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: See also Directory:Natural Gas

{| class="toccolours" border="1" style="float: right clear: right margin: 0 0 1em 1em border-collapse: collapse width:333px"

! align="center" cellspacing="3" style="border: 1px solid #C0C090 background-color: #F8EABA margin-bottom: 3px" colspan="2" | Natural gas

|-

| align="center" colspan="2" bgcolor="#ffffff" |

|-

! align="center" cellspacing="3" style="border: 1px solid #C0C090 background-color: #F8EABA margin-bottom: 3px" colspan="2" | General

|-

| Other names || Marsh gas, Swamp gas

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] || CH4

|-

| Appearance || colourless gas

|-

! align="center" cellspacing="3" style="border: 1px solid #C0C090 background-color: #F8EABA margin-bottom: 3px" colspan="2" | Properties

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] || 0.717 kg/m3, gas

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7]

25 °C (298 K) at 1.5 GThere was an error working with the wiki: Code[8]

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61] || &minus161.6°C (111.55 K)

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62] || 90.7 K, 0.117 bar

|-

! align="center" cellspacing="3" style="border: 1px solid #C0C090 background-color: #F8EABA margin-bottom: 3px" colspan="2" | Hazards

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] || There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10]

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] || Highly flammable (F+)

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63] ||

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12] ||

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] ||

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64] || &minus188°C

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65] || 537°C

|-

| Maximum burning temperature: || 2148°C

|-

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66]s

| 5&ndash15%

|-

! align="center" cellspacing="3" style="border: 1px solid #C0C090 background-color: #F8EABA margin-bottom: 3px" colspan="2" | Related compounds

|-

| Related There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14]There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67]

|-

| Related compounds || There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68]There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69]

|-

| align="center" cellspacing="3" style="border: 1px solid #C0C090 background-color: #F8EABA margin-bottom: 3px" colspan="2" | Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15]

|-

|colspan=3 align=center | See Methane for a more complete list.

|-

|}

Natural gas, commonly referred to as gas, is a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17] material, these are referred to as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70]. Sources of biogas include There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72]es, and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73]s, (see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74]), as well as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77], by way of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78]s, in addition to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79] particularly in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80].

Chemical composition

The primary component of natural gas is There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18]Hydrogen4), the shortest and lightest There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19]2Hydrogen6), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20]3Hydrogen8) and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21]4Hydrogen10), as well as other There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] containing gases, in varying amounts, see also There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82]. Natural gas also contains and is the primary market source of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83].

{| border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="border:1px solid #aaa border-collapse:collapse"

|- bgcolor="#cccccc"

! Component

! %

|-

|| Methane (CH4)|| 80-95

|-

|| Ethane (C2H6) || 5-15

|-

|| Propane (C3H8) and Butane (C4H10) || < 5

|-

|}

Nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide and trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide, water and odorants can also be present. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84] is also present in small amounts in natural gas extracted from some fields. The exact composition of natural gas varies between gas fields.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22] detection. Processed Natural gas is, in itself, harmless to the human body, however, natural gas is a simple There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85] and can kill if it displaces air to the point where the oxygen content will not support life.

Natural gas can also be hazardous to life and property through an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86]. Natural gas is lighter than air, and so tends to dissipate into the atmosphere. But when natural gas is confined, such as within a house, gas concentrations can reach explosive mixtures and, if ignited, result in blasts that could destroy buildings. Methane has a lower There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87] of 5% in air, and an upper explosive limit of 15%.

Explosive concerns with compressed natural gas used in vehicles are almost non-existent, due to the escaping nature of the gas, and the need to maintain concentrations between 5% and 15% to trigger explosions.

Energy content and statistics

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23]s (10.6&nbspThere was an error working with the wiki: Code[88]). Equivalently, one There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89] of natural gas produces 1031&nbspThere was an error working with the wiki: Code[90]s (BTUs).

