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Michael Faraday, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2] (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] (or natural philosopher, in the dramatic terminology of that time) who contributed significantly to the fields of Electromagnetism and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12].

Introduction

Faraday established that magnetism could affect rays of bright light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. Some historians of science refer to him as the best There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] in the history of science. It was largely due to his efforts that Electricity became viable for use in technology. The SI unit of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14], the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15], is named after him, as is the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16], the charge on a mole of Electrons (about 96,485 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17]s). There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] states that a Magnetic field changing in time creates a proportional There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19]. He held the post of Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20]. Faraday was the first, and most famous, holder of this position to which he was appointed for life.

Career outline

Michael Faraday was born in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21], near present-day There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24]. His family was extremely poor his father, James Faraday, was a Yorkshire blacksmith who suffered ill-health throughout his life. It was tragic. After the most basic of school educations, Faraday had to educate himself. At fourteen he became apprenticed to a local bookbinder and book seller There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] and, during his seven-year apprenticeship, read many books, developing an interest in science and specifically electricity. In particular, he was inspired by the book There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27].

At the age of twenty, in 1812, at the end of his apprenticeship, Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] Humphry Davy of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32], founder of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33]. Many tickets for these lectures were given to Faraday by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34] (one of the founders of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35]). Afterwards, Faraday sent Davy a three hundred page book based on notes taken during the lectures. Davy's reply was immediate, kind and favorable. When Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36], he decided to employ Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne, one of the Royal Institution's assistants, was sacked, the now Sir Humphry Davy was asked to find a replacement. He appointed Faraday as Chemical Assistant at the Royal Institution on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37] 1813.

In the class-based English society of the time, Faraday was not considered a gentleman. When Davy went on a long tour to the continent in 1813-5, his valet did not wish to go. Faraday was going as Davy's scientific assistant, and was asked to act as Davy's valet until a replacement could be found in Paris. Davy failed to find a replacement, and Faraday was forced to fill the role of valet as well as assistant throughout the trip. Davy's wife, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38], refused to treat Faraday as an equal (making him travel outside the coach, eat with the servants, etc.) and generally made Faraday so miserable that he contemplated returning to England alone and giving up science altogether. The trip did, however, give him access to the European scientific elite and a host of stimulating ideas.

His sponsor and mentor was There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39], who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution.

Faraday was a devout Christian and a member of the small There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40] denomination, an offshoot of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41]. He later served two terms as an elder in the group's church.

Faraday married Sarah Barnard (1800-1879) on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42] 1821, although they would never have children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church.

He was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1824, appointed director of the laboratory in 1825 and in 1833 he was appointed Fullerian professor of chemistry in the institution for life, without the obligation to deliver lectures.

Scientific achievements

Chemistry

Faraday's earliest chemical work was as an assistant to Davy. He made a special study of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43], and discovered two new chlorides of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44]. He also made the first rough experiments on the diffusion of gases, a phenomenon first pointed out by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45], the physical importance of which was more fully brought to light by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47]. He succeeded in liquefying several gases he investigated the alloys of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48], and produced several new kinds of glass intended for optical purposes. A specimen of one of these heavy glasses afterwards became historically important as the substance in which Faraday detected the rotation of the plane of polarisation of light when the glass was placed in a magnetic field, and also as the substance which was first repelled by the poles of the magnet. He also endeavoured, with some success, to make the general methods of chemistry, as distinguished from its results, the subject of special study and of popular exposition.

He invented the earliest form of what was to become the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49], which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat. Faraday worked extensively in the field of Chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50] (which he called bicarburet of hydrogen), inventing the system of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51]s, and liquefying gases such as chlorine. He prepared the first There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52]. Faraday also discovered the laws of Electrolysis and popularized terminology such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55], and Ion, terms largely created by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56]. For these accomplishments, many modern chemists regard Faraday as one of the finest experimental scientists in history.

Electricity

His greatest work was with electricity. The first experiment which he recorded was the construction of a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57] with seven halfpence pieces, stacked together with seven disks of sheet zinc, and six pieces of paper moistened with salt water. With this pile he decomposed sulphate of magnesia (first letter to Abbott, July 12, 1812).

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if supplied with current from a chemical battery. The latter device is known as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58]. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.

At this stage, there is also evidence to suggest that Davy may have been trying to slow Faraday’s rise as a scientist (or natural philosopher as it was known then). In 1825, for instance, Davy set him onto optical glass experiments, which progressed for six years with no great results. It was not until Davy's death, in 1829, that Faraday stopped these fruitless tasks and moved on to endeavors that were more worthwhile. Two years later, in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59], he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60], though the discovery may have been anticipated by the work of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61]. His breakthrough came when he wrapped two insulated coils of wire around a massive iron ring, bolted to a chair, and found that upon passing a current through one coil, a momentary current was induced in the other coil. The iron ring-coil apparatus is still on display at the Royal Institution. In subsequent experiments he found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet.

His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5], which subsequently went on to become one of the four There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6]. These in turn have evolved into the generalization known today as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62].

