65] Patent, GB2282708, with Aspden Harold). Debates over the motor's power measurement still exist. Around 80 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[283]s old, Adams is said to have a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[284] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[285] and has talked over areas of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[286]. <pesn type= http://l2.espacenet.com/espacenet/abstract?CY=gb&LG=en&PNP=GB2282708&PN=GB2282708&CURDRAW=1&DB=EPD&DRDB=EP1" str="http://www.energyscience.co.uk/le/le08.htm http://www.geocities.com/theadamsmotor/cdmotor.html" str="http://jnaudin.free.fr/html/admsv41.htm http://jlnlabs.online.fr/projects/pod/index.htm" str="http://members.tripod.com/simplemotor/kit6.htm http://www.icehouse.net/john1/idea.html" str="http://www-personal.umich.edu/~reginald/adams.html [http://users.commspeed.net/tbabbitt/Adams.htm"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66] Engine. The vapor does not condense to liquid to start the cycle over again, however, thus making the system inoperable. This design may be related to John Gamgee's work (1882). Stewart reportedly gained over $3,000,000 of investment money (much from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[287]s). Stewart later disappeared.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67] (215 kThere was an error working with the wiki: Code[68]). The fuel source was said to have been 2 lb (1 kg) of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69] (391 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70]W). Johnson stated that it would drive a large There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71]). Johnson entered into several There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[288] to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[289] and died shortly afterwards. [http://users.rcn.com/zap.dnai/zeropoint/rorymotr.txt

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[290], R. Jeseph Maglich, a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[291], claims development of an overunity device which brought under control and put to use There was an error working with the wiki: Code[292] from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[293]. This may be related to the fusion generator developed first by Doctor Bogdan Maglish at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[294] (in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[295]). <pesn type= http://www.nuenergy.org/alt/maglich.htm" str="[http://www.hienergyinc.com/company/bio_maglich.htm"></pesn>

Keith Kenyon claims development of an overunity device. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[296]s seemed to not take There was an error working with the wiki: Code[297] (also known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[298]) into account. Demonstration never openly hooked up the output to its input.

1975, David Hamel has proven in his claims to create overunity devices. No fuel source or fuelless machines. Machines based on perpetual motion through overunity designing, magnetism and vibrational principles. His journey began in Oct 1975 and ended September 2007. Over 30 years of knowledge and insights into perpetual motion physics.David Hamel Magnetic Motor Hameltech

Bill Muller and Carmen Muller, both of Germany, develop "The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[299] - Generator". They raise investments for the device. Reportedly, no demonstration and examination of a working model has taken place. <pesn type= [http://www.geocities.com/koneheadx/mullerplategenerator.html"></pesn>

Stephen Walker begins promoting a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73], Stephen claims working samples will be available by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74], again is promising the device. <pesn type= [http://www.greaterthings.com/News/Tilley/fraud/Stephen/index.html"></pesn>

1981 to 1999

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76] consumption. Newman, initially open to testing, now (reportedly) refuses to ship a unit for testing. In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[300], Newman presented a week-long demonstration in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[301] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[302] (attended by 9,000 people from across the country). Newman is suing some former investors, who, he claims, are trying to steal the design.

The date 1984 appears on this page describing the Kromery converter, which purports to exploit resonance effects to cause a lead-acid battery to recharge itself. Glowing claims are made for its performance. However, the "explanation" given for the operation of the converter is scientifically illiterate, incoherent rubbish, and the tests described on the page are meaningless.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[303], Greg Watson of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[304] claims the development of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[305] (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[306]). In the SMOT, a steel ball is pulled up a ramp by magnetism and then falls, so the magnetic energy is converted into kinetic energy. Watson claims that an effect called "regauging" then happens, allowing the process to be repeated without the application of outside energy. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[307], he sells kits for the device. Skeptics state that attempts at replication have failed. Reportedly, investors were not able to regain their investments.