In the USA, at retail, natural gas is often sold in units of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91]s (th) 1 therm = 100,000&nbspBTU. Wholesale transactions are generally done in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92]s (Dth), or in thousand decatherms (MDth), or in million decatherms (MMDth). A million decatherms is roughly a billion cubic feet of natural gas.

Storage and transport

The major difficulty in the use of natural gas is There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24] are economical, but are impractical across There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] are close to reaching their capacity, prompting some politicians in colder climates to speak publicly of potential shortages.

In the past, the natural gas which was recovered in the course of recovering There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] at the oil field (known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27]). This There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28]ed back into the formation for later recovery. This also assists oil There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93]ing by keeping underground There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94]s higher. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95], in the late There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96], a "Master Gas System" was created, ending the need for flaring. The natural gas is used to generate electricity and heat for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97]. Similarly, some land-fills that also discharge methane gases have been set-up to capture the methane and generate electricity.

Natural gas is often stored in underground caverns formed inside depleted gas reservoirs from previous gas wells, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98], or in tanks as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99]. The gas is injected during periods of low demand and extracted during periods of higher demand. Storage near the ultimate end-users helps to best meet volatile demands, but this may not always be practicable.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

When Natural gas is cooled to a temperature of approximately -260°F at atmospheric pressure it condenses to a liquid called liquefied natural gas (LNG). One volume of this liquid takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas at a stove burner tip. LNG is only about 45% the density of water. LNG is odorless, colorless, non-corrosive, and non-toxic. When vaporized it burns only in concentrations of 5% to 15% when mixed with air. Neither LNG, nor its vapor, can explode in an unconfined environment.

Natural gas is composed primarily of Methane (typically, at least 90%), but may also contain There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101] and heavier There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102]. Small quantities of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103], Oxygen, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105] compounds, and water may also be found in "pipeline" natural gas. The liquefaction process removes the oxygen, carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and water. The process can also be designed to purify the LNG to almost 100% methane.

Liquefied natural gas or LNG is There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] into a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30], making it much more cost-efficient to transport over long distances where pipelines do not exist. Where moving natural gas by pipelines is not possible or economical, it can be transported by LNG vessels, where the most common tank types are membrane(prismatic), Moss Rosenberg (spheres) or Self-Supporting Prismathic Type.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32] at the production point, and then There was an error working with the wiki: Code[106] or decompression at end-use facilities or into a pipeline.

Basic Facts on LNG

LNG offers an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[107] comparable to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[108] and Diesel fuels and produces less pollution, but its relatively high cost of production and the need to store it in expensive cryogenic tanks have prevented its widespread use in commercial applications.

Conditions required to condense natural gas depend on its precise composition, the market that it will be sold to and the process being used, but typically involve temperatures between -120 and -170 degrees There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] (14.7 and 870 lbf/in&sup2). High pressure natural gas that is condensed is then reduced in pressure for storage and shipping.

The density of LNG is roughly 0.41 to 0.5 kg/L, depending on temperature, pressure and composition. In comparison Water has a density of 1.0 kg/L.

LNG does not have a specific heat value as it is made from natural gas, which is a mixture of different gases. The heat value depends on the source of gas that is used and the process that is used to liquefy the gas. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[109] of LNG is estimated to be 24MJ/L at -164 degrees Celsius. This corresponds to a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[110] of 21MJ/L.

The natural gas fed into the LNG plant will be treated to remove Water, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[111], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[112] and other components that will There was an error working with the wiki: Code[113] (e.g., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[114]) under the low temperatures needed for storage or be destructive to the liquefaction facility. Purified LNG typically contains more than 90% Methane. It also contains small amounts of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[115], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[116], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[117] and some heavier There was an error working with the wiki: Code[118]. The purification process can be designed to give almost 100% methane.

