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The internal combustion engine is a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2] occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. This There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49] reaction of a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50] with an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51] creates gases of high Temperature and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52], which are permitted to expand. The defining feature of an internal combustion engine is that useful work is performed by the expanding hot gases acting directly to cause movement, for example by acting on pistons, rotors, or even by pressing on and moving the entire Engine itself. This contrasts with External combustion engines such as Steam engines which use the combustion process to heat a separate working fluid, typically water or steam, which then in turn does work, for example by pressing on a steam actuated piston.

Introduction

The term Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is almost always used to refer specifically to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54]s and similar designs in which combustion is intermittent. However, continuous combustion engines, such as Jet engines, most There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55]s and many Gas turbines are also very definitely internal combustion engines.

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History of Heat Engines

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The first internal combustion engines did not have compression, but ran on what air/fuel mixture could be sucked or blown in during the first part of the intake stroke. The most significant distinction between modern internal combustion engines and the early designs is the use of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3] and in particular of in-cylinder compression.

1509: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56] described a compression-less engine. (His description may not imply that the idea was original with him or that it was actually built.)

1673: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57] described a compression-less engine.

1780's: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4], firing a cork from the end of the gun.

17th century: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] inventor Sir There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58] used There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59] to drive water pumps.

1794: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60] built a compression-less engine whose principle of operation would dominate for nearly a century.

1823: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. It was compression-less and based on what Hardenberg calls the "Leonardo cycle," which, as this name implies, was already out of date at that time. Just as today, early major funding, in an area where standards had not yet been established, went to the best showmen sooner than to the best workers.

1824: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7] established the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61] theory of idealized heat engines in France in 1824. This scientifically established the need for compression to increase the difference between the upper and lower working temperatures, but it is not clear that engine designers were aware of this before compression was already commonly used. It may have misled designers who tried to emulate the Carnot cycle in ways that were not useful.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63]: The American There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64] received a Patent for a compression-less "Gas Or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65]".

1838: a patent was granted to William Barnet (English). This was the first recorded suggestion of in-cylinder compression. He apparently did not realize its advantages, but his cycle would have been a great advance if developed enough.

1854: The Italians There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67] patented the first working efficient internal combustion engine in London (pt. Num. 1072) but did not get into production with it. It was similar in concept to the successful Otto Langen indirect engine, but not so well worked out in detail.

1860: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] (1822 - 1900) produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine closely similar in appearance to a horizontal double-acting There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69], with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72]s, and Flywheel in which the gas essentially took the place of the steam. This was the first internal combustion engine to be produced in numbers. His first engine with compression shocked itself apart.

1862: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] designed an indirect-acting free-piston compression-less engine whose greater efficiency won the support of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74] and then most of the market, which at that time, was mostly for small stationary engines fueled by lighting gas.

1870: In Vienna There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75] put the first mobile gasoline engine on a handcart.

1876: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] courts, however, did not hold his patent to cover all in-cylinder compression engines or even the four stroke cycle, and after this decision in-cylinder compression became universal.

1879: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76], working independently, was granted a Patent for his internal combustion engine, a reliable There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77] gas engine, based on Nikolaus Otto's design of the four-stroke engine. Later Benz designed and built his own There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78] engine that was used in his automobiles, which became the first Automobiles in production.

1892: Rudolf Diesel invented the Diesel engine.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80]: Rudolf Diesel received the patent for the Diesel engine.

1896: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] invented the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82], also known as the horizontally opposed Engine, in which the corresponding There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83]s reach top dead centre at the same time, thus balancing each other in momentum.

1900: Rudolf Diesel demonstrated the diesel engine in the 1900 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84]) using peanut oil (see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85]).

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Applications

Internal combustion engines are most commonly used for mobile propulsion systems. In mobile scenarios internal combustion is advantageous, since it can provide high power to weight ratios together with excellent fuel energy-density. These engines have appeared in almost all Automobiles, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86]s, many There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87]s, and in a wide variety of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89]s. Where very high power is required, such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91]s and large ships, they appear mostly in the form of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92]. They are also used for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93]s and by industry.

