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Electricity (from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] ???????? (electron) "amber") is a general term for the variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] phenomena such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7] applications such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] and Electric power.

Concepts in electricity

In casual usage, the term electricity is applied to several related concepts that are better identified by more precise terms:

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] (often referred to as Voltage) - the potential energy per unit charge associated with a static electric field.

Electric current - a movement or flow of electrically charged particles.

Electric field - an effect produced by an electric charge that exerts a force on charged objects in its vicinity.

Electrical energy - the energy made available by the flow of electric charge through an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32].

Electric power - the rate at which electric energy is converted to or from another energy form, such as light, heat, or mechanical energy.

Electric charge - a fundamental conserved property of some There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33]s, which determines their There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34]s. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, Electromagnetic fields.

History of the electric forces

Ancient and pre-modern

The history of electricity, that is the human understanding thereof, dates back to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10], writing at around There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35], the Greeks had found that rubbing There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36] on various substances, such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37], would cause a particular There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] between the two. The Greeks noted that the amber buttons could attract light objects such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39] and that if they rubbed the amber for long enough they could even get a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40] to jump. An object found in Iraq in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41], dated to about There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42] and called the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43], resembles a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44] and is believed by some to have been used for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45].

Though There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] (1775–1836), and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12] (1789-1854).The late 19th and early 20th century produced such giants of electrical engineering as Nikola Tesla, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46], Antonio Meucci, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51].

Modern

Italian physician There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52] returned to the subject of electricity in De Subtilitate (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53]), distinguishing, perhaps for the first time, between electrical and magnetic forces. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54] the English scientist There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55], in De Magnete, expanded on Cardano's work and coined the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56] word electricus from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1] (elektron), the Greek word for "amber". The first usage of the word electricity is ascribed to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57] in his 1646 work, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58].

Gilbert was followed in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13], who in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60], who first identified the two types of electricity that would later be called positive and negative.

The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15], experimenting with the Leyden jar, discovered in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61] that a discharge of static electricity was equivalent to an Electric current.

In June, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] (less frequently) who is considered as the establisher of the convention of positive and negative electricity.

Franklin's observations aided later scientists such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] whose work provided the basis for modern electrical technology. The work of Faraday, Volta, Ampere, and Ohm is honored by society, in that fundamental units of electrical measurement are named after them.

Volta discovered that There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] (also known as voltage) drove a Current (electricity) between them through the conductor. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62] between two points is measured in units of Volts in recognition of Volta's work.

In 1800 Volta constructed the first device to produce a large electric current, later known as the Electric battery. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63], informed of his works, summoned him in 1801 for a command performance of his experiments. He received many medals and decorations, including the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64].

By the end of the 19th century There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20]. Pioneers in this field included There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65], founder of Siemens AG in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67], founder of Cable & Wireless.

The late 19th and early 20th century produced such giants of electrical engineering as Nikola Tesla, inventor of the polyphase Induction motor There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68], inventor of the telegraph Antonio Meucci, an inventor of the telephone There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69], inventor of the first commercial electrical energy distribution network There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70], inventor of the electric There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72], theoretician of alternating current There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73], another inventor of the telephone and founder of a successful telephone business.

The rapid advance of electrical technology in the latter 19th and early 20th centuries led to commercial rivalries, such as the so-called There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21] between Edison's direct-current system and Westinghouse's alternating-current method. Often, concurrent research in widely scattered locations led to multiple claims to the invention of a device or system.

Concepts in detail

Electric charge

:''Main article:Electric charge

Electric charge is a property of certain There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74]s (e.g., Electrons and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75]s) which interacts with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76] and causes attractive and repulsive Forces between them.

Electric charge gives rise to one of the four There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22]" and "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77]." There are two types of charge: we call one kind of charge positive and the other negative. Through experimentation, we find that like-charged objects repel and opposite-charged objects attract one another. The magnitude of the force of attraction or repulsion is given by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78].

Electric field

:Main article:Electric field

The concept of electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday. The electrical field force acts between two charges, in the same way that the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79] force acts between two Masses. However, the electric field is a little bit different. Gravitational force depends on the masses of two bodies, whereas electric force depends on the electric charges of two bodies. While gravity can only pull two masses together, the electric force can be an attractive or repulsive force. If both charges are of same sign (e.g. both positive), there will be a repulsive force between the two. If the charges are opposite, there will be an attractive force between the two bodies. The magnitude of the force varies inversely with the square of the distance between the two bodies, and is also proportional to the product of the unsigned magnitudes of the two charges.

