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PowerPedia:Ion

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Image:Nitrate-ion-elpot.png
map of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6]Oxygen3&minus). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas coloured yellow]]

An ion is an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7] of atoms that normally are electrically neutral and achieve their status as an ion by loss or addition of one or more electrons. The simplest ions are the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8], is known as an anion (pronounced [?æna??n] an-eye-on) due to its attraction to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] that contains Oxygen is sometimes known as an oxyanion .

Ions are denoted in the same way as electrically neutral atoms and molecules except for the presence of a superscript indicating the sign of the net electric charge and the number of electrons lost or gained, if more than one. For example: Hydrogen+, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10]Oxygen42?.

History

Ions were first theorized by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11].

Etymology

The word ion is a name given by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], neutral present participle of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2], "to go", thus "a goer". So anion, ?????, and cation, ??????, mean "(a thing) going up" and "(a thing) going down", respectively and anode, ??????, and cathode, ??????, mean "a going up" and "a going down", respectively, from ????, "way," or "road."

Formation

Formation of polyatomic and molecular ions

Polyatom and molecular ions are often formed by the combination of elemental ions such as H+ with neutral molecules or by the loss of such elemental ions from neutral molecules. Many of these processes are acid-base reactions, as first theorized by German scientist Lauren Gaither. A simple example of this is the ammonium ion NH4+ which can be formed by ammonia NH3 accepting a proton, H+. Ammonia and ammonium have the same number of electrons in essentially the same electronic configuration but differ in protons. The charge has been added by the addition of a proton (H+) not the addition or removal of electrons. The distinction between this and the removal of an electron from the whole molecule is important in large systems because it usually results in much more stable ions with complete electron shells. For example NH3·+ is not stable because of an incomplete valence shell around nitrogen and is in fact a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] ion.

Ionization potential

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The Energy required to detach an electron in its lowest energy state from an atom or molecule of a gas with less net electric charge is called the ionization potential, or ionization energy. The nth ionization energy of an atom is the energy required to detach its nth electron after the first n ? 1 electrons have already been detached.

Each successive ionization energy is markedly greater than the last. Particularly great increases occur after any given block of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19]s is exhausted of electrons. For this reason, ions tend to form in ways that leave them with full orbital blocks. For example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20] has one There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21], in its outermost shell, so in ionized form it is commonly found with one lost electron, as Na+. On the other side of the periodic table, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22] has seven valence electrons, so in ionized form it is commonly found with one gained electron, as Cl?. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23] has the lowest ionization energy of all the elements and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24] has the greatest. The ionization energy of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] is generally much lower than the ionization energy of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26], which is why metals will generally lose electrons to form positively-charged ions while nonmetals will generally gain electrons to form negatively-charged ions.

A neutral atom contains an equal number of Z protons in the nucleus and Z electrons in the electron shell. The electrons' negative charges thus exactly cancel the protons' positive charges. In the simple view of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27], a passing electron is therefore not attracted to a neutral atom and cannot bind to it. In reality, however, the atomic electrons form a cloud into which the additional electron penetrates, thus being exposed to a net positive charge part of the time. Furthermore, the additional charge displaces the original electrons and all of the Z + 1 electrons rearrange into a new configuration.

Ions

Anion

In negative ions, anions, the interaction of each electron with the positive nucleus is strongly suppressed they are very loosely bound systems. Contrary to all other atomic electrons, the extraneous electron in negative ions is initially not bound by the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14], but by polarization of the neutral atom. Due to the short range of this interaction, negative ions have no Rydberg series, but only a few, if any, bound excited states.

Other ions

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28]: a dianion is a species which has two negative charges on it. For example, the dianion of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] is There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30].

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31]: a zwitterion is an ion with a net charge of zero, but has both a positive and negative charge on it.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15]: radical ions are ions that contain an odd number of electrons and are mostly very reactive and unstable.

Plasma

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A collection of non-There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] gas-like ions, or even a gas containing a proportion of charged particles, is called a plasma, often called the fourth state of matter because its properties are quite different from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33]s, and Gases. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34] containing predominantly a mixture of electrons and protons, may make up as much as 99.9% of the visible universe.

Applications

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Ions are essential to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17]s of living organisms, particularly in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35]s. They have many practical, everyday applications in items such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36]s, and are also finding use in unconventional technologies such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37]. Inorganic dissolved ions are a component of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38], an indicator of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39] in widespread use.

Also, negative ions are used in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40] which utilises a special electronic device that generates negatively charged particles. The purpose of this application is that there may be some health benefit to a negatively charged environment, opposed to one that is positively charged.