Internal combustion mechanics

The potato cannon uses basic principles behind any reciprocating internal combustion engine: If a tiny amount of high-energy fuel (like gasoline) is put into a small, enclosed space and ignited, an incredible amount of energy is released in the form of expanding gas. That energy can be used to propel a potato 500 feet. In this case, the energy is translated into potato motion. It can also be used for more interesting purposes. For example, a cycle can be created that allows one to set off explosions like this hundreds of times per minute, and if that energy can be harnessed in a useful way, it is the same as the core of a car engine! Almost all cars currently use what is called a four-stroke combustion cycle to convert gasoline into motion. The four-stroke approach is also known as the Otto cycle, in honor of Nikolaus Otto, who invented it in 1867. The four strokes are:

#Intake stroke

#Compression stroke

#Combustion stroke

#Exhaust stroke

Operation

All internal combustion engines depend on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94] chemical process of Combustion: the reaction of a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95], typically with air, although other oxidisers such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96] may be employed. Also see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97].

The most common fuels in use today are made up of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] can also be used. Some can run on Hydrogen however, this can be dangerous. Hydrogen burns with a colorless flame, and modifications to the cylinder block, cylinder head, and head gasket are required to seal in the flame front. Experimentation at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98] showed that without such modifications flame leaks from the exhaust manifolds were common. Since the flame was colorless, it was not visible to the naked eye. An invisible flame is more dangerous than a visible flame, since one cannot take into account what cannot be seen, and operator injury was regarded as a definite danger. However BMW has recently designed a 12-cylinder Hydrogen powered car, and the company has stated that it plans to market the vehicle.

All internal combustion engines must have a means of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12] to promote combustion. Most engines use either an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] or a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99] system. Electrical ignition systems generally rely on a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100] and an Induction coil to provide a high voltage electrical spark to ignite the air-fuel mix in the engine's cylinders. This battery can be recharged during operation using an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101] driven by the engine. Compression heating ignition systems, such as Diesel engines and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102] engines, rely on the heat created in the air by compression in the engine's cylinders to ignite the fuel.

Once successfully ignited and burnt, the combustion products, hot There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14] by the engine. In a reciprocating engine, the high pressure product gases inside the cylinders drive the engine's pistons. Once the available energy has been removed the remaining hot gases are There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15] (often by opening a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] or exposing the exhaust outlet) and this allows the piston to return to its previous position (Top Dead Center - TDC). The piston can then proceed to the next phase of its cycle, which varies between engines. Any Heat not translated into work is a waste product and is removed from the engine either by an air or liquid cooling system.

Parts

The parts of an engine vary depending on the engine's type. For a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17] engine, key parts of the engine include the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18]s. For a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] engine, there may simply be an exhaust outlet and fuel inlet instead of a valve system. In both types of engines, there are one or more cylinders (grey and green) and for each cylinder there is a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20] (purple). A single sweep of the cylinder by the piston in an upward or downward motion is known as a stroke and the downward stroke that occurs directly after the air-fuel mix in the cylinder is ignited is known as a power stroke. A There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103] has a triangular rotor that orbits in an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104]al (figure 8 shape) chamber around an eccentric shaft. The four phases of operation (intake, compression, power, exhaust) take place in separate locations, instead of one single location as in a reciprocating engine. A Bourke engine uses a pair of pistons integrated to a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105] that transmits reciprocating force through a specially designed bearing assembly to turn a crank mechanism. Intake, compression, power, and exhaust all occur in each stroke of this yoke.

Classification

There is a wide range of internal combustion engines corresponding to their many varied applications. Likewise there is a wide range of ways to classify internal-combustion engines, some of which are listed below. Although the terms sometimes cause confusion, there is no real difference between an "engine" and a "motor." At one time, the word "engine" (from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21]. Traditionally, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22] refers to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[106] operated by electricity).

