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PowerPedia:Johann Bessler

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Johann Ernst Elias Bessler (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] - There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8]) was born in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9], Germany. He is also known as Orffyre, a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] encryption of "Bessler", and Orffyreus, a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] version. Bessler demonstrated a series of claimed There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12]s.

Life and career

In 1712 Bessler appeared in the town of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] in the province of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14] and exhibited a "self-moving There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15]", which was about 6.5 feet (2&nbspm) in diameter and four inches (10&nbspcm) thick. Once in motion it was capable of lifting several pounds. The people of Gera didn't seem impressed by his demonstrations either they failed to grasp the importance of what he was showing them, or they were put off by Bessler's boastful, irritating and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] nature.

Leaving Gera, Bessler moved to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17], near There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18], where in 1713 he constructed an even larger wheel, a little over nine feet (2.7&nbspm) in diameter and six inches (15&nbspcm) in width. The wheel could turn at fifty revolutions a minute and raise a weight of forty pounds (18&nbspkg). Bessler constructed a still larger wheel in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] before moving to the small independent state of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20], where Prince Karl, the reigning There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21], offered him rooms in the ducal There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22] at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23]. It was here that in 1717 he constructed his largest wheel so far, twelve feet (3.7&nbspm) in diameter and fourteen inches (35&nbspcm) thick.

The wheel was examined by many learned men over several months who all concluded that there could be no deception. The wheel was locked in a room in the castle on 12 November 1717, with the doors and windows tightly sealed to prevent any interference. This was observed by the Landgrave and various officials. Two weeks later the seals were broken and the room was opened the wheel was still revolving. The door was resealed until 4 January 1718, whereupon it was opened and the wheel was still revolving at twenty-six revolutions per minute.

Whilst various institutions, including the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24], were debating whether to raise funds to purchase "Orffyreus' Wheel" (for which he demanded twenty thousand pounds), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] William s'Gravesande examined the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] of the wheel, concluding that he could see no way in which the wheel could be a fake. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27] Bessler smashed the wheel, believing s'Gravesande was hoping to discover the secret of the wheel without paying for it, and declared that the impertinent There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] of the professor had provoked him.

Bessler and his machine vanished into obscurity. It is known that he was rebuilding his machine in 1727 and that s'Gravesande had agreed to examine it again, but it is not known whether it was ever tested. In 1727 Bessler's maid, Anne Rosine Mauersbergerin, testified that his machines had been turned manually from an adjoining room. s'Gravesande wrote that he believed Bessler was "mad" but not such an obvious fraud. Bessler died in 1745, aged sixty-five, when he fell to his death from a four-and-a-half-story windmill he was contructing in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29]. The secret of his perpetual motion machine, whatever it was, died with him.

Evaluation

If it is accepted that There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1] mechanism was hidden inside the axle of the wheel. The possibility of a man being concealed inside it is ruled out by the test in which the wheel was left in a sealed room for three months.

Bessler himself published a pamphlet, entitled The Triumphant Orffyrean Perpetual Motion (1719), in which a vague account of his principles is included. He admitted that the wheel depended upon There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30]s, placed so that they can "never obtain equilibrium". It appears that what he is describing is an "overbalancing wheel" a wheel with two rims, one inside the other, where weights move between the rims. The weights on the outer rim outweigh the weights on the inner rim on the opposite side, so that side descends. As the weights begin to rise again under their own momentum, some mechanism transfers them onto the inner rim, where they are nearer the centre of the circle and thus lighter in effect than those on the descending outer rim. The weights rise to the top of the wheel, where they are again transferred to the outer wheel.

However, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] (who originally thought of the idea) overlooked one basic point. The outer rim is of course longer than the inner rim, so there is less weight on the descending rim than on the other side. So the two sides counterbalance each other, causing the wheel to soon stop spinning.

Some think it is likely that Bessler constructed some sort of overbalancing wheel with a spring mechanism hidden inside once the inner workings were examined, the "buyers" would soon conclude that Bessler had indeed stumbled upon a remarkably simple way to overcome the problem of perpetual motion. By the time they had really studied it and discovered the spring, Bessler (and his twenty thousand pounds) would be many miles away. If this is not how he created his "perpetual" motion machine, the secrets of it were lost with his death.

Coded papers

Recently, a series of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2] features has been discovered among various papers published by the inventor. Research by Bessler's There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3], John Collins, has revealed that these codes contain clues as to the construction of his wheels. It seems he intended, from the beginning of his career, that his notoriety and efforts to construct a self-moving wheel would not die with him.

Bessler constructed a variety of codes, which would in time, collected together, reveal his secret. The clues to these codes range from very simple to quite complex. Collins claims to have deciphered some of the clues. He details these in a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] book, Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved?, Permo Publications 1997 ISBN 1-4116-7636-X, and also discusses many others which to date remain undeciphered.

External links

http://www.orffyre.com - the demonstrations and examinations of a series of claimed perpetual motion energy machines designed and constructed by Johann Bessler, also known as Orffyreus. What is the secret of Bessler's wheel and why have his demonstrations never been replicated?

http://johannbessler.com - Johann Bessler web site

http://besslerwheel.com - Bessler Wheel web site

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] at de.wikisource

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