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PowerPedia:Magnifying Transmitter

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Image:ExperimentalStationCS-Tesla.png
's experimental station outside of Colorado Springs.]]

The magnifying transmitter is an alternate version of a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27]. Tesla's apparatus is a high-voltage, air-core, multiple-resonant transformer that can generate very There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] resonant transformer, a term that is no longer in general use.

History

The first 'Magnifier' was assembled in New York City in the period between 1895 - 1898. In 1899 a larger magnifier was constructed in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44]. This machine was used to conduct fundamental experiments in wireless telecommunications and electrical power transmission. Measuring fifty-one feet (15.5 m) in diameter, it developed a working potential estimated at 3.5 million to 4 million volts and was capable of producing electrical discharges exceeding one hundred feet (30 m) in length.

Colorado arrival
Image:Colorado GeoMag Map.png
location.]]

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45], Tesla decided to move and began research in Colorado Springs. He chose this location primarily because of the frequent thunderstorms, the high altitude (where the air, being at a lower pressure, had a lower dielectric breakdown strength, making it easier to ionize), and the dryness of the air (minimizing leakage of electric charge through insulators). Tesla kept a handwritten There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] of his experiments in the Colorado Springs lab where he spent nearly nine months. It consists of 500 pages of notes and nearly 200 drawings, recorded chronologically between There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50], as the work occurred, containing explanations of his experiments.

Tuned electrical circuits

While in Colorado, Tesla constructed many smaller resonance transformers and conducted further research on concatenated There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] during later disputes in the courts. These air core high-frequency resonant coils were the predecessors of systems ranging from radio to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30].

Power transmission
Image:TeslaWirelessIllustrationCS.png

On July 4, 1899, Tesla discovered There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32]s within the earth. He demonstrated that the Earth behaves as a smooth polished conductor and possesses electrical vibrations. Tesla demonstrated that the Earth could respond at predescribed frequencies of electrical vibrations. Tesla conducted experiments contributing to the understanding of electromagnetic propagation and the Earth's resonance. He transmitted signals several kilometres and lit neon tubes conducting through the ground.

Tesla researched ways to Wireless energy transfer over long distances (via There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51]s, to a lesser extent, and, more readily, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52]s). He transmitted extremely low frequencies through the ground as well as between the earth's surface and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53]. He received patents on wireless transceivers that developed There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54]s by this method. In his experiments, he made mathematical calculations and computations based on his experiments and discovered that the resonant frequency of the Earth was approximately 8 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55] (Hz). In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56], researchers confirmed that the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57] of the Earth's There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58] cavity was in this range (later called the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59]).

The magnifying transmitter was the basis for Tesla's There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] Radio Laboratory in Washington D.C., and J. H. Dillinger, a physicist, reviewed the proposal but declined to implement the proposed plan. Flower's mechanical analogy test was successful, though.

Electromechanical oscillator

Tesla developed a reciprocating electromechanical oscillator as a source of frequency stable or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60] alternating electric current used in conjunction with both wireless transmitting and receiving apparatus. This circuit element was applied in much the same manner as quartz timer crystals are now. He also proposed the use of this device for geophysical exploration - There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61]&mdasha technique that he called There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62].

Magnifying transmitter

{| class="toccolours" style="float:right margin: 0 0 1em 1em width:300px text-align:left clear:right"

|Transmitter details

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: The electrical oscillator, cited by Dr. Tesla as his most important and greatest There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63], consists of three inductors:

: an air-core Transformer (2 coils)

: a Coil (1 extra coil)

:The magnifier operated as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34]. It is reported that Tesla operated the magnifier, at times, around There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35]. The oscillator created earth currents of such magnitude that sparks an inch long could be drawn from a water main at a distance of 300 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36] from the laboratory station.

|-

|}

{|class="toccolours" style="float:right margin: 0 0 1em 1em width:300px text-align:left clear:right"

!colspan=2|Configurations of the Magnifier

|-

|
Image:Tesla-Magnifier-Electrostatic.png
|
Image:Magnifier-Tesla-Electrostatic.png

|}

The layout of the Wardenclyffe magnifying transmitter is well known, based upon Tesla's patents in which the concept was implemented. The magnifying transmitter is not identical to the classic Tesla coil. It has the short thick primary and secondary There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37] characteristic of the Tesla coil, although magnetic coupling between the two is tighter. Because of this, more aggressive measures have to be taken in terms of primary spark quenching and providing additional insulation between the primary and secondary. In addition to these two large-diameter coils that comprise the master oscillator, Tesla added a third inductor called the "extra coil." Tesla experimented with the magnifying transmitter using There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65] resonance modes.