Principles of operation

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There was an error working with the wiki: Code[111]s

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Proposed

Bourke engine

Improvements

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[113]

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Demonstrated:

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Proposed:

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Continuous combustion:

Gas turbine

Jet engine

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Engine cycle
Two-stroke

Engines based on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[119], which is then blown through the cylinder through ports in the cylinder walls. Spark-ignition two-strokes are small and light (for their power output), and mechanically very simple. Common applications include There was an error working with the wiki: Code[120]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[121]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[122]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[123]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[124]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[125]s and some There was an error working with the wiki: Code[126]s. Unfortunately, they are also generally louder, less efficient, and far more polluting than their four-stroke counterparts, and they do not scale well to larger sizes. Interestingly, the largest compression-ignition engines are two-strokes, and are used in some locomotives and large ships. These engines use There was an error working with the wiki: Code[127] to scavenge the cylinders.

Four-stroke

Engines based on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27] cycles. Most truck and automotive Diesel engines use a four-stroke cycle, but with a compression heating ignition system. This variation is called the Diesel cycle.

Bourke Engine

In this engine, two diametrically opposed cylinders are linked to the crank by the crank pin that goes through the common scottish yoke. The cylinders and pistons are so constructed that there are, as in the usual two stroke cycle, two power strokes per revolution. However, unlike the common two stroke engine, the burnt gases and the incoming fresh air do not mix in the cylinders, contributing to a cleaner, more efficient operation. The scotch yoke mechanism also thrust and thus greatly reduces friction between pistons and cylinder walls.

Controlled Combustion Engine

These are also cylinder based engines may be either single or two stroke but use, instead of a crankshaft and piston rods, two gear connected, counter rotating concentric cams to convert reciprocating motion into rotary movement. These cams practically cancel out sideward forces that would otherwise be exerted on the cylinders by the pistons, greatly improving mechanical efficiency. The profiles of the cam lobes(which are always odd and at least three in number) determine the piston travel versus the torque delivered. In this engine, there are two cylinders that are 180 degrees apart for each pair of counter rotating cams. For single stroke versions, there are the same number of cycles per cylinder pair as there are lobes on each cam, twice as much for two stroke units.

Wankel

The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[128] operates with the same separation of phases as the four-stroke engine (but with no piston strokes, would more properly be called a four-phase engine), since the phases occur in separate locations in the engine however like a two-stroke piston engine, it provides one power 'stroke' per revolution per rotor, giving it similar space and weight efficiency. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[129]'s combustion phase more closely approximates There was an error working with the wiki: Code[130] than either four stroke or two stroke cycles do. It also uses less moving parts, hence needs to overcome less There was an error working with the wiki: Code[131] than the other two reciprocating types have to. In addition, its greater There was an error working with the wiki: Code[132] also means more of the heat from its combustion phase is utilized than is used by either four stroke or two stroke cycles.

Gas turbine

With gas turbine cycles (notably There was an error working with the wiki: Code[133]), rather than use the same piston to compress and then expand the gases, instead separate compressors and gas turbines are employed giving continuous power. Essentially, the intake gas (air normally) is compressed, and then combusted with a fuel, which greatly raises the temperature and volume. The larger volume of hot gas from the combustion chamber is then fed through the gas turbine which is then easily able to power the compressor.

Disused methods

In some old non-compressing internal combustion engines: In the first part of the piston downstroke a fuel/air mixture was sucked or blown in. In the rest of the piston downstroke the inlet valve closed and the fuel/air mixture fired. In the piston upstroke the exhaust valve was open. This was an attempt at imitating the way a piston Steam engine works.

Fuel and oxidizer types

Fuels used include petroleum spirit (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] term: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] term: petrol), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[134], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[135], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[136], Hydrogen, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[137], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[138], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[139], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[140], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[141], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[142] and other There was an error working with the wiki: Code[143]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[144], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[145] (methyl or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[146]) and other Biofuels. Even fluidised metal powders and explosives have seen some use. Engines that use gases for fuel are called gas engines and those that use liquid hydrocarbons are called oil engines. However, gasoline engines are unfortunately also often colloquially referred to as 'gas engines'.

