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PowerPedia:Lifter

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The Lifter is an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37], or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] device. The term "Lifter" dates back to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39], an era in which There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40] experiments were at their peak. Also known as a ionocraft or ion propelled aircraft is an electrohydrodynamic device that produces thrust in air using electrical energy without moving parts. The term "Ionocraft" dates back to the 1960s, an era in which EHD experiments were at their peak.

Warning:Ionocrafts require many safety precautions due to the high voltage required for their operation and the risk of lung and throat cancer from long term inhalation of their ionised air product. A large subculture has grown up around this simple EHD thrusting device and its physics are now known to a much better extent.

Introduction

The Lifter can be used as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41] project for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42], but requires many safety precautions due to the high voltage required for operation and the risk of lung and throat cancer from long term inhalation of its ionised air product. A large subculture has grown up around the Lifter phenomena and its physics are now known to a much better extent. This device has recently gained popularity as a science fair project for students. It has also gained popularity in non-mainstream anti-gravity websites, where it is commonly referred to as a lifter. This term is somewhat of a misnomer, since it implies the force can only act against gravity, which is clearly not the case. The magnitude of thrust is totally independent from the mass of the device and its direction is always in the direction of its own axis.

In its basic form, it simply consists of two There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27] Electrical conduction There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43], one in the form of a fine wire and the other a foil skirt with a smooth round surface, which when powered by high Voltage in the range of a few kilovolts, produces There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44]. It forms part of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45] family, but is a special case in which the ionisation and accelerating stages are combined into a single stage.

What it is

The Lifter is a propulsion device thought to be based on electrokinetic propulsion that works without moving parts, flies silently, uses only There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28]-generated charged particles has been known as from the earliest days of the discovery of electricity, with references dating back to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] in a book titled Physico-Mechanical Experiments on Various Subjects by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47]. However, its use for propulsion was first given serious thought by Thomas Townsend Brown in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48] and later on by Major There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49], who contributed much to its basic physics and construction variations in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50]. In fact, Major De Seversky patented a very similar device known as the Ionocraft in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51], also part of the EHD thruster family. The basic external design of the Lifter was first described in a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50] patent filed by Thomas Townsend Brown, titled "Elektrokinetic Apparatus". There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53].

Lifter construction

The Lifter can be easily constructed by anyone with a minimal amount of technical knowledge. The Lifter shape was defined by Transdimensional Technologies as an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] or other electrically isolating frame so that the corona wire is supported at a fixed distance above the foil skirt, generally at 1 mm per kilovolt. The corona wire and foil should be as close as possible to achieve a saturated corona current condition which results in the highest production of thrust. However the corona wire should not be too close to the foil skirt as it will tend to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] in a spectacular show of tiny There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54]s which has a twofold effect.

# It degrades the thrust as it is There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] the device and there is Current (electricity) flow through the arc instead of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32] that do the lifting

# It can destroy the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55] or burn the balsa structure of the Lifter.

Parts of a Lifter

The corona wire:

The corona wire is usually, but not necessarily the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56] part of the Lifter. It is made from a small gauge There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58] such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59].

The corona wire is named because of its tendency to emit a purple There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] like glow while in use. This is simply a side effect of ionization. Excessive corona is to be avoided, as too much means the electrodes are dangerously close and may arc at any moment, not to mention the associated health hazards due to excess inhalation of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61] produced in the corona.

The air gap:

The air gap is simply that, a gap of free flowing There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62] between the two electrodes that make up the mass of a Lifter.

The air gap is a vital necessity to the functioning of a Lifter as it is the Dielectric used during operation. Best results have been observed with an air gap of 1 mm to every kV.

The foil skirt:

The foil skirt is usually, but not necessarily, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63] part of the Lifter. It is made from cheap, lightweight kitchen There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64] found at any There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65] in the world.

The foil skirt is named simply because it is shaped much like a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66], and is made from aluminum foil. It is by far the most fragile part, and must not be crumpled to work properly. Any sharp edges on the skirt will degrade the performance of the thruster.

Reversing the polarities of the corona wire with that of the foil does not alter the direction of motion. Thrust will be produced regardless of whether the ions are positive or negative.

How it works

The Lifter effect is a form of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67] or, in modern terms, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68] propulsion. In its basic form, the Lifter is able to produce forces great enough to lift up a few grams of payload, but its use is restricted to a tethered model. Lifters capable of payloads in the order of a few grams usually need to be powered by power sources and high voltage converters weighing a few kilograms, so although its simplistic design makes it an excellent way to experiment with this technology, it is unlikely a fully autonomous Lifter will be made with the current construction methods. Further study in electrohydrodynamics, however, show that different classes and construction methods of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69] and hybrid technology, put no limit to shape, size, payload or thrust-to-power ratio. Thus, a fully autonomous EHD thruster is theoretically possible, and possibly already conceived.