Construction and theory of operation

In a classic Tesla coil the primary drives the ground end of the secondary coil to form the driver transformer, which resonates the entire secondary coil. In the magnifying transmitter the driving and resonating parts of the secondary are separate coils. From a circuit analysis standpoint, there is little difference between the classic coil and the magnifier.

The extra coil or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] or driver section. The power from the master oscillator is fed to the lower end of the extra coil resonator through a large diameter There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66] or pipe to minimize There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67]. The magnifying transmitter's base-driven extra coil behaves as a slow-wave helical resonator, the axial disturbance propagating at a velocity of less than 1% up to around 10% the speed of light in free space. The Magnifying Transmitter's axial velocity Electromagnetic field is established by the coil pitch and electrical charge propagation speed through the circuit. It is interesting to note that rigorous mathematical descriptions of Tesla's Magnifier did not become available until 50-100 years after Tesla's pioneering work. Modern analyses have succeeded in applying distributed "transmission line" descriptions of the "extra coil" rather than the usual lumped-constant analysis. Upon validation, recently developed models of resonator behavior show that distributed analysis is more accurate for all excitation modes. Nevertheless, lumped analysis can be used to design Tesla coils and magnifiers.

Operation
Image:TeslaFreeElectronLaser.png

Using There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39]s, Tesla attempted to develop standing waves of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40]. Based upon observations made with the device, Tesla reported that a type of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68] - involving the Earth's telluric energy - could be excited with the magnifying transmitter.

It has been proposed by some that Tesla was utilizing There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42]s of information. In normal operation the device is relatively silent, generating a high power Electric field, but if the output voltage exceeds the design voltage of the elevated terminal, high-voltage sparks will strike out from the electrode into the air. Tesla became the first man to create electrical effects on the scale of lightning.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69] residents could hear thunder coming from his lab produced by the Colorado Springs machine. It has been reported that Colorado Springs residents near the lab would observe animal reactions as sparks jumped to their horse's shoes. Tesla himself was able to draw sparks from the local water main that was used, at times, as a ground connection. The air around the laboratory would glow with corona (similar to the phenomena of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70]). One of Tesla's experiments damaged a Colorado Springs Electric Company generator by backfeeding high power radio frequency electrical transient currents into the city's power distribution system.

Related Tesla patents

"System of Electric Lighting," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72]

"Means for Generating Electric Currents," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74]

"Electrical Transformer," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76]

"Method of and Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vehicle or Vehicles ", There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78]

"System of Transmission of Electrical Energy," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5], Mar. 20, 1900

"Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80]

"System of Transmission of Electrical Energy," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82]

"Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted from a Distance to a Receiving Device through Natural Media," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8], Nov. 5, 1901

"Method of Utilizing Effects Transmitted through Natural Media," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9], Nov. 5, 1901

"Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted From A Distance To A Receiving Device Through Natural Media," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10], Nov. 5, 1901

"Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted through Natural Media," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11], Nov. 5, 1901

"Method Of Utilizing Radiant Energy," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12]'', There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84]

"Method of Signaling," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13]'', Mar. 17, 1903

"System of Signaling," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14]'', Apr. 14, 1903

"Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy through the Natural Mediums," There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15], Apr. 18, 1905

"Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy," Jan. 18, 1902, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16], Dec. 1, 1914

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17]

See also

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85]s

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86]s

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87]s

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88]

Sources

Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy, U.S. Patent No. 649,621, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90]

Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy, Jan. 18, 1902, U.S. Patent 1,119,732, Dec. 1, 1914

Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, Leland I. Anderson, Twenty First Century Books, 2002, pp. 74, 89-90, 107, 111, ISBN 1-893817-01-6.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43], Harnessing the Wheelwork of Nature. ISBN 1-931882-04-5Nikola Tesla Colorado Springs Notes, 1899-1900, Nikola Tesla Museum, Beograd, 1978.

