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: See also Directory:Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy

An electrostatic generator is a mechanical device that produces very high voltage and very low There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57]s of opposite sign rendered to divided conductors. These devices can produce There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89] electrical output at relatively low Electric currents.

Description

Electrostatic machines are used for generating high voltages, using either friction or electrostatic induction to accumulate electrical charges. Electrostatic generators are typically used in science classrooms to safely demonstrate electrical forces and high voltage phenomena (because these devices produce very high voltage at very low current). The potential differences achieved have been used for a variety of applications (such as operating X-ray tubes, sterilization of food, and nuclear physics experiments). Electrostatic generators such as the Van de Graaff generator, and variations as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90] and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91], also find use in physics research.

Electrostatic generators are of two kinds: friction machines, and influence machines.

Friction machines
History

Some electrostatic generators are called friction machines because of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58]). There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92] improved the basic design. In the latter part of the 18th Century, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95] (the last two the inventors of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96]) made several important discoveries concerning electrostatic machines. Benjamin Franklin used the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98] in his devices, also.

Generators were further advanced when There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99] of Wittenberg added a collecting conductor (a insulated tube or cylinder supported on silk strings). In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101] had a large wheel turning several glass globes with a sword and a gun barrel suspended from silk cords for its prime conductors. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102], the professor of physics at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103], substituted a leather cushion for the hand. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104] of Erfurt, a Scotch Benedictine monk, used a glass cylinder in place of a sphere. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105], in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[106], constructed a widely used version of a plate electrical generator. By There was an error working with the wiki: Code[107], the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[108] could produce voltage with any polarity. Also in 1784, Van Marum constructed a rather large electrostatic machine of high quality (currently on display at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[109] in the Netherlands).

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[110], N. Rouland constructed a silk belted machine which rubbed two grounded hare fur covered tubes. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[111] developed an electrostatic generator in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[112] which introduced the ability to generate either positive or negative electricity, the first named being collected from the prime conductor carrying the collecting points and the second from the prime conductor carrying the cushion. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[113] possessed higher efficiency than earlier friction machines. In the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[114], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[115] possessed a machine similar to the van Marum machine for his research (which is now at the Deutches Museum, Munich, Germany). In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[116], the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[117] was developed from improving the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[118] (placing the prime conductor above the disk(s)). Also in 1840, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[119] was developed and used steam as a charge carrier.

The Van de Graaff generator was developed, starting in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[120], at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[121]. The first model was demonstrated in October There was an error working with the wiki: Code[120]. The first machine used a silk ribbon bought at a five and dime store as the charge transport belt. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[123] a version capable of producing 1,000,000 volts was described in a patent disclosure. Nikola Tesla wrote a Scientific American article, "Possibilities of Electro-Static Generators" in 1934 concerning the Van de Graaff generator (pp. 132-134 and 163-165). Tesla stated, "I believe that when new types [of Van de Graaff generators] are developed and sufficiently improved a great future will be assured to them".

Friction operation

The presence of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59] objects only rarely generate charge imbalance except, for example, when a metal surface is impacted by solid or liquid nonconductors. The charge that is transferred during contact electrification is stored on the surface of each object. Note that the presence of Electric current does not detract from the electrostatic forces nor from the sparking, from the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[124], or other phenomena. Both phenomena can exist simultaneously in the same system.

Influence machines
History

Frictional machines were, in time, gradually superseded by the second class of instrument mentioned above, namely, influence machines. These operate by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60]'s There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61]. (Phil. Trans., 1788, p. 403) Nicholson later described a "spinning condenser" apparatus.

Others, including There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62], in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[125], developed a widely used and simpler doubler which consisted of two curved metal plates between which revolved a pair of balls carried on an insulating stem. It was the first symmetrical influence machine. This apparatus was similar to Lord Kelvin's "replenisher". Lord Kelvin also devised a combined influence machine and electromagnetic machine, commonly called a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[126], for electrifying the ink in connection with his There was an error working with the wiki: Code[127]. Lord Kelvin also developed, between There was an error working with the wiki: Code[128] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[129], a water-drop electrostatic generator, which he called the "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[130]".