The most important infrastructure needed for LNG production and transportation is an LNG plant consisting of one or more LNG trains, each of which is an independent unit for gas liquefaction. The largest LNG train is the SEGAS Plant in Egypt with a capacity of 5mtpa. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[119] operating Qatargas stage 2, of which one train has a production ability of 5 million ton per annum (mtpa). Other facilities needed are load-out terminals for loading the LNG onto vehicles, LNG vessels for transportation, and a receiving terminal at the destination for discharge and regasification, where the LNG is reheated and turned into gas. Regasification terminals are usually connected to a storage and pipeline distribution network to distribute natural gas to local distribution companies (LDCs) or Independent Power Plants (IPPs).

In 1964 the United Kingdom and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[120] were the LNG buyers under the world’s first LNG trade from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[121], witnessing a new era of energy. As most LNG plants are located in "stranded" areas not served by pipelines, the costs of LNG treatment and transportation were so huge that development has been slow during the past half century. The construction of an LNG plant costs USD 1-3 billion, a receiving terminal costs USD 0.5-1 billion, and LNG vessels cost USD 0.2-0.3 billion. Compared with the crude oil, the natural gas market is small but mature. The commercial development of LNG is a style called value chain, which means LNG suppliers first confirm the downstream buyers and then sign 20-25 year contracts with strict terms and structures for gas pricing. Only when the customers were confirmed and the development of a greenfield project deemed economically feasible could the sponsors of an LNG project invest in their development and operation. Thus, the LNG business has been regarded as a game of the rich, where only players with strong financial and political resources could get involved. Major international oil companies (IOCs) such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[122], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[123], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[124] and national oil companies (NOCs) such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[125], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[126] were active players. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[127], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[128] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[129] imported large sums of LNG due to their shortage of energy. In 2002 Japan imported 54 million tons of LNG, representing 48% of the LNG trade around the world that year. Also in 2002, South Korea imported 17.7 million tons and Taiwan 5.33 million tons. These three major buyers purchase approximately 70% of the world's LNG demand.

In recent years, as more players take part in investment, both in downstream and upstream, and new technologies are adopted, the prices for construction of LNG plants, receiving terminals and vessels have fallen, making LNG a more competitive means of energy distribution. The standard price for a 125,000-cubic-meter LNG vessel built in European and Japanese shipyards used to be USD 250 million. When Korean and Chinese shipyards entered the race, increased competition reduced profit margins and improved efficiency, reducing costs 60%. The per-ton construction cost of a LNG liquefaction plant fell steadily from the 1970s through the 1990s, with the cost reduced to approximately 35%.

Due to energy shortage concerns, many new LNG terminals are being contemplated in the United States. Concerns over the safety of such facilities has created extensive controversy in the regions where plans have been created to build such facilities. One such location is in the Long Island Sound between Connecticut and Long Island. Broadwater Energy, an effort between There was an error working with the wiki: Code[130] and Shell (A British-Dutch Corporation) wishes to build a LNG terminal in the sound on the New York side. Local politicians including the Suffolk County Executive have raised questions about the terminal. New York Senators Chuck Schumer and Hillary Clinton have both announced their opposition to the project. Several terminal proposals along the coast of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[131] have also been met with high levels of resistence and questions.

Trade in LNG

LNG is shipped around the world in specially constructed There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34]. The trade of LNG is completed by signing a sale and purchase agreement (SPA) between a supplier and receiving terminal, and by signing a gas sale agreement (GSA) between a receiving terminal and end-users. Most of the contract terms used to be There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36], under which the buyer is responsible for the transportation, which is realized by the buyer owning the vessel or signing a long-term charter agreement with independent carriers. The agreements for LNG trade used to be long-term portfolios that were relatively inflexible both in price and volume. If the annual contract quantity is confirmed, the buyer is obliged to take and pay for the product, or pay for it even if not taken, which is called the obligation of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[132] (TOP). In contrast to LNG imported to North America, where the price is pegged to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[133], most of the LNG imported to Asia is pegged to crude oil prices by a formula consisting of indexation called the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[134] (JCC).