The main limitations on fuels are that the fuel must be easily transportable through the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[147] to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[148], and that the fuel release sufficient Energy in the form of Heat upon Combustion to make use of the engine practical. The oxidiser is typically air, and has the advantage of not being stored within the vehicle, increasing the power-to-weight ratio. Air can, however, be compressed and carried aboard a vehicle. Some submarines are designed to carry pure Oxygen or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[149] to make them air-independent. Some race cars carry There was an error working with the wiki: Code[150] as oxidizer. Other chemicals such as chlorine or fluorine have seen experimental use but mostly are impractical.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[151], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[152], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[153] (LPG) and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[154]. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[155] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[156] (TVO) engines are no longer seen.

Some have theorized that in the future There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31]. Furthermore, with the introduction of hydrogen There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32]. Liquid hydrogen has extremely low density- 14 times lower than water and requires extensive insulation, whilst gaseous hydrogen requires very heavy tankage. Although hydrogen has a higher specific energy, the volumetric energetic storage is still roughly five times lower than petrol, even when liquified. (The 'Hydrogen on Demand' process, designed by Steven Amendola, creates hydrogen as it is needed, but this has other issues, such as the raw materials being relatively expensive.)

Cylinders

Internal combustion engines can contain any number of cylinders with numbers between one and twelve being common, though as many as 36 (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[157]) have been used. Having more cylinders in an engine yields two potential benefits: First, the engine can have a larger displacement with smaller individual reciprocating masses (that is, the mass of each piston can be less) thus making a smoother running engine (since the engine tends to vibrate as a result of the pistons moving up and down). Second, with a greater displacement and more pistons, more fuel can be combusted and there can be more combustion events (that is, more power strokes) in a given period of time, meaning that such an engine can generate more torque than a similar engine with fewer cylinders. The down side to having more pistons is that, over all, the engine will tend to weigh more and tend to generate more internal friction as the greater number of pistons rub against the inside of their cylinders. This tends to decrease fuel efficiency and rob the engine of some of its power. For high performance gasoline engines using current materials and technology (such as the engines found in modern automobiles), there seems to be a break point around 10 or 12 cylinders, after which addition of cylinders becomes an overall detriment to performance and efficiency, although exceptions such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[158] engine from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[159] exist.

Most car engines have four to eight cylinders, with some high performance cars having ten, twelve, or even sixteen, and some very small cars and trucks having two or three. In previous years some quite large cars, such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[160] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[161], had two cylinder, two stroke engines.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[162] engines, now obsolete, had from three to 28 cylinders, such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[163]. A row contains an odd number of cylinders, so an even number indicates a two- or four-row engine. The largest of these was the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[164] with 36 cylinders (four rows of nine cylinders) but never entered production.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[165]s commonly have from one to four cylinders, with a few high performance models having six (though some 'novelties' exist with 8, 10 and 12).

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[166]s usually have two cylinders. Some larger (not necessarily high-performance, but also touring machines) have four.

Small portable appliances such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[167]s, generators and domestic There was an error working with the wiki: Code[168]s most commonly have one cylinder, although two-cylinder chainsaws exist.

Ignition system

Internal combustion engines can be classified by their There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35] system for ignition. However There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37] systems have been used historically. Nikola Tesla gained one of the first patents on the mechanical ignition system with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], "Electrical Igniter for Gas Engines", on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[169] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[170].

Fuel systems

Often for simple reciprocating engines a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[171] is used as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[172] method into the cylinder. However, exact control of the correct amount of fuel supplied to the engine is impossible. Larger gasoline engines such as used in cars have mostly moved to fuel injection systems (see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[173]). Diesel engines always use fuel injection. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[174] engines use a mix of fuel injection systems and closed loop carburetors. Other internal combustion engines like Jet engines use burners, and rocket engines use various different ideas including impinging jets, gas/liquid shear, preburners and many other ideas.