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63] developed an influence machine that consisted of two disks fixed on the same shaft and rotating in the same direction. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64] constructed and described a large number of influence machines which were considered the most advanced developments of the time. In one form, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65].

The action and efficiency of influence machines were further investigated by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66]". In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67]). In 1887, Weinhold developed a system that possessed vertical metal bar inductors with wooden cylinders close to the disk for avoiding polarity reversals. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68] to the that of the Holtz and Voss machines, being a simplified There was an error working with the wiki: Code[131] (L'Électricien, April 1895, pp. 225-227)

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[132], the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[133] was developed with a unique setup by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[134]. In October 28 of that year, Pidgeon presented this machine to the Physical Society after several years of investigation into influence machines (beginning at the start of the decade). The device was later reported in the Philosphical Magazine (Dec. 1898, pg. 564) and the Electrical Review (Vol. XLV, pg. 748). Pidgeon machines possess fixed There was an error working with the wiki: Code[135]s arranged in a manner that increases the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[136] (and it electrical output is at least double that of typical machines of this type [except when it is overtaxed]). The essential features of the Pidgeon machine are, one, the combination of the rotating support and the fixed support for inducing charge, and, two, the improved insulation of all parts of the machine (but more especially of the generator's carriers). Pidgeon machines are a combination of a Wimshurst Machine and Voss Machine, with special features adapted to reduce the amount of charge leakage. Pidgeon machines excite themselves more readily than the best of these types of machines. In addition, Pidgeon investigated higher current "triplex" section machines (or "double machines with a single central disk") with enclosed sectors (and would receive British Patent 22517 (1899) for this type of machine).

Double disk machines and "triplex" electrostatic machines, with classical structure, were also developed extensively around the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69] of compressed gases enabled a greatly improved effect to be obtained owing to the diminution of the leakage across the plates and from the supports. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[137], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[138] patented an ebonite rotating disk possessing embedded sectors with button contacts at the disk surface and celluloid embedded inductor plates (DE154175 "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[139]"). In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[140], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[141] reported a similar variation of the Holtz machine.

Related machines

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70] operating with rolling friction, consisting of four cylinders with the two central ones made of different insulating materials and the two outer ones metallic. The cylinders rotate under some pressure, and the charges separated between the two central cylinders are collected by the outer cylinders.

Fringe science and devices

These generators have been used, sometimes inappropriately and with some controversy, to support various There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72], and promoted by a Swiss community, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[142]ns. Testatika is an electromagnetic generator based on the 1889 Pidgeon electrostatic machine, said to produce "free energy" available directly from the environment and which cannot be depleted (so it is available in effectively unlimited quantity).

List of patents

Patents on electrostatic generators and other mechanical device that produce continuous Electrical current are numersus. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest dawn of civilization but for ages it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon. Development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest till the 18th Century. These devices can produce a high electrical voltage at relatively low electrical currents. Electrostatic generator are of two kinds: (A) Frictional machines, and (B) Influence machines. Below is a list of electrostatic generator patents.

American

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1] -- C. A. Seely -- "Electrical apparatus"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2] -- R. Cornelius -- "Electrical apparatus"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3] -- E. S. Richie -- "Holtz Electrical Machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] -- H. Julius Smith -- "Electrical Battery" (ed. portable and airtight device that was designed to ignite powder)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] -- E. B. Benjamin -- "Statical electrical apparatus"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] -- E. Guerin -- "Electrical machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] -- "Frictional Electrical Machine" (ed. Known as a "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[143]")

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] -- P. Atkinson -- "Frictional Electrical Generator"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] -- William Henry -- "Influence generator of electricity"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] -- "Static electrical machine" -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[144] (ed. Drawings include an electrostatic machine cabinet.)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74] -- "Electrical Influence-Machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76] -- "Apparatus for Demonstrating the Phenomena of Electrical Storms" (ed. this is known as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[145])

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] -- K. S. Lemström -- "Electrical Influence-Machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77] -- "Static Electric Machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78] -- "Static Electric Machine" (ed. Related to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[146])

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79] -- "Static-Influence Electric Machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17] -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Electrical Multiple Influence or Condenser Machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80] -- "Disk for Influence or Static Induction and Condenser Machines" (ed. Identical to AT36027).