The pricing structure that has been widely used in Asian LNG SPAs is as follows: PLNG = A+B×Pcrude oil, where A refers to a term that represents various non-oil factors, but usually a constant determined by negotiation at a level that can prevent LNG prices from falling below a certain level. It thus varies regardless of oil price fluctuation. Typical figures of ex-ship contracts range from USD 0.7 to 0.9. B is a degree of indexation to oil prices typical figures are 0.1485 or 0.1558, and Pcrude oil usually denominated in JCC. PLNG and Pcrude oil stand for price of oil in USD per million British Thermal Unit (MMBTU (in the fuel industry, M stands for 1000 and MM for 1 000 000)). With the demand of LNG moving up and down, the price of LNG moves in a "S" curve. With new demand from China, India and US increasing dramatically, and crude oil price skyrocketing, the LNG price is on the rise too.

In the mid 1990s LNG was a buyer's market. At the request of buyers, the SPAs began to adopt some flexibilities on volume and price. The buyers had more upward and downward flexibilities in TOP, and short-term SPAs less than 15 years came into effect. At the same time, alternative destinations for cargo and arbitrage were also allowed. By the turn of the 21st century, the market was again in favor of sellers. Sellers now propose rigid SPAs and would like an association similar to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[135] to be established to protect their interests. It is certain that the competition between sellers and buyers will go on. Receiving terminals exist in several countries (see the list of 'importing' countries in table below China is expected to move onto the list by 2006), allowing gas imports from other areas (see list of 'exporting' countries in table below).

The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37] Energy Information Administration provides estimates of LNG trade in 2002 as follows:

{| class="toccolours" border="1" style="float: center clear: right margin: 0 0 1em 1em border-collapse: collapse width:555px"

|align="center" bgcolor="tan" style="color:black" rowspan="2"|Country

|align="center" bgcolor="tan" style="color:black" colspan="2"|Export volume

|align="center" bgcolor="tan" style="color:black" rowspan="2"|Country

|align="center" bgcolor="tan" style="color:black" colspan="2"|Import volume

|-

|align="center" bgcolor="tan" style="color:black"|(109 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38])

|align="center" bgcolor="tan" style="color:black"|(106 t)

|align="center" bgcolor="tan" style="color:black"|(109 ft³)

|align="center" bgcolor="tan" style="color:black"|(106 t)

|-

|align="center"|Indonesia

|align="right"|1,100 &nbsp

|align="right"|23.0 &nbsp

|align="center"|Japan

|align="right"|9,200 &nbsp

|align="right"|188.3 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|Algeria

|align="right"|935 &nbsp

|align="right"|19.6 &nbsp

|align="center"|South Korea

|align="right"|2,000 &nbsp

|align="right"|40.7 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|Malaysia

|align="right"|741 &nbsp

|align="right"|15.6 &nbsp

|align="center"|France

|align="right"|511 &nbsp

|align="right"|10.7 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|Qatar

|align="right"|726 &nbsp

|align="right"|14.9 &nbsp

|align="center"|Taiwan

|align="right"|363 &nbsp

|align="right"|7.5 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|Nigeria

|align="right"|394 &nbsp

|align="right"|8.2 &nbsp

|align="center"|United Kingdom

|align="right"|356 &nbsp

|align="right"|7.3 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|Australia

|align="right"|367 &nbsp

|align="right"|7.7 &nbsp

|align="center"|United States

|align="right"|229 &nbsp

|align="right"|4.8 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|Oman

|align="right"|356 &nbsp

|align="right"|7.3 &nbsp

|align="center"|Turkey

|align="right"|224 &nbsp

|align="right"|4.6 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|Brunei Darussalam

|align="right"|351 &nbsp

|align="right"|7.2 &nbsp

|align="center"|Portugal

|align="right"|146 &nbsp

|align="right"|3.3 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|United Arab Emirates

