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:See Directory:Fuel Cells for a listing of sites.

A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device. Fuel cells differ from Battery (electricity) in that they are designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed they produce electricity from an external supply of fuel and Oxygen as opposed to the limited internal energy storage capacity of a battery. Additionally, while the electrodes within a battery react and change as a battery is charged or discharged, a fuel cell's electrodes are catalytic and relatively stable.

Typical There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17]s used in a fuel cell are Hydrogen on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] side and oxygen on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] side (a hydrogen cell). Usually, reactants flow in and reaction products flow out. Virtually continuous long-term operation is feasible as long as these flows are maintained.

Synopsis

The following was approved as an official statement by the New Energy Congress regarding Fuel Cells on October 22, 2006.

(See archive copy of approved text. Tally: 5 yes 1 no 2 abstain 1 need more time.)

||||| Begin Statement |||||

Fuel cells have the potential of offering the benefits of high efficiency with no emissions, and high energy density for applications like portable power. However, the technology requires further development and infrastructure (including transport and storage of hydrogen) before it will be practical and affordable for vehicular and other practical uses.

Fuel cells now play a role in many fields, like space power for the shuttle and space station, as well as a host of other military and civilian applications, including UAV's, backpack power, and portable power applications such as laptops. Other Fuel Cell technologies are used in medium-to-large distributed CoGen power generation (alkaline, phosphoric acid, and molten carbonate designs).

Emerging high temperature designs, including Solid Oxide systems, may hold possible future potential in contrast to today's low temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) systems, which are highly susceptible to degradation either by excessive hydration or dehydration.

The hydrogen and methane produced for fuel cell use is currently derived primarily from fossil fuels, though it can be generated from renewable sources, and hopefully will as we shift away from dependence on oil.

It might well be argued that the progress that has been made in the fuel cell industry has been due to the billions of dollars that have been spent in fuel cell research, which, because of the fuel source presently being derived primarily from petrol, is a close cousin of the oil industry and that this progress has brought only minor relief to the need for clean, affordable energy solutions. If only a small portion of that funding could have been spent in other emerging technologies, how different might the outcome be?

||||| End Statement |||||

Technology

In the archetypal example of a hydrogen/oxygen There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20] (PEMFC), a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21]-conducting polymer membrane, (the Electrolyte), separates the anode and cathode sides.

On the anode side, hydrogen diffuses to the anode catalyst where it dissociates into protons and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] (supplying power) because the membrane is electrically insulating. On the cathode catalyst, oxygen There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22]s react with the electrons (which have traveled through the external circuit) and protons to form water. In this example, the only waste product is There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23] and/or liquid Water.

In addition to pure hydrogen, there are Hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells, including Diesel, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24] (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25]s) and chemical hydrides. The waste product with these types of fuel is There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26].

The materials used in fuel cells differ by type. The electrode/There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7].

A typical fuel cell produces about 0.86 volts. To create enough Voltage, the cells are layered and combined in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27] to form a fuel cell stack. The number of cells used is usually greater than 45 and varies with design.

Fuel cell design issues

Costs. In 2002, typical cells had a catalyst content of USD $1000 per kW of electric power output. This is expected to be reduced to $30/kW by 2007. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] have experiments with a catalyst enhanced with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] which allows a 30% reduction (1 mg/cm² to 0.7 mg/cm²) in platinum usage without reduction in performance.

The production costs of the PEM (proton exchange membrane). The Nafion® membrane currently costs €400/m². This, and the Toyota PEM and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] PEM membrane can be replaced with the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] membrane (a hydrocarbon polymer), resulting in a price of ~€4/m². One of the bigger companies is using Solupor® (a porous There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32] film).

Water management (in PEMFCs). In this type of fuel cell, the membrane must be hydrated, requiring water to be evaporated at precisely the same rate that it is produced. If water is evaporated too quickly, the membrane dries, resistance across it increases, and eventually it will crack, creating a gas "short circuit" where hydrogen and oxygen combine directly, generating heat that will damage the fuel cell. If the water is evaporated too slowly, the electrodes will flood, preventing the reactants from reaching the catalyst and stopping the reaction. Methods to dispose of the excess water are being developed by fuel cell companies.

Flow control. Just as in a combustion engine, a steady ratio between the reactant and oxygen is necessary to keep the fuel cell operating efficiently.

Temperature management. The same temperature must be maintained throughout the cell in order to prevent destruction of the cell through There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] loading.