When the Lifter is turned on, the corona wire becomes charged with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34] by stripping the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70] away from them. As this happens, the ion is strongly repelled away from the anode but is equally strongly attracted towards the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71], causing the majority of the ions to begin accelerating in the direction of the cathode. These ions travel at a constant average velocity termed the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72]. Such velocity depends on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] between collisions, the external electric field, and on the mass of ions and neutral air molecules. If this were the only effect present, there would be no movement as the ions impact the second electrode, they create another equal and opposite force that cancels out the initial movement.

The fact that the current is carried by a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35], equal and opposite forces, so the Lifter moves in the opposite direction with an equal force. There are hundreds of thousands of molecules per second ejected from the Lifter, but the force exerted is comparable to a gentle breeze. Still, this is enough to make a light model lift off its own weight. The resulting thrust also depends on other external factors including air pressure and temperature, gas composition, voltage, humidity, air gap, and Lifter mass.

The air gap is very important for the function of this device. Between the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74] there is a mass of air, consisting of neutral air molecules, which gets in the way of the moving ions. This is air mass is impacted repeatedly by excited particles moving at high There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75]. This creates resistance, which must be overcome. The barrage of ions will eventually either push the whole mass of air out of the way, or break through to the cathode where electrons will be reattatched, making it neutral again. The end result of the neutral air caught in the process is to effectively make the ion more massive, causing more force to be exerted, both on the ion and on the Lifter. The heavier and denser the gas, the higher the resulting thrust.

Related concepts

Article:Development of Ionic Electrical Thrust Technology

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Patents and publications

Below are patents and publications related to lifters, electrokinetics, electrohydrodynamics, and the Biefeld-Brown effect.

American patents

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1] — Electrostatic motor — T. T. Brown

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2] — Electrokinetic apparatus — T. T. Brown

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3] — Electric vacuum pump — C. W. Hansell

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] — Electronic pump — R. W. Reitherman

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] — Electric vacuum pump — C. W. Hansell

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] — Fluid movement with precipation — W. H. Bennet

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7] — Ionic vacuum pump — R. C. Hergenrother

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] — High vacuum pumping method, apparatus, and techniques — E. A. Hertzler

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] — Ionic wind generating duct — N. E. Lindenblad

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] — Electrokinetic transducer — T. T. Brown

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] — Electrokinetic generator — T. T. Brown

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12] — Electrostatic Propulsion Means — W. J. Coleman, Et. al.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] — Ionized boundary layer fluid pumping system — G. A. Hill

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14] — Electric aerospace propulsion system — V. Gradecak

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15] — Electrokinetic apparatus — T. T. Brown

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] — Electric generator — T. T. Brown

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17] — Flying apparatus — G.E. Hagen

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] — Electrical thrust producing device — A. H. Bahnson., Jr.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] — Ionocraft — A. P. DeSeversky

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20] — Dipolar force field propulsion system — James E. Cox

Non-American patents

GB300311 — A method of and an apparatus or machine for producing force or motion — T. T. Brown

External articles and references

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PES Network

Lifter Technology PES Network Inc.

General websites

NASA: Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion

American Antigravity — A site for antigravity enthusiasts

JLN Labs — The Lifter project, construction details and tests results

Blaze Labs Research — Introduction to EHD thrusters and Lifters

Blaze Labs Research — Why Lifters will not work in a vacuum

Blaze Labs Research — Ionocraft mathematical analysis & design solutions (.pdf format, 120kb)

ForceLabs Basic Lifter Experiment and Video

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

Journals and articles

Talley, R .L., "Twenty First Century Propulsion Concept". PLTR-91-3009, Final Report for the period Feb 89 to July 90, on Contract FO4611-89-C-0023, Phillips Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Edwards AFB, CA 93523-5000, 1991.

See also

Image:IonicThrustDevelopment95x95 byKevn.jpg
Latest: Directory:Propulsion / Directory:Anti-Gravity > PowerPedia:Lifter >Article:Development of Ionic Electrical Thrust Technology - In the last few years, electric thrusters, commonly referred to as 'Lifters,' have achieved popularity as a home science project on the Internet. Advocates claim they are a significant technological breakthrough that promises anti-gravity anomalies and a possible new era of solid state electric flight. (PESWiki Oct. 18, 2008)

http://freeenergynews.com/Directory/Lifter/

Directory:Thomas Townsend Brown

Directory:Propulsion

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PowerPedia:Biefeld Brown effect

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