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: See also Directory:Engines

An engine is something that produces an effect from a given input. The origin of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] between two meanings of the word "engineer": 'those who operate engines' and 'those who design and construct new items'.

Usage of the term

In original usage, an engine was any sort of mechanical device. The term "gin" in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6]" are common. The earliest mechanical computing device was called the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7]. In the context of propulsion systems, an air breathing engine is one that uses atmospheric air to oxidise the fuel carried, rather than carrying an oxidiser, as in a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25]. Theoretically, this should result in a better There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] than for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27]s.

Types of engines

An engine is a device that converts things. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28], a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] is the functional core of a computer program. This can be a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] (term to results), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] (input to display), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32] (markup to display), or a core of a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] system.

More often it referes to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34]s. Here it is related to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35]s or automobile, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37]s (the physiological system that is responsible for physical movement), or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] (neurons that originate in the spinal cord and synapse with muscle fibers). When used in the context of poert and energy, it is usually meant to signify a "Electric motor" (a machine that converts electricity into a mechanical motion), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39] (or heat engine a machine that converts heat into mechanical motion), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40], (the essential agents of movement in living organisms), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41], (a machine that converts the energy of compressed air into mechanical motion), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42] (a machine that converts the energy of pressurized liquid flow into mechanical motion), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43] (or nanomotors),

An Electric motor converts electrical energy into kinetic energy. The reverse task, that of converting kinetic energy into electrical energy, is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. In many cases the two devices differ only in their application and minor construction details, and some applications use a single device to fill both roles. For example, traction motors used on locomotives often perform both tasks if the locomotive is equipped with dynamic brakes.

In engineering and thermodynamics, a Heat engine performs the conversion of heat energy to mechanical work by exploiting the temperature gradient between a hot "source" and a cold "sink". Heat is transferred from the source, through the "working body" of the engine, to the sink, and in this process some of the heat is converted into work by exploiting the properties of a working substance (usually a gas or liquid).

A There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44] is a machine which converts energy of compressed air into mechanical motion for example a pneumatic vane motor, a pneumatic piston motor, or pneumatic artificial muscles.In industrial applications linear motion can come from either a diaphragm or piston actuator. For rotary motion a vane type air motor is used. Hydraulic machinery are machines and tools which use fluid power to do work. Heavy equipment is a common example. In this type of machine, hydraulic fluid is pumped to a high pressure and transmitted throughout the machine to various actuators. The hydraulic pumps are powered by engines or electric motors. Pressurized fluid is controlled by the operator with control valves and distributed through hoses and tubes. The popularity of hydraulic machinery is due to the very large amount of power that can be transferred through small tubes and flexible hoses and the high power density and wide array of actuators that can make use of this power.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45]s are biological "nanomachines" and are the essential agents of movement in living organisms. Generally speaking, a motor is defined as a device that consumes energy in one form and converts it into motion or mechanical power many protein-based molecular motors convert the chemical energy present in ATP into mechanical energy. In terms of energetic efficiency, these types of motors are often superior to currently available man-made motors. One important difference between molecular motors and macroscopic motors is that molecular motors operate in the thermal bath, an environment where thermal noise is significant relative to the motor's energy consumption.

Recently, chemists and those involved in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] efforts have begun to explore the possibility of creating There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47]s de novo. These synthetic molecular motors currently suffer many limitations that limit their adoption to only experimental use. It should be expected, however, that many of these limitations will soon be overcome, as understanding of chemistry and physics at the nanoscale increases. In particular, there are many examples of molecular machines that operate in solution or when attached to solid surfaces, such as the nanocar. Such systems are paving the way towards synthetic motors.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48]s are nanoscale devices capable of rotation under energy input. Although the term "molecular motor" has traditionally referred to a naturally occurring protein that induces motion, some groups also use the term when referring to non-biological, non-peptide synthetic motors. Many chemists are pursuing the synthesis of such molecular motors. The prospect of synthetic molecular motors was first raised by the nanotechnology pioneer Richard Feynman in 1959 in his classic talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom.

The basic requirements for a synthetic motor are repetitive 360° motion, the consumption of energy and unidirectional rotation. Two efforts in this direction were published in 1999 in the same issue of Nature. For the two reports below, it is unknown whether these molecules are capable of generating torque. It is expected that reports of more efforts in this field will increase, as understanding of chemistry and physics at the nanoscale improves.

History of engines

Antiquity

While Chemistry and Electricity engines of enormous power dominate the modern world, engines themselves are not new. Engines using There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] date back to antiquity.

Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] and aboard There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] used human power augmented by the simple engine of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49] -- the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50] itself. The writers of those times, including There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53], treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be far more ancient.

By the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17]s, using machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54]. Use of Water wheels in mills slowly spread through There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55] over the next few centuries. Some were quite complex, with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57]s, and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58]s to maintain and channel the water, and systems of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59], or toothed-wheels made of wood with metal, used to regulate the speed of rotation. In a poem by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60] in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61], he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62] demonstrated both wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century, although it's not known if these were put to any practical use until much later.