|align="right"|278 &nbsp

|align="right"|5.7 &nbsp

|align="center"|Spain

|align="right"|131 &nbsp

|align="right"|2.7 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|Russia

|align="right"|234 &nbsp

|align="right"|4.8 &nbsp

|align="center"|Italy

|align="right"|130 &nbsp

|align="right"|2.6 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|Trinidad and Tobago

|align="right"|189 &nbsp

|align="right"|4.0 &nbsp

|align="center"|Belgium

|align="right"|124 &nbsp

|align="right"|2.7 &nbsp

|-

|align="center"|United States

|align="right"|68 &nbsp

|align="right"|1.4 &nbsp

|align="center"|India

|align="right"|122 &nbsp

|align="right"|2.5 &nbsp

|-

|}

In 2005, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[136] production outpaced consumption and it joined the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[137].

LNG safety and accidents

In its liquid state, LNG is not explosive. For an explosion to occur with LNG, it must first vaporize and then mix with air in the proper proportions (the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39] is 5% to 15%), and then be ignited afterwards. Serious accidents involving LNG to date are listed below:

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40]. The tank did not have a dike retaining wall, and it was made during There was an error working with the wiki: Code[138], when metal rationing was very strict. The steel of the tank was made with an extremely low amount of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[139], which made the tank brittle when exposed to the extreme cold of LNG, and the tank ruptured, spilling LNG into the city sewer system.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[140], February,There was an error working with the wiki: Code[141], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[142]. While repairing the interior of an empty storage tank, a fire started. The pressure increased inside the tank so fast the concrete dome on the tank lifted and then collapsed falling inside the tank and killing the 37 construction workers below.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[143], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[144], at the Cove Point LNG facility a pump seal failed, releasing gas vapors, which entered and settled in an electrical conduit. A worker switched off a circuit breaker, igniting the gas vapors, killing a worker and causing heavy damage to the building. National fire codes were changed as a result of the accident.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[145], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[146], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[147], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[148]. Explosion at Sonatrach LNG liquefaction facility. 27 killed, 80 injured, three LNG trains destroyed, 2004 production was down 76% for the year. A cold hydrocarbon leak occurred introducing the high-pressure steam boiler with gases via a combustion air fan. The explosion inside the boiler fire box precipitated a larger explosion of vapors outside the box.

Seaborne LNG transport tankers (including their loading terminals) have not had a major accident in over 33,000 voyages since maritime inception in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[149]. There have, however, been several significant incidents with LNG ships, but with no spills. In addition to accidents, terrorism experts are concerned that intentional sabotage could lead to unprecedented releases, resulting in massive fires and other damaging effects. The latter may include detonations (producing large blast waves) and deflagration-to-detonation transition phenomena. As the Department of Energy notes in its December 2004 report (Sandia National Labs, SAND2004-6258), the available testing data on LNG spills are based on releases of very small size in comparison to releases expected from intentional attacks. Despite intense local opposition, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has approved a site permit for an LNG terminal in Fall River, Massachusetts in a densely populated harbor area.

LNG storage

LNG tanks are always of double-wall construction with extremely efficient insulation between the walls. Large tanks are low aspect ratio (height to width) and cylindrical in design with a domed roof. Storage pressures in these tanks are very low, less than 5 psig. Smaller quantities, 70,000 gallons and less, are stored in horizontal or vertical, vacuum-jacketed, pressure vessels. These tanks may be at pressures any where from less than 5 psig to over 250 psig. LNG must be maintained cold (at least below -117°F) to remain a liquid, independent of pressure.