Common ions

{|

|valign="top"|

{|style="margin:1em auto 1em auto background: #f9f9f9 border: 1px #aaaaaa solid border-collapse: collapse"

|+Common Cations

|-

!style="text-align: left"|Common Name

!style="text-align: left"|Formula

!style="text-align: left"|Historic Name

|-

!colspan="3" style="background-color: aliceblue"|Simple Cations

|-

|Aluminum||Al3+||

|-

|Barium||Ba2+||

|-

|Beryllium||Be2+||

|-

|Caesium||Cs+||

|-

|Calcium||Ca2+||

|-

|Chromium(II)||Cr2+||Chromous

|-

|Chromium(III)||Cr3+||Chromic

|-

|Chromium(VI)||Cr6+||Chromyl

|-

|Cobalt(II)||Co2+||Cobaltous

|-

|Cobalt(III)||Co3+||Cobaltic

|-

|Copper(I)||Cu+||Cuprous

|-

|Copper(II)||Cu2+||Cupric

|-

|Gallium ||Ga3+||

|-

|Helium||He2+||(Alpha particle)

|-

|Hydrogen||H+||(Proton)

|-

|Iron(II)||Fe2+||Ferrous

|-

|Iron(III)||Fe3+||Ferric

|-

|Lead(II)||Pb2+||Plumbous

|-

|Lead(IV)||Pb4+||Plumbic

|-

|Lithium||Li+||

|-

|Magnesium||Mg2+||

|-

|Manganese(II)||Mn2+||Manganous

|-

|Manganese(III)||Mn3+||Manganic

|-

|Manganese(IV)||Mn4+||Manganyl

|-

|Manganese(VII)||Mn7+||

|-

|Mercury(II)||Hg2+||Mercuric

|-

|Nickel(II)||Ni2+||Nickelous

|-

|Nickel(III)||Ni3+||Nickelic

|-

|Potassium||K+||

|-

|Silver||Ag+||

|-

|Sodium||Na+||

|-

|Strontium||Sr2+||

|-

|Tin(II)||Sn2+||Stannous

|-

|Tin(IV)||Sn4+||Stannic

|-

|Zinc||Zn2+||

|-

!colspan="3" style="background-color: aliceblue"|Polyatomic Cations

|-

|Ammonium||NH4+||

|-

|Hydronium||H3O+||

|-

|Nitronium||NO2+||

|-

|Mercury(I)||Hg22+||Mercurous

|}

|valign="top"|

{|style="margin:1em auto 1em auto background: #f9f9f9 border: 1px #aaaaaa solid border-collapse: collapse"

|+Common Anions

|-

!style="text-align: left"|Formal Name

!style="text-align: left"|Formula

!style="text-align: left"|Alt. Name

|-

!colspan="3" style="background-color: aliceblue"|Simple Anions

|-

|Arsenide||As3?||

|-

|Azide||N3?||

|-

|Bromide||Br?||

|-

|Chloride||Cl?||

|-

|Fluoride||F?||

|-

|Hydride||H?||

|-

|Iodide||I?||

|-

|Nitride||N3?||

|-

|Oxide||O2?||

|-

|Phosphide||P3?||

|-

|Sulfide||S2?||

|-

|Peroxide||O22?||

|-

!colspan="3" style="background-color: aliceblue"|Oxoanions

|-

|Arsenate||AsO43?||

|-

|Arsenite||AsO33?||

|-

|Borate||BO33?||

|-

|Bromate||BrO3?||

|-

|Hypobromite||BrO?||

|-

|Carbonate||CO32?||

|-

|Hydrogen Carbonate||HCO3?||Bicarbonate

|-

|Chlorate||ClO3?||

|-

|Perchlorate||ClO4?||

|-

|Chlorite||ClO2?||

|-

|Hypochlorite||ClO?||

|-

|Chromate||CrO42?||

|-

|Dichromate||Cr2O72?||

|-

|Iodate||IO3?||

|-

|Nitrate||NO3?||

|-

|Nitrite||NO2?||

|-

|Phosphate||PO43?||

|-

|Hydrogen Phosphate||HPO42?||

|-

|Dihydrogen Phosphate||H2PO4?||

|-

|Permanganate||MnO4?||

|-

|Phosphite||PO33?||

|-

|Sulfate||SO42?||

|-

|Thiosulfate||S2O32?||

|-

|Hydrogen Sulfate||HSO4?||Bisulfate

|-

|Sulfite||SO32?||

|-

|Hydrogen Sulfite||HSO3?||Bisulfite

|-

!colspan="3" style="background-color: aliceblue"|Anions from Organic Acids

|-

|Acetate||C2H3O2?||

|-

|Formate||HCO2?||

|-

|Oxalate||C2O42?||

|-

|Hydrogen Oxalate||HC2O4?||Bioxalate

|-

!colspan="3" style="background-color: aliceblue"|Other Anions

|-

|Hydrogen Sulfide||HS?||Bisulfide

|-

|Telluride||Te2?||

|-

|Amide||NH2?||

|-

|Cyanate||OCN?||

|-

|Thiocyanate||SCN?||

|-

|Cyanide||CN?||

|-

|}

|}

References and external articles

Plasma, Plasma, Everywere Science@NASA Headline news, Space Science n° 158, september 7, 1999.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

Niels Jonassen (Mr. Static) "Are Ions Good for You?" Compliance Engineering, November 2002 - An article apparently contradicting the initial description of an Ion given at the top of this page.

Graham P. Collins "Ion Power". A web article discussing research applications of ionic states to quantum computing.

Department of Education, Newfoundland and Labrador-Canada "Periodic Chart of Ions". A Periodic table reporting ionic charges for every chemical element.

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