Faraday later used the principle to construct the electric Electrical generator, the ancestor of modern power generators.

Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete his work involving that proposal. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.

In 1845 he discovered the phenomenon that he named There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63], and what is now called the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64]: The plane of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65] of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66].

Despite his excellence as an experimentalist, his mathematical ability did not extend so far as trigonometry or any but the simplest algebra. However, his experimental work was consolidated by the able There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67], who developed his equations which lie at the base of all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena. Faraday, nevertheless, possessed the gift of the ability to present his ideas in clear and simple language.

Later life

In 1848, as a result of representations by the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7], Michael Faraday was awarded a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68] house in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70] free of all expenses or upkeep. This was the Master Mason's House, later called Faraday House, and now No.37 Hampton Court Road. In 1858 he retired to live there. During his lifetime, Faraday rejected a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71] and twice refused to become There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72].

He died at his house at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75]. He has a memorial plaque in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76], near There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77]'s tomb, but he turned down burial there and is interred in the Sandemanian plot in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78].

Miscellaneous

He gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] for young people that are still given there every year and bear his name.

Michael Faraday refused to participate in the production of chemical weapons for the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] from 1991 until 2001. In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80] there is a ThermoVision Device named the Farady.

Faraday's Published Works

Chemical Manipulation, being Instructions to Students in Chemistry (1 vol., John Murray, 1st ed. 1827, 2nd 1830, 3rd 1842)

Experimental Researches in Electricity, vols. i. and ii., Richard and John Edward Taylor, vols. i. and ii. (1844 and 1847) vol. iii. (1844) vol. iii. Richard Taylor and William Francis (1855)

Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics, Taylor and Francis (1859)

A Course of Six Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle (edited by W. Crookes) (Griffin, Bohn & Co., 1861)

On the Various Forces in Nature (edited by W. Crookes) (Chatto & Windus, 1873).

A Course of 6 lectures on the various forces of matter and their relations to each other. edited by William Crookes(1861).

His Diary edited by T. Martin was published in eight volumes (1932 - 36)

Quotations

"Nothing is too wonderful to be true."

"Work. Finish. Publish." — his well-known advice to the young There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81]

"The important thing is to know how to take all things quietly."

Regarding the hereafter, "Speculations? I have none. I am resting on certainties. I know whom I have believed and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day."

"Next Sabbath day (the 22nd) I shall complete my 70th year. I can hardly think of myself so old."

Related articles

Faraday's Diary, ¶ 7718, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83] and ¶ 7504, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83]

References and articles

General

Bank of England, Withdrawn Notes

Twickenham Museum on Faraday and Faraday House

The Origin of the Bunsen Burner (pdf) William B. Jensen, Journal of Chemical Education • Vol. 82 No. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86] 2005

http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/person.asp?LinkID=mp01529National Portrait Gallery, UK

http://www.npg.org.uk/live/search/portrait.asp?mkey=mw02170 National Portrait gallery NPG 269

http://www.imagesonline.bl.uk/britishlibrary/controller/subjectidsearch?id=8282&startid=3163&width=4&height=2&idx=2 Image in British Library

"Farady." at LoveToKnow 1911 Britannica Online Encyclopedia.http://39.1911encyclopedia.org/F/FA/FARADAY.htm

Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. Harper Collins, London. ISBN 0-00-716376-2 .

Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. Random House, New York. ISBN 1-4000-6016-8 .

Thomas, John Meurig (1991). Michael Faraday and the Royal Institution: The Genius of Man and Place Hilger, Bristol. ISBN 0-7503-0145-7

Thompson, Silvanus (1901, reprinted 2005) “Michael Faraday, His Life and Work?. Cassell and Company, London, 1901 reprint by Kessenger Publishing, Whitefish, MT. ISBN 1-4179-7036-7

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

Biographies

Detailed biography of Faraday

IEE biography of Michael Faraday

Faraday as a Discoverer by John Tyndall, Project Gutenberg (downloads)

The Christian Character of Michael Faraday

Biography at The Royal Institution of Great Britain

Michael Faraday on the 20 British Pound banknote.

Short biography of Faraday

Tyndall, John, Faraday as a Discoverer, (Longmans, 1st ed. 1868, 2nd ed. 1870)

Jones, Bence Dr. , secretary of the Royal Institution, The Life and Letters of Faraday in 2 vols. (Longmans, 1870)

Gladstone, J. H. , Ph.D., F.R.S., Michael Faraday, (Macmillan, 1872)

Thompson, S. P., Michael Faraday his Life and Work, (1898). (J. C. M.)

Others

Michael Faraday Directory

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1] (downloads)

Experimental Researches in Electricity Original text with Biographical Introduction by Professor John Tyndall, 1914, Everyman edition.

Video Podcast with Sir John Cadogan talking about Benzene since Faraday

Books

Ames, Joseph Sweetman (Ed.), "The discovery of induced electric currents" Vol. 2. Memoirs, by Michael Faraday. New York, Cincinnati [etc.] American book company [c1900] LCCN 00005889

See also

- PowerPedia

- Main Page

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