LNG refrigeration

The insulation, as efficient as it is, will not keep the temperature of LNG cold by itself. LNG is stored as a "boiling cryogen," that is, it is a very cold liquid at its boiling point for the pressure it is being stored. Stored LNG is analogous to boiling water, only 470°F colder. The temperature of boiling water (212°F) does not change, even with increased heat, as it is cooled by evaporation (steam generation). In much the same way, LNG will stay at near constant temperature if kept at constant pressure. This phenomenon is called "autorefrigeration". As long as the steam (LNG vapor boil off) is allowed to leave the tea kettle (tank), the temperature will remain constant.

If the vapor is not drawn off, then the pressure and temperature inside the vessel will rise. However, even at 100 psig, the LNG temperature will still be only about -200°F.

Compressed natural gas (CNG)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[150] (CNG) is natural gas pressurized and stored in welding bottle-like tanks at pressures up to 3,600 psig. Typically, it is same composition of the local "pipeline" gas, with some of the water removed. CNG and LNG are both delivered to the engines as low pressure vapor (ounces to 300 psig). CNG is often misrepresented as the only form natural gas can be used as vehicle fuel. LNG can be used to make CNG. This process requires much less capital intensive equipment and about 15% of the operating and maintenance costs.

Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[151] (LPG, and sometimes called There was an error working with the wiki: Code[152]) is often confused with LNG and vice versa. They are not the same and the differences are significant. Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane, mixes that are primarily There was an error working with the wiki: Code[153], and mixes including both propane and butane, depending on the season—in winter more propane, in summer more butane. In some countries LPG is composed primarily of propane (upwards to 95%) and smaller quantities of butane. LPG compared to natural gas has significantly higher There was an error working with the wiki: Code[154] and requires a different gas-to-air mixture for good combustion (see: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[155]).

LPG can be stored as a liquid in tanks by applying pressure alone. While the distribution of LNG requires heavy infrastructure investments (pipelines, etc.), LPG is portable. This fact makes LPG very interesting for developing countries and rural areas. LPG (sometimes called There was an error working with the wiki: Code[156]) has also been used as fuel in light duty vehicles for many years. An increasing number of petrol stations around the world offers LPG pumps as well. A final example that should not be forgotten is that the "bottled gas" can often be found under There was an error working with the wiki: Code[157] grills.

Natural gas crisis

Many politicians and prominent figures in North America have spoken publicly about a possible There was an error working with the wiki: Code[158]. This includes former Secretary of Energy There was an error working with the wiki: Code[159], former Chairman of the Federal Reserve There was an error working with the wiki: Code[160], and Ontario Minister of Energy There was an error working with the wiki: Code[161].

The natural gas crisis is typically described by the increasing price of natural gas in the U.S. over the last few years, due to the decline in indigenous There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42])and the continuing growth in demand, the price has become so high that many There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43] users, mainly in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44].

This solution is both capital intensive and politically charged due to the public perception that LNG terminals are explosive risks, especially in the wake of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45] terrorist attacks in the United States. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] is responsible for maintaining their security.

New or expanded LNG terminals create tough infrastructure problems and require high capital spending. LNG terminals require a very spacious&mdashat least 40&nbspfeet (12.2&nbspm) deep &mdash There was an error working with the wiki: Code[162], as well as being sheltered from wind and waves. These "suitable" sites are thus deep in well-populated There was an error working with the wiki: Code[163]s, which are also burdened with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[164] concerns for LNG pipelines, or conversely, required to also host the LNG expansion plant facilities and end use (petrochemical) plants amidst the high population densities of major cities, with the associated fumes, multiple serious risks to safety.

Typically, to attain "well-sheltered" waters, suitable harbor sites are well up There was an error working with the wiki: Code[165]s or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[166], which are unlikely to be dredged deep enough. Since these very large vessels must move slowly and ponderously in restricted waters, the transit times to and from the terminal become costly, as multiple There was an error working with the wiki: Code[167]s and security boats shelter and safeguard the large vessels. Operationally, LNG tankers are (for example, in Boston) effectively given sole use of the harbor, forced to arrive and depart during non-peak hours, and precluded from occupying the same harbor until the first is well-departed. These factors increase operating costs and make capital investment less attractive.