John Bedini claimed development of several free energy devices. Bedini has, reportedly, refused to allow independent investigation. <pesn type= http://www.icehouse.net/john1/index11.html" str="http://www.theverylastpageoftheinternet.com/ElectromagneticDev/bedini/bedindualbatteryi.htm http://www.keelynet.com/bedmot/bedbear.htm" str="http://www.icehouse.net/john1/ [http://www.fortunecity.com/greenfield/bp/16/bedpic.htm"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[308], Bruce De Palma claimed development of an Overunity machine (referred to as the "N-Machine" or "N Machine") that was described as a closed path Homopolar Generator with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[309] four times more power than consumed. It used a one-piece rotor rather than today's conventional two piece rotor and stator electric generators. It was basically a magnetized There was an error working with the wiki: Code[310]. De Palma has been unwilling to help independent investigators, like There was an error working with the wiki: Code[311], analyze his device. One There was an error working with the wiki: Code[312] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[313] analysed this device, but skeptics claim the investigation contained a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[314] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[315]. De Palma was an associate of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[316]. De Palma died in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[317]. <pesn type= http://www.enterprisemission.com/hyper2a.php" str="http://www.borderlands.de/projects.n-machine.php3 http://quanthomme.free.fr/energielibre/energie/MG_PalmaKawai1.htm" str="http://www.monstein.de/paraphysics/C_Generator/CGeni.htm http://geoffreyegel.tripod.com/invent.htm" str="[http://www.mufor.org/nmachine.html"></pesn>

Since There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77] promises to demonstrate free There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78] and extremist There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79]al beliefs. Lee has invested in John Searl's endeavors, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[318]'s endeavors, and, in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[319], joined There was an error working with the wiki: Code[320] in a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[321] tour. Tom Napier believes Lee's device may have resurrected Gamgee's designs (1881). http://www.phact.org/e/dennis17.htm

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[322] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[323] of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[324] inside a closed room by "first means" and "third means". Marinov states that he was contacted by the Methernitha "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[325]" and discovered their secret. Before releasing the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[326], he committed There was an error working with the wiki: Code[327] on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[328], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[329].[http://killdevilhill.com/physicschat/messages2/4569.html

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[330] of Skaarer, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[331], claims development of a sculpture where a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[332] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[333] moves for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[334]s with no outside influence. <pesn type= http://www.keelynet.com/energy/finsrud2.txt" str="http://www.keelynet.com/energy/finsrud3.txt http://www.ch190.thinkquest.hostcenter.ch/beispiele/magnetismus/index.html" str="http://www.freeenergy.co.za/3know/seen/perpetual%20motion%20machine/perpetual%20motion%20machine.htm [http://www.padrak.com/ine/FINSRUD1.html"></pesn>

Dr. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[335] of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[336], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[337], claims development of (and subsequently sold) an Overunity electrothermal water-based generator (referred to as "Yusmar 1"). He founded the YUSMAR company to promote his device. Reportedly, the device did not work and investors were not able to regain their investments. <pesn type= http://www.planetarymysteries.com/energy/ie.html" str="[http://www.padrak.com/ine/CSOURCES.html"></pesn>

Yule Brown of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[338] claimed the development of Brown's Gas. Reportedly, he gains many investors over several years. Brown died in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[339]. <pesn type= http://bwt.jeffotto.com/avail_now/bg.htm" str="http://www.keelynet.com/energy/oxyhyd3.htm http://www.energyoptions.com/tech/browns.html" str="[http://www.eagle-research.com/browngas/fabuses/possib.html"></pesn>

CETI claimed development of a device that outputs anomalous (yet small) amounts of heat - maybe Cold fusion. CETI, reportedly, has raised millions from investors. Skeptics state that inaccurate measure for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[340] effects from the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[341] through the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[342]s may be responsible for the data. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[343] (editor of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[344]) states that "tests with CETI cells at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[345], SRI and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[346] show no measurable friction. <pesn type= [http://www.phact.org/e/skeptic/ceti.htm"></pesn>

Paramahamsa Tewari of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] Generator. (Skeptics claim his There was an error working with the wiki: Code[347] is questionable). <pesn type= http://www.rexresearch.com/tewari/tewari.htm" str="http://depalma.pair.com/Tewari/Tpatent.html [http://antigravitypower.tripod.com/FreeEnergy/p.tewari.html"></pesn>

Bruce Perreault has claimed to have discovered a new There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82], developed the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[348], designed an Ion There was an error working with the wiki: Code[349], and is developing several Radiant energy devices. <pesn type= http://www.nuscam.com/" str="[http://www.nuenergy.org/iw/2003/perreault2003.htm"></pesn>

Brian Collin of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[350] claims he received a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[351] from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[352] that inspired him to make a free energy device. Investors have not been able to recoup their funding (around $80,000). No information is available (as of 2004) as to if the design was tested.