Durability, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34], and special requirements for some type of cells. Stationary applications typically require more than 40,000 hours of reliable operation at a temperature of -35 °C to 40 °C, while automotive fuel cells require a 5,000 hour lifespan (the equivalent of 150,000 miles) under extreme temperatures. Automotive engines must also be able to start reliably at -30 °C and have a high power to volume ratio (typically 2.5 kW per liter).

Limited There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35] tolerance of the anode.

History

The principle of the fuel cell was discovered by German scientist There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36] in 1838 and published in the January 1839 edition of the "Philosophical Magazine". Based on this work, the first fuel cell was developed by Welsh scientist Sir There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37] in 1843. The fuel cell he made used similar materials to today's phosphoric-acid fuel cell. It wasn't until 1959 that British engineer There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] successfully developed a 5 kW stationary fuel cell. In 1959, a team led by Harry Ihrig built a 15 kW fuel cell tractor for Allis-Chalmers which was demonstrated across the US at state fairs. This system used potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and compressed hydrogen and oxygen as the reactants. Later in 1959, Bacon and his colleagues demonstrated a practical five-kilowatt unit capable of powering a welding machine. In the 1960s, Pratt and Whitney licensed Bacon's U.S. patents for use in the U.S. space program to supply electricity and drinking water (hydrogen and oxygen being readily available from the spacecraft tanks).

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8]'s Power subsidiary was the first company to manufacture and commercialize a large, stationary fuel cell system for use as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39] power plant in hospitals, universities and large office buildings. UTC Power continues to market this fuel cell as the PureCell 200, a 200 kW system. UTC Power continues to be the sole supplier of fuel cells to NASA for use in space vehicles, having supplied the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40]s and currently the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41], and is developing fuel cells for automobiles, buses, and cell phone towers the company has demonstrated the first fuel cell capable of starting under freezing conditions with its Proton exchange membrane automotive fuel cell.

In 2006 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42] introduced an inexpensive OEM fuel cell module for system integration. In 2006 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43], a British Columbia based company, began commercial sales of portable devices using proprietary hydrogen fuel cell technology, trademarked as "micro hydrogen."There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1]

Types of fuel cells

{|style="text-align:center border-width: 1px border-style: solid border-color: black border-collapse: separate"

!style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|Fuel Cell Name

!style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|Electrolyte

!style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|Qualified Electric power (W)

!style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|Working Temperature (°C)

!style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44]

!style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|Status

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45]

|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] solution (eg.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46])

|?

|style="background:#ddddfftext-align:right" | above -20 50%Ppeak @ 0

|?

|style="background: #ffffdd" |There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10]

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47]

|Aqueous alkaline solution (eg. potassium hydroxide)

|?

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|under 40

|?

|style="background: #ffffdd" |Commercial/Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48]

|Aqueous alkaline solution (eg. potassium hydroxide)

|?

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|under 40

|?

|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2]There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49]

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50]

|Polymer membrane or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51]

|?

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|under 40

|?

|style="background:#ddddff"|Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52]

|Polymer membrane (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53])

|?

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|under 50

|?

|style="background: #ffffdd" |Commercial/Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54]

|Aqueous alkaline solution (eg.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55])

|?

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|70

|?

|style="background:#ddddff"|Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56]

|Aqueous alkaline solution (eg. potassium hydroxide)

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|10 kW to 100 kW

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|under 80

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|Cell: 60–70%System: 62%

|style="background: #ffffdd" |Commercial/Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|Direct-methanol fuel cell

|Polymer membrane (ionomer)

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|1mW to 100 kW

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|90–120

|style="background:#ffddddtext-align:right"|Cell: 20–30%System: 10–20%

|style="background: #ffffdd" |Commercial/Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57]

|Polymer membrane (ionomer)

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|5W to 100 kW

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|(Reformer)250–300(PBI)125–200

|style="background:#ffddddtext-align:right"|Cell: 50–60%System: 25–40%

|style="background: #ffffdd" |Commercial/Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58]

|Polymer membrane (ionomer)

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|up to 140 mW/cm²

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|above 25? 90–120

|?

|style="background:#ddddff"|Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59]

|Polymer membrane (ionomer)

|?