My Inventions : The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla, Hart Brothers, 1982, Ch. 5, ISBN 0-910077-00-2

Nikola Tesla : Guided Weapons & Computer Technology, Leland I. Anderson, Twenty First Century Books, 1998, pp. 12-13, ISBN 0-9636012-9-6.

Further reading

Image:TeslaWirelessLightsCS.png

Tesla's publications

Tesla, Nikola, "On the Transmission of Electricity Without Wires". Electrical World and Engineer, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92].

Electrical World

"The Development of High Frequency Currents for Practical Application"., The Electrical World, Vol 32, No. 8.

"Boundless Space: A Bus Bar". The Electrical World, Vol 32, No. 19.

"Mr. Tesla's Application of the Hertz-Wave Transmission". The Electrical World, Vol 32, No. 8.

Other publications

Bass, Robert W., "Self-Sustained Non-Hertzian Longitudinal Wave Oscillations as a Rigorous Solution of Maxwell's Equations for Electromagnetic Radiation". Inventek Enterprises, Inc., Las Vegas, Nevada.

Bieniosek, F. M., "Triple Resonance Pulse Transformer Circuit". Review of Scientific Instruments, 61 (6).

Corum, J. F., and K. L. Corum, "Disclosure Concerning the Operation of an ELF Oscillator". CPG Communications, Inc., Newbury, Ohio.

Corum, J. F., and K. L. Corum, "A Physical Interpretation of the Colorado Springs Data". CPG Communications, Inc., Newbury, Ohio.

Corum, J. F., and K. L. Corum, "Tesla's Colorado Spring Receivers (A Short Introduction)". 2003.

Corum, J. F., and K. L. Corum, "RF Coils, Helical Resonators and Voltage Magnification by Coherent Spatial Modes". IEEE, 2001.

de Queiroz, Antonio Carlos M., "Synthesis of Multiple Resonance Networks". Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. EE/COPE.

de Queiroz, Antonio Carlos M., "Designing a Tesla Magnifier". Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. EE/COPE.

Grotz, Toby, "Wireless Transmission of Power: An Attempt to Verify Nikola Tesla's 1899 Colorado Springs Experiment, Results of Research and Experimentation". TESLA, Inc., Craig Colorado.

Hartley, R. V. L., "Oscillations with Non-linear Reactances". Bell Systems Technical Journal, Sun Publishing. 1992.

Wait, James, R., "Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media". Pergammon Press, 1972. (2nd edition)

Patents

Armstrong, E. H., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18], "Wireless receiving system". 1914.

Armstrong, E. H., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19], "Method of receiving high frequency oscillation". 1922.

Armstrong, E. H., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20], "Signalling system". 1922.

Fessenden, R. A., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21], "Signalling by sound and other longitudal elastic impulses". 1914.

Weyrich, R., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22], "Transmitter and receiver for electromagnertic waves".

Leydorf, G. F., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23], "Antenna near field coupling system". 1966.

Tanner, R. L., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24], "Extremely low-frequency antenna". 1965.

Eastlund, Bernard J., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25], "Method for producing a shell of relativistic particles at an altitude above the earths surface". 1991.

Hansell, Clarence W., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26], "Communication system by pulses through the Earth".

External links

Antonio Carlos M. de Queiroz Designing a Tesla Magnifier (Theoretical and practical approaches to Tesla magnifier design)

Tesla Technology Research - Tesla Coils and the Failure of Lumped-Element Circuit Theory

Nicholson, Paul The Tesla Secondary Simulation Project (theoretical simulation of Tesla Coil resonators, confirmed by experiment)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93]'s Magnifying Transmitter

Practical Magnifier Construction Principles: Making it work

Nicholson, Paul The Real Science of (This essay does not concentrate on longitudinal waves nor telluric currents, its focus is on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94]s)

Cooper, John. F., "Magnifying Transmitter circuit diagram alternate circuit diagram". Tesla-Coil.com.

Nikola Tesla and my thoughts has some work on Tesla's transmitter system too.

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