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] -- "Space Telegraphy"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82] -- "Static Electric Machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21] -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Influence Electric Machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[147] -- "Electrostatic generator"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23] --

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24] -- Robert J. Van de Graaff -- "Electrostatic Generator" (ed. This is the clasissical Van de Graff machine widely used as a demonstration model.)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] --

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] --

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27] --

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] --

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] --

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] -- R. J. Van de Graaff -- "Method of and appartatus for electrostatically generating direct current power"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] --

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32] --

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[148] -- "Electrostatic machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34] -- N. Felici -- "Electrostatic machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35] -- Noel Felici -- "Electrostatic machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36] -- Noel Felici -- "Electrostatic machine"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[149] -- "Electrostatic voltage multiplier" (ed. contains many formulas for electrostatic multipliers, such as the current flowing through the segments, the equviliant resistance of an electrostatic device, time constants, and stage gains.)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] -- Felici

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83] -- "Self starting electrostatic generator"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40] -- Felici

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41] -- Okey

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42] -- Felici

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[150], et. al. -- "Minature printed circuit electrostatic generator"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44] -- Felici

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[151] -- "Electrostatic generator"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] -- Noel Felici -- "Electrostatic generator"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47] --

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84], et al. -- "Electrostatic generator"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49] --

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50] -- Gignoux

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51] -- Morel

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52] -- Felici

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85] -- "Electrostatic energy conversion system "

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86] -- "Electrostatic generator"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87] -- "Electrostatic energy field power generating system"

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56] -- There was an error working with the wiki: Code[152] -- "Rolling triboelectric generator"

Non-american

AT56127 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Scheibe für Influenz- und Kondensatormaschinen" (Tr., "disk for influence and condenser machines")

AT36027 -- A. Wehrsen -- "Scheibe für Influenz- bezw. Kondensatormaschinen" (Tr.,"disk for influence and/or Condenser machines)

DE145440 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Kondensatormaschine" (Tr., "condenser machine")

DE154175 -- A. Wehrsen, et. al. -- "Scheibe für Influenzmaschinen" (ed. Related to DE154176 Tr., "disk for electrostatic generators")

DE161211 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Querkonductor für Influenzmaschinen" (Tr., "Crosswise conductor for electrostatic generators" )

DE176415 -- H. Wommelsdorf, "Aus einzelnen isolierenden Platten mit zwischenliegenden Sektoren bestehende Scheibe für Kondensatormaschinen"(Tr., "from individual isolating plates with between-lying sectors existing disk for condenser machines")

DE178052 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Kondensatormaschine" (Tr., "condenser machine")

DE238344 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Scheibe für Influenz- und Kondensatormaschinen" (ed. Related to DE271742 Tr., "disk for influence and condenser machines")

DE244155 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Influenzmaschine" (Tr., "electrostatic generator")

DE240325 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Scheibe für einseitig wirkende Influenzmaschinen" (Tr., "disk for on one side working electrostatic generators")

DE321622 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Kondensatormaschine" (Tr., "condenser machine")

DE370980 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Elektrophor" (Tr.,"Electrophor")

DE392554 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Influenzmaschine, deren Beläge nicht nur von einen festen Isoliertoff umgeben sind, sondern auch noch in ein flüssiges Dielektricum tauchen" (Tr., "electrostatic generator, whose linings are not only surrounded by firm isolating off, but also still in a liquid dielectric dip")

DE420402 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Elektrostatische Maschine, deren Induzierende Teile von einen Flüssigen Dielektricum umgeben sind" (Tr., "electrostatic machine, their inducing parts of a liquid Dielektricum surrounded are")

DE443699 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Influenz- oder Kondensatormaschine" (Tr., "influence or condenser machine")