Engine configuration

Internal combustion engines can be classified by their There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] which affects their physical size and smoothness (with smoother engines producing less There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39]). Common configurations include the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40], the more compact There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41] and the wider but smoother There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42]. Aircraft engines can also adopt a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43] which allows more effective cooling. More unusual configurations, such as "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44]", "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45]", "X", or "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46]" have also been used.

Multiple-crankshaft configurations do not necessarily need a cylinder head at all, but can instead have a piston at each end of the cylinder, called an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[175] design. This design was used in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[176] diesel aircraft engine, using two crankshafts, one at either end of a single bank of cylinders, and most remarkably in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[177] diesel engines, which used three crankshafts to serve three banks of double-ended cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangle with the crankshafts at the corners. It was also used in single-bank locomotive engines, and continues to be used for marine engines, both for propulsion and for auxiliary generators. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[178] engine, used in several early aircraft, had a stationary crankshaft and a bank of radially arranged cylinders rotating around it.

Engine capacity

An engine's capacity is the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[179] by the pistons of the engine. It is generally measured in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[180]s or cubic inches for larger engines and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[181]s (abbreviated to cc's) for smaller engines. Engines with greater capacities are usually more powerful and provide greater torque at lower rpms but also consume more fuel.

Apart from designing an engine with more cylinders, there are two ways to increase an engine's capacity. The first is to lengthen the stroke and the second is to increase the piston's diameter (See also: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[182]). In either case, it may be necessary to make further adjustments to the fuel intake of the engine to ensure optimal performance.

An engine's quoted capacity can be more a matter of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[183] than of engineering. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[184] 10000, the Morris 112500, and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[185] Mark II all had engines of the same stroke and bore according to their specifications, and were from the same maker. However the engine capacities were quoted as 1000cc, 1100cc and 1098cc respectively in the sales literature and on the vehicle badges.

Engine pollution

Generally internal combustion engines, particularly reciprocating internal combustion engines, produce moderately high pollution levels, due to incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuel, leading to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[186] and some There was an error working with the wiki: Code[187] along with oxides of nitrogen & There was an error working with the wiki: Code[188] and some unburnt hydrocarbons depending on the operating conditions and the fuel/air ratio. The primary causes of this are the need to operate near the stoichiometric ratio for petrol engines in order to achieve combustion (the fuel would burn more completely in excess air) and the "quench" of the flame by the relatively cool cylinder walls.

Diesel engines produce a wide range of pollutants including aerosols of many small particles (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48] as LPG burns very clean and complete and does not contain sulphur or lead.

Many fuels contain sulfur leading to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[189]s (SOx) in the exhaust, promoting There was an error working with the wiki: Code[190].

The high temperature of combustion creates greater proportions of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[191]s (NOx), demonstrated to be hazardous to both plant and animal health.

Net carbon dioxide production is not a necessary feature of engines, but since most engines are run from Fossil fuels this usually occurs. If engines are run from Biomass, then no net carbon dioxide is produced as the growing plants absorb as much, or more carbon dioxide while growing.

Hydrogen engines need only produce water, but when air is used as the oxidizer nitrogen oxides are also produced.

References and external articles

General

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

Animated Engines - explains a variety of types

Intro To Car Engines - Cut-away images and a good overview of the internal combustion engine

The Fuel and Engine Bible - A good resource for different engine types and fuels

Engine Modifications - explains what modifications are available for a car engine

Self Improvement Wednesday - ABC 702 Drive audio

The role of spray technology and combustion engines

Firing on Half Cylinders - from V8 to V4

Bibliography

Singer, Charles Joseph Raper, Richard, A history of technology : The Internal Combustion Engine, edited by Charles Singer ... [et al.], Clarendon Press, 1954-1978. pp.157-176http://proxy.bib.uottawa.ca:2398/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=acls&cc=acls&idno=heb02191.0005.001&q1=bicycle&frm=frameset&seq=5

Hardenberg, Horst O., The Middle Ages of the Internal combustion Engine, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 1999

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