Around There was an error working with the wiki: Code[353], Don Watts of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[354], claimed development of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[355] (CEACU). Rumors state that there was a Patent for the device. Reportedly, the devices was part of an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[356] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[357] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[358]. <pesn type= [http://www3.sympatico.ca/slavek.krepelka/gismos/clem1.htm"></pesn>

During the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83]). As of last reports, production has began on the engine and the inventor is scaling up the motor to drive Automobiles. <pesn type= http://www.datadiwan.de/SciMedNet/library/articlesN69+/N70newenergy.htm" str="http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/070301.htm http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/101303.htm" str="http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/051903a.htm http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/022601.htm" str="[http://www.explorepub.com/articles/beardon/overunity.html"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[359], Troy Reed of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[360] claimed development of a small Permanent magnet motor prototype (and, later, a larger unit). The device consists of permanent magnets placed on four disks (eight each). Two outer disks are stationary. Two inner ones are mounted on a common rotating shaft. Reed has issued There was an error working with the wiki: Code[361]s for manufacturing the motor and received investment money for the Overunity device. <pesn type= http://www.luisprada.com/Protected/the_world_of_free_energy.htm" str="[http://quanthomme.free.fr/energielibre/energie/MG_ReedWerjefelt1.htm"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84] of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86]. Meyer has obtained over 28 patents. Meyer has a mixture of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87] for the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[362], but for selling "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[363]s". Meyer refused independent measurement and investigation of his device. Meyers died in early There was an error working with the wiki: Code[364]. <pesn type= http://www.rexresearch.com/meyerhy/meyerhy.htm" str="http://quanthomme.free.fr/carburant/WFCMeyer.htm http://geoffreyegel.tripod.com/content1.htm" str="http://www.alkalizeforhealth.net/hybridcars.htm http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~wayfarer/anomaly/technology/runswater_trans.htm" str="http://www.wasserauto.de/html/stanley_meyer.html [http://www.fortunecity.com/greenfield/bp/16/stanleymeyer.htm"></pesn>

In January There was an error working with the wiki: Code[365], Barbara Hickox of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[366] announces the possession of the Patent US4249096, Electric Dynamo (1981). The device consists of a central rotating helix non-conductive cylinder into which small cylindrical permanent magnets are placed (one pole outward). The cost of the systems, reportedly, totals around $7500. Hickox reportedly developed the device with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[367] and his test pilot. Skeptics state that the system is based on "fusion power". <pesn type= [http://www.keelynet.com/unclass/lost1.htm"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[368] (and that external reservoir can be at any Temperature (even sub-zero)). The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[369] had been Patented in the United States, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[370], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[371]. The technology has been tested by experts at the Ford Motor Company, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[372], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[373], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[374]. Skeptics state that there was a measurement error in the previous investigations. <pesn type= http://www.keelynet.com/interact/archive/00000903.htm" str="http://www.unusualresearch.com/amin/amincyc.htm http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,21641,00.html" str="[http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,37963,00.html"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[375], Robert "Paul" LeBreton claimed development of the "Millennium Motor" (in essence, a Permanent magnet motor). The device, supposedly, operates without fuel or vehicle battery packs. A 600 horsepower (447 kW) prototype reportedly has been constructed. Skeptics claim he is mentally disturbed. <pesn type= [http://www.greaterthings.com/News/FreeEnergy/Directory/LeBreton/"></pesn>

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[376], Renzo Boscoli of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[377] claims to have developed a method for low-energy nuclear reactions. Boscoli did not give a demonstration nor supply proof that was promised to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[378] investigators . <pesn type= [http://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue28/brightshining.html"></pesn>

2000s

In January, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[379], Doug Konzen of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[380] says he has an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[381] that anyone can see.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90], has claimed to have free electricity. Some have said it is just a joke.

Gurbakhsh Singh Mann of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[382] claims to have invented a Gravity and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[383] perpetual motion machines.

Michael J. Marshall in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91]ies. He also claims to have been offered There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93]. He has also failed to pay There was an error working with the wiki: Code[384]s.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94] and Robert Kibbey in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[385] have claimed an over unity device. Their There was an error working with the wiki: Code[386] failed in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[387] and as of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[388] they have been evading proper demonstrations.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[389], the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[390] (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[391]) group claimed to have 400 people who developed some device that sounds like it separates Water into H2 and O2 using less Energy than is scientifically possible. As of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[392] they have evaded independent confirmation.

Image:MEGcircuit.png

On March 26, 2002, the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator (MEG) is patented (U.S. Patent 6362718) by four inventors: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[393], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[394], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[395], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[396].

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95] company, Energie, promised a Homopolar generator (Bruce De Palma design) FE design by June of 2003. They seek investors.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[397] Steorn, a tech company based in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[398] claimed to have developed a Free energy technology, and placed a full-page advertisement in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[399] magazine at a cost of GBP £85,200 (approx. €125,000 or USD $160,000)<pesn type="li

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