DE479991 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Stromabnehmer für Influenzmaschinen" (Tr., "current collectors for electrostatic generators")

DE482298 -- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Reibungselektrisierapparat" (Tr., "friction electrification apparatus")

DE546363 --- H. Wommelsdorf -- "Verfahen zum Betrieb von Influenzmaschinen mit mehr als zwei Polen"(Tr., "Procedure to the enterprise of electrostatic generators with more than two Poles")

FR1051430 -- Felici

GB206/1860 -- C. F. Varley

GB22517/1899 -- W. R. Pidgeon

Related

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[153]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[154] (also known as the "electroscope")

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[155]

Further reading

C. L. Stong, "Electrostatic motors are powered by electric field of the Earth". October, 1974. (PDF)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[156] , "Electrostatic Motors: Their History, Types, and Principles of Operation". Electret Scientific, Star City, 1973.

G. W. Francis (Author) and Oleg D. Jefimenko (Editor), "Electrostatic Experiments: An Encyclopedia of Early Electrostatic Experiments, Demonstrations, Devices, and Apparatus". Electret Scientific, Star City, 2005.

V. E. Johnson, "Modern High-Speed Influence Machines Their principles, construction and applications to radiography, radio-telegraphy, spark photography, electro-culture, electro-therapeutics, high-tension gas ignition, and the testing of materials". ISBN B0000EFPCO

Alfred W. Simon, "Quantitative Theory of the Influence Electrostatic Generator". Phys. Rev. 24, 690–696 (1924), Issue 6 – December 1924.

J. Clerk Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (2nd ed.,Oxford, 1881), vol. i. p.294

J. D. Everett, Electricity (expansion of part iii. of Deschanels Natural Philosophy) (London, 1901), ch. iv. p. 20

A. Winkelmann, Handbuch der Physik (Breslau, 1905), vol. iv. pp. 50-58 (contains a large number of references to original papers)

J. Gray, "Electrical Influence Machines, Their Historical Development and Modern Forms [with instruction on making them]" (London, I903). (J. A. F.)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[157], The Influence Machine from Nicholson -1788 to 1888, Journ. Soc. Tel. Eng., 1888, 17, p. 569

John Munro, The Story Of Electricity (The Project Gutenberg Etext)

A. D. Moore (Editor), "Electrostatics and its Applications". Wiley, New York, 1973.

Oleg D. Jefimenko (with D. K. Walker), "Electrostatic motors". Phys. Teach. 9, 121-129 (1971).

W. R. Pidgeon, "An Influence-Machine". Proc. Phys. Soc. London 12 No 1 (October 1892) 406-411.

W. R. Pidgeon, "An Influence-Machine". Proc. Phys. Soc. London 16 No 1 (October 1897) 253-257.

External articles and references

"Electrical (or Electrostatic) Machine". There was an error working with the wiki: Code[158].

"How it works : Electricity". triquartz.co.uk.

de Queiroz, Antonio Carlos M., "Electrostatic Machines".

de Queiroz, Antonio Carlos M., "Operation of the Wimshurst machine".

American Museum of Radio: Electrostatic Machines

The Bakken Museum: frictional generators

"Articles on Electrostatics from those that actually made the discoveries". Experiments with non conventional energy technologies.

Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), "On Electric Machines Founded on Induction and Convection". Philosophical Magazine, January 1868.

Bill Beaty, "'Kelvin's Thunderstorm' Lord Kelvin's water-drop electrostatic generator". 1995.

M Hill and D J Jacobs, "A novel Kelvin Electrostatic Generator". Physics Education, University of York, UK. (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[159])

Paolo Brenni (Author) and Willem Hackmann (Editor), "The Van de Graaff Generator: An Electrostatic Machine for the 20th Century". Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society No. 63 (1999)

Nikola Tesla, "Possibilities Of Electrostatic Generators". Scientific American, March, 1934. (ed., Available .doc format)

Lyonel Baum, "1,000,000 Volts, Felici's electrostatic generator". 2000.

See also

Directory:Atmospheric Electrostatic Energy

- PowerPedia

- Main Page

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There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88]

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