To substantially increase the amount of LNG used to supply natural gas to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[168], not only must "re-gasification" plants be built on North American shores -- difficult for the reasons stated above -- someone also must put substantial, new liquefaction stations in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[169], the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[170], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[171], in order to concentrate the gas generally associated with oil production in those areas. A substantial expansion of the fleet of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[172]s also must occur, to move the huge amount of fuel needed to make up for the coming shortfall in Northeast America.

Uses

Image:Gas stove blue flame.jpg
Power generation

Natural gas is a major source for Electricity generation through the use of Gas turbines and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[173] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[174]. Particularly high efficiencies can be achieved through combining gas turbines with a steam turbine in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[175] mode. Natural gas burns cleaner than other Fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, and produces less There was an error working with the wiki: Code[176] per unit energy released. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less There was an error working with the wiki: Code[177] than burning Petroleum and about 45% less than burning There was an error working with the wiki: Code[178] Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is thus the cleanest source of power available using fossil fuels, and this technology is widely used wherever gas can be obtained at a reasonable cost. [[Fuel cell] technology may eventually provide cleaner options for converting natural gas into electricity, but as yet it is not price-competitive. Also, the natural gas supply is said to peak around the year 2030, 20 years after the peak of oil. It is also projected that the world's supply of natural gas should be exhausted around the year 2085.

Hydrogen

Natural gas can be used to produce Hydrogen that can be used in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[179]s.

Natural gas vehicles

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[180] (Methane) is used as a clean alternative to other Automobile fuels such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[181] (petrol) and Diesel. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[182], the countries with the largest number of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[183]s were There was an error working with the wiki: Code[184], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[185], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[186], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[187], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[188]. The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines, partially due to the fact that natural gas engines function using the <pesn type=).

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[190] (a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[191] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[192] blend) is also used to fuel vehicles, but it is only suitable for gasoline engines. LPG and CNG vehicle fuel systems are not compatible. CNG also requires higher pressure tanks which are typically much heavier than those used for LPG.

Residential domestic use

Natural gas is supplied to homes, where it is used for such purposes as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47]/There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48]. Home or other building heating may include boilers, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49]d-in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50]s.

Fertilizer

Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[193], via the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[194], for use in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[195] production.1,2,and..3

Other

Natural gas is also used in the manufacture of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[196]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[197], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[198], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[199]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[200], and other products.

Sources

Natural gas is commercially produced from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[201] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[202] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[203], with reserves on the order of 1013 m³. See also There was an error working with the wiki: Code[204]. Qatar also has 25 trillion cubic meters of natural gas (5% of the world's proven supply), enough to last 250 years at current production levels.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[205] is a mixture of methane and other gases which can be used in a similar way to natural gas and can be produced by treating There was an error working with the wiki: Code[206] chemically. This is a historic technology, still used as 'best solution' in some local circumstances, although coal gasification is not usually economic at current gas prices, depending upon infrastructure considerations.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52] are responsible for all biological sources of methane, some in symbiotic relationships with other life forms, including There was an error working with the wiki: Code[207]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[208]s, and cultivated crops. Methane released directly into the atmosphere would be considered a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[209], however, methane in the atmosphere is oxidised, producing carbon dioxide and water.

Possible future sources

Future sources of Methane, the principal component of natural gas, include landfill gas, biogas and methane hydrate. Biogas, and especially landfill gas, are already used in some areas, but their use could be greatly expanded. Landfill gas is a type of biogas, but biogas usually refers to gas produced from organic material that has not been mixed with other waste.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53] or burned to produce Electricity or Heat.