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|90–120

|?

|style="background:#ddddff"|Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60]

|Polymer membrane (ionomer) (eg.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61]® or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62])

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|100W to 500 kW

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|(Nafion)70–120(PBI)125–200

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|Cell: 50–70%System: 30–50%

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|Commercial/Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11]

|Liquid electrolytes with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63] shuttle & polymer membrane (Ionomer)

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|1 kW to 10MW

|?

|?

|style="background:#ddddff"|Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64]

|Molten There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65] (H3PO4)

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|up to 10MW

|style="background:#ffddddtext-align:right"|150-200

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|Cell: 55%System: 40%

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|Commercial/Research

|-

|style="background:#ffddddtext-align:right"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66]

|Molten alkaline There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67] (eg.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68] NaHCO3)

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|100MW

|style="background:#ffddddtext-align:right"|600-650

|style="background:#ffffddtext-align:right"|Cell: 55%System: 47%

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|Commercial/Research

|-

|style="background:#ffddddtext-align:right"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69]

|H+ conducting ceramic

|?

|style="background:#ffddddtext-align:right"|700

|?

|style="background:#ddddff"|Research

|-

|style="background: #ececec text-align: left padding-left: 0.5em font-weight: bold"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70]

|?

|?

|style="background:#ffddddtext-align:right"|750-850

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|Cell:??%System: 70%

|style="background: #ffffdd" |Commercial/Research

|-

|style="background: #ffffdd"|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71]

|O²- conducting ceramic There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72] (eg.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] ZrO2)

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|up to 100MW

|style="background:#ffddddtext-align:right"|700–1000

|style="background:#ddffddtext-align:right"|Cell: 60–65%System: 55–60%

|style="background: #ffffdd"|Commercial/Research

|}

Efficiency

Fuel cells are not constrained by the maximum There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74] efficiency as combustion engines are, because they do not operate with a thermal cycle. Consequently, they can have very high efficiencies in converting There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75] to Electrical energy.

The efficiency of a fuel is very dependent on the current through the fuel cell: as a general rule, the more current drawn, the lower the efficiency. A cell running at 0.6V has an efficiency of about 50%, meaning that 50% of the available energy content of the hydrogen is converted into electrical energy the remaining 50% will be converted into heat. For a hydrogen cell the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76] is equal to cell voltage divided by 1.23, when operating at standard conditions. This voltage varies with fuel used, and quality and temperature of the cell. The difference between enthalpy and Gibbs free energy (that cannot be recovered) will also appear as heat.

It is also important to take losses due to production, transportation, and storage into account. Fuel cell vehicles running on compressed hydrogen may have a power-plant-to-wheel efficiency of 22% if the hydrogen is stored as high-pressure gas, and 17% if it is stored as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77].

Fuel cells cannot store energy like a battery, but in some applications, such as stand-alone power plants based on discontinuous sources such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] and storage systems to form an energy storage system. The overall efficiency (electricity to hydrogen and back to electricity) of such plants (known as round-trip efficiency) is between 30 and 50%, depending on conditions. While a much cheaper There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78] might return about 90%, the electrolyser/fuel cell system can store indefinite quantities of hydrogen, and is therefore better suited for long-term storage.

Fuel cell applications

Fuel cells are very useful as power sources in remote locations, such as spacecraft, remote weather stations, large parks, rural locations, and in certain military applications. A fuel cell system running on hydrogen can be compact, lightweight and has no major moving parts. Because fuel cells have no moving parts, and do not involve combustion, in ideal conditions they can achieve up to 99.9999% reliability. This equates to less than one minute of down time in a six year period.

A new application is There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14] (CHP) for family home, office buildings and factories. This type of system generates constant electric power (selling excess power back to the grid when it is not consumed), and at the same time produce hot air and water from the waste heat. A lower fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency is tolerated (typically 15-20%), because most of the energy not converted into electricity is utilized as heat. Some heat is lost with the exhaust gas just as in a normal furnace, so the combined heat and power efficiency is still lower than 100%, typically around 80%. In terms of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79] however, the process is inefficient, and one could do better by maximizing the electricity generated and then using the electricity to drive a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80]. Phosphoric-acid fuel cells (PAFC) comprise the largest segment of existing CHP products worldwide and can provide combined efficiencies close to 80% (45-50% electric + remainder as thermal). UTC Power is currently the world's largest manufacturer of PAFC fuel cells. Molten-carbonate fuel cells have also been installed in these applications, and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] prototypes exist.

However, since electrolyzer systems do not store fuel in themselves, but rather rely on external storage units, they can be successfully applied in large-scale energy storage, rural areas being one example. In this application, batteries would have to be largely oversized to meet the storage demand, but fuel cells only need a larger storage unit (typically cheaper than an electrochemical device).

One such pilot program exists on Stuart Island off the State of Washington. There the Stuart Island Energy Initiative has built a complete system by which solar panels generate the current to run several electrolyzers whose hydrogen is stored in a 500 gallon tank at 150-200 PSI. The hydrogen is then used to run a 48V ReliOn hydrogen fuel cell that provides full electric back-up to the residential site on this off the grid island (see external link to SIEI.ORG).