Modern

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] inventor Sir There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63], 1824, whilst the American There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64] received a Patent on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66].

Automotive production down the ages has required a wide range of energy-conversion systems. These include electric, Steam engine, Solar power, Turbine, rotary, and different types of piston-type internal combustion engines. The gasoline internal combustion engine, operating on a four-stroke Otto cycle, has traditionally been the most successful for Automobiles, while diesel engines are widely used for trucks and buses. The patent on the design by Otto had been declared void. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67] led in the development of new engines. In 1878 he began to work on new patents. First, he concentrated all his efforts on creating a reliable gas two-stroke engine, based on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68]'s design of the four-stroke engine. Karl Benz showed his real genius, however, through his successive inventions registered while designing what would become the production standard for his two-stroke engine. Benz finished his engine on New Year's Eve and was granted a patent for it in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69]. In 1896, Karl Benz was granted a patent for his design of the first There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70] with horizontally-opposed pistons. His design created an engine in which the corresponding pistons reach top dead centre simultaneously, thus balancing each other with respect to momentum. Flat engines with four or fewer cylinders are most commonly boxer engines and are also known as, horizontally-opposed engines. This continues to be the design principle for high performance, automobile racing engines such as Porsches. Continuance of the use of the internal combustion engine for automobiles is partially due to the improvement of engine control systems (computers) and forced induction (turbos and superchargers), giving modern diesel engines the same power characteristics as gasoline engines. This is especially evident with the popularity of diesel engines in Europe.

The internal combustion engine was originally selected for the automobile due to its flexibility over a wide range of speeds. Also, the power developed for a given weight engine was reasonable it could be produced by economical mass-production methods and it used a readily available, moderately priced fuel--gasoline.

In today’s world, there has been a growing emphasis on the pollution producing features of automotive power systems. This has created new interest in alternate power sources and internal-combustion engine refinements that were not economically feasible in prior years. Although a few limited-production battery-powered electric vehicles have appeared from time to time, they have not proved to be competitive owing to costs and operating characteristics. In the twenty-first century the diesel engine has been increasing in popularity with automobile owners. However, the gasoline engine, with its new emission-control devices to improve emission performance, has not yet been challenged significantly.

The first half of the twentieth century saw a trend to increase engine power, particularly in the American models. Design changes incorporated all known methods of raising engine capacity, including increasing the pressure in the cylinders to improve efficiency, increasing the size of the engine, and increasing the speed at which power is generated. The higher forces and pressures created by these changes created engine vibration and size problems that led to stiffer, more compact engines with V and opposed cylinder layouts replacing longer straight-line arrangements. In passenger cars, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21] layouts were adopted for all piston displacements greater than 250 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71]es (4 litres).

Smaller cars brought about a return a to smaller engines, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22]- and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23]-cylinder designs rated as low as 80 horsepower (60 kW), compared with the standard-size V-8 of large cylinder bore and relatively short piston stroke with power ratings in the range from 250 to 350 hp (190 to 260 kW).

The automobile motor had a bigger range, varying from 1-12 cylinders with corresponding differences in overall size, weight, piston displacement, and cylinder bores. Four cylinders and power ratings from 19 to 120 hp (14 to 90 kW) were followed in a majority of the models. Several three-cylinder, two-stroke-cycle models were built while most engines had straight or in-line cylinders. There were several V-type models and horizontally opposed two- and four-cylinder makes too. Overhead camshafts were frequently employed. The smaller engines were commonly air-cooled and located at the rear of the vehicle compression ratios were relatively low. The 1970s and '80s saw an increased interest in improved fuel economy which brought in a return to smaller V-6 and four-cylinder layouts, with as many as five valves per cylinder to improve efficiency.

Air-breathing engines

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72]s use atmospheric air to oxidise the fuel carried, rather than carrying an oxidiser, as in a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73]. Theoretically, this should result in a better There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74] than for rocket engines.

Air-breathing engines include:

Internal combustion engine

Jet engine

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Engine design

Engine design is the making of the engine mostly through computers. Once it is designed it is made in real life and tested. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] systems have experimental and more advanced designs. You must have a degree in engineering to design engines. You must know all the main components and make sure it is up to date and meets the government standards (safety/emissions inspection).

Related concepts

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Turbine

Gas turbine

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Heat engine

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Steam engine

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Stirling engine

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Jet engine

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Diesel engine

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Spacecraft propulsion

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External articles and references

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How stuff works: Cars Engines, HowStuffWorks, Inc. 2006

Engines working. Animation, Matt Keveney. 2001.

J. G. Landels, Engineering in the Ancient World, ISBN 0-520-04127-5

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

news://rec.boats

news://rec.autos.tech

See also

Directory:Engines

Directory:Magnet Motors

Directory:Stirling Engines

Directory:Steam Engines

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