Once There was an error working with the wiki: Code[210] is removed, about half of landfill gas is methane. Almost all of the rest is There was an error working with the wiki: Code[211], but there are also small amounts of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[212], Oxygen and Hydrogen. There are usually trace amounts of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[213] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[214]s, but their concentration varies widely. Landfill gas cannot be distributed through natural gas pipelines unless it is cleaned up to the same quality. It is usually more economical to combust the gas on site or within a short distance of the landfill using a dedicated pipeline. Water vapor is often removed, even if combusting the gas on site. Other non-methane components may also be removed in order to meet There was an error working with the wiki: Code[215]s standards, to prevent fouling of the equipment or for environmental considerations. Co-firing landfill gas with natural gas improves combustion, which lowers emissions.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[216] is usually produced using agricultural waste materials, such as unmerchantable parts of plants and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[217]. Biogas can also be produced by separating There was an error working with the wiki: Code[218]s from waste that otherwise goes to landfills, which is more efficient than just capturing the landfill gas it produces. Using materials that would otherwise generate no income, or even cost money to get rid of, improves the profitability and energy balance of biogas production.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[219]s are used to produce biogas from manure, while biogas reactors can be used for manure or plant parts. Like landfill gas, biogas is mostly methane and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. However, with the exception of pesticides, there are usually lower levels of contaminants.

A speculative source of enormous quantities of methane is from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54], found under sediments in the oceans. However, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[220] no technology has been developed to recover it economically.

Safety

In any form, a minute amount of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55] such as t-butyl There was an error working with the wiki: Code[221], with a rotting-cabbage-like smell, is added to the otherwise There was an error working with the wiki: Code[222]less and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[223]less gas, so that There was an error working with the wiki: Code[224]s can be detected before a fire or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[225] occurs. Sometimes a related compound, thiophane is used, with a rotten-egg smell. Adding odorant to natural gas began in the United States after the 1937 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[226]. The buildup of gas in the school went unnoticed, killing three hundred students and faculty when it ignited. Odorants are considered non-toxic in the extremely low concentrations occurring in natural gas delivered to the end user.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56]s, where methane seeping from rock formations has no odor, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[227]s are used, and mining apparatus has been specifically developed to avoid ignition sources, e.g., the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[228].

Explosions caused by natural There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57]. Occasionally, the gas can collect in high enough quantities to cause a deadly explosion, disintegrating one or more buildings in the process. The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if There was an error working with the wiki: Code[229] conditions are right. Also, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual There was an error working with the wiki: Code[230] of using natural gas is very low.

Some gas fields yield There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58] containing There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59]. This in turn may lead to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60]s, etc.

Related concepts

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External articles and references

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General

Oil and Gas Directory

Natural Gas industry news

Natural Gas Generators

India: How New Delhi used CNG to ease pollution

Pollutant chemical pollutant chemical that can worsen both classical allergy and chemical sensitivity.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

WVU's AFVTP - Propane Review, West Virginia University

Using Gas Geochemistry to Assess Mercury Risk, OilTracers, 2006

U.S. Natural Gas Marketed Production 1900 - 2005 (MMcf) (in English). U.S. Department of Energy].

California Energy Commission Frequently Asked Questions About LNG

The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook @ the EIA - DOE

Liquefied Natural Gas in the US: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Training From the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium.

Ventura LNG Task Force A local community group in Ventura CA working on LNG issues.

LNG Law Blog Your Daily Online Source for Liquefied Natural Gas

http://www.poten.com/list_attach.asp?table=tmarket&type_id=2 Poten & Partners: A Collection of Articles Relating to LNG

LNG transportation

Transportation of LNG in Small LNG ships

Natural gas vehicles

International Natural Gas Vehicle Statistics

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Training From the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium.

IANGV - International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles

Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (PDF)

North America

American Gas Association

Appalachian Basin Natural Gas Production Information

What is Compressed Natural Gas?

Could CNG work in America?

Natural Gas Supply Association

Institute of Gas Technology

Manufactured and Natural Gas Industry (EH.Net Encyclopedia of Economic History)

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