Protium, a rock band originating at Ponaganset High School in Glocester, RI was the world's first "hydrogen fuel cell powered band". The band was powered by a 1 kW Airgen Fuelcell from Ballard Power systems. The band has played at a number of fuel cell advocacy events inluding the Connecticut CEP, and the 2003 Fuel Cell Seminar in Miami beach, FL.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3]

Suggested applications

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82]s

Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicles.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83]

Off-Electric power transmission power supply

Hydrogen vehicles, boats and refuelling

The first hydrogen refueling station was opened in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85] in April 2003. This station serves three buses built by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86] that are in service in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87] net of Reykjavík. The station produces the hydrogen it needs by itself, with an electrolyzing unit (produced by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88]), and does not need refilling: all that enters is electricity and water. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89] is also a partner in the project. The station has no roof, in order to allow any leaked hydrogen to escape to the atmosphere. For more details on this topic, see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90].

There are numerous prototype or production cars and buses based on fuel cell technology being researched or manufactured. Research is ongoing at a variety of motor car manufacturers.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] A practical commercial There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91] in the form of an automobile is expected in 2010 according to the industry.

Currently, a team of college students called There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92] is planning to take a hydrogen fuel cell powered boat around the world (as well as other projects using efficient or renewable fuels). Their venture is called the Triton. [Type 212 submarine]]s use fuel cells to remain submerged for weeks without the need to surface. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93] will roll out the world's first hydrogen-burning car in serial production in April 2007, the automaker said on 12th September 2006, eager to put its stamp on cars with green credentials.

Economy and the environment

In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15], 18% from natural gas, 7% from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16], Solar power and Biomass. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/figes2.html When hydrogen is produced through electrolysis, the energy comes from these sources. Though the fuel cell itself will only emit heat and water as waste, pollution is produced to make the hydrogen that it runs on. Hydrogen production is only as clean as the energy sources used to produce it.

A holistic approach has to take into consideration the impacts of an extended hydrogen scenario. This refers to the production, the use and the disposal of infrastructure and energy converters.

Nowadays low temperature fuel cell stacks (PEM, DMFC and PAFC) consist of catalysts to a very high amount. This is caused by the fact that poisoning reduces activity and thus the catalyst has to be over-dimensioned. Limited reserves of platinum quicken the synthesis of an inorganic complex very similar to the catalytic iron-sulfur core of bacterial hydrogenase to step in. Although platinum is seen by some as one of the major "showstoppers" to mass market fuel cell commercialisation companies most predictions of Platinum running out, and or Platinum prices soaring do not take into account effects of thrifting (reduction in catalyst loading) and recycling. Current targets for a transport PEM fuel cells are 0.2 g/kW Pt - which is a factor of 5 decrease over current loadings - and recent comments from major There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94]s indicate that this is possible. Also it is fully anticipated that recycling of fuel cells components, including platinum, will kick-in. One company, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95], are already stating that its units are 98% recyclable.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5]

Research & Development

August 2005: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96] researchers use There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97] to raise the operating temperature of PEM fuel cells from below 100 °C to over 120 °C, claiming this will require less carbon-monoxide purification of the hydrogen fuel.

September 2005: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98] (DTU) scientists announced in September 2005 a method of storing hydrogen in the form of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99] saturated into a salt tablet. They claim it will be an inexpensive and safe storage method.

Related concepts

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101]

Distributed generation

Electrolysis

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103]

High-temperature electrolysis

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104]

Renewable energy

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105]

External article and references

Plug Power Fuel Cell Demonstration

Ballard Power Systems

Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands

The Birth of the Fuel Cell - But Who is the Father?

UTC Power

Efficiency of Hydrogen Fuel Cell, Diesel-SOFC-Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles' - PDF from 2003.

Round Trip Energy Efficiency of NASA Glenn Regenerative Fuel Cell System

Neah Power Fuel Cells

http://www.fuelcell-magazine.com/eprints/free/johnsonmattheyapril03.pdf

http://pubs.acs.org/cen/news/83/i07/8307notw8.html

http://www.gatech.edu/news-room/release.php?id=618

http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/FuelCellToday/IndustryInformation/IndustryInformationExternal/NewsDisplayArticle/0,1602,6487,00.html

Encyclopedia of Earth: Fuel cells

BIGS: Fuel Cell Animation

EERE: Fuel Cell Types

EERE: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program

How Stuff Works: Fuel Cells

Hydrogen Trade: Fuel Cells

Direct Carbon Fuel Cell

Stuart Island Energy Initiative

Fuel Cells - A visual directory of web resources about fuel cells. (EnergyPlanet.info)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

See also

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