Electric potential

:''Main article:There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80]

The electric potential difference between two points is defined as the Mechanical work done per unit charge (against electrical forces) in moving a positive There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] slowly between two points. If one of the points is taken to be a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82] with zero potential, then the electric potential at any point can be defined in terms of the work done per unit charge in moving a positive point charge from that reference point to the point at which the potential is to be determined. For isolated charges, the reference point is usually taken to be There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83]. The potential is measured in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84]. (1 volt = 1 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85]/There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86]) The electric potential is analogous to Temperature: there is a different temperature at every point in space, and the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87] indicates the direction and magnitude of the driving force behind heat flow. Similarly, there is an electric potential at every point in space, and its There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88] indicates the direction and magnitude of the driving force behind charge movement

Electric current

:''Main article:There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89]

An There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23] such as a metal There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90], and Electrolysis, where Ions (charged Atoms) flow through liquids. The particles themselves often move quite slowly, while the Electric field that drives them propagates at close to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91]. See Electrical conduction for more information.

Devices that use charge flow principles in materials are called There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24].

A There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] value) is not zero.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92] is an important relationship describing the behaviour of electric currents, relating them to Voltage.

For historical reasons, electric Current (electricity) is said to flow from the most positive part of a circuit to the most negative part. The electric current thus defined is called There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93]. It is now known that, depending on the conditions, an electric current can consist of a flow of charged particles in either direction, or even in both directions at once. The positive-to-negative convention is widely used to simplify this situation. If another definition is used - for example, "electron current" - it should be explicitly stated.

Electrical energy

:''Main article:Electrical energy

Electrical energy is energy stored in an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26], and electrical energy is simply one of the many types of energy. Examples of electrical energy include:

the energy that is constantly stored in the Earth's There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94], and is partly released during a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95] in the form of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96]

the energy that is stored in the coils of an Electrical generator in a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97], and is then transmitted by wires to the consumer the consumer then pays for each unit of energy received

the energy that is stored in a Capacitor, and can be released to drive a current through an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98]

Electric power

:''Main article:Electric power

Electric power is the rate at which electrical energy is produced or consumed, and is measured in Watts (symbol is: W).

A Fossil fuel or Nuclear power There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99] converts heat to electrical energy, and the faster the station burns fuel, assuming constant efficiency of conversion, the higher its power output. The output of a power station is usually specified in megawatts (millions of watts). The electrical energy is then sent over There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100]s to reach the consumers.

Every consumer uses appliances that convert the electrical energy to other forms of energy, such as Heat (in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102]s), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103] (in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105]s), or motion, i.e. Kinetic energy (in Electric motors). Like the power station, each appliance is also rated in watts, depending on the rate at which it converts electrical energy into another form. The power station must produce electrical energy at the same rate as all the connected appliances consume it.

In electrical engineering, the concepts of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[106] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[107] are also used. Apparent power is the product of RMS voltage and RMS current, and is measured in volt-amperes (VA). There was an error working with the wiki: Code[108] is measured in volt-amperes-reactive (VAr).

Non-nuclear electric power is categorized as either green or brown electricity.

Green power is a cleaner alternative energy source in comparison to traditional sources, and is derived from renewable energy resources that do not produce any nuclear waste examples include energy produced from wind, water, solar, thermal, hydro, combustible renewables and waste.

Electricity from coal, oil, and natural gas is known as traditional power or "brown" electricity.

Related articles

General

Electromagnetism

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Electrostatics

Battery (electricity)

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High voltage

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Electrical phenomena in

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[123]: &mdash since Atoms and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[124]s are held together by electric forces.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[125]: electrical discharges in the atmosphere.

The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[126] &mdash created by electric currents circulating in the planet's core.

Sometimes due to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[127]s, a phenomenon known as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[128] can be created.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[129]: the ability of certain crystals to generate a voltage in response to applied mechanical stress.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29]: electric charge taken on by contact or friction between two different materials.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[130]: electrical phenomena within living organisms.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[131] &mdash Many animals are sensitive to electric fields, some (e.g., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[132]s) more than others (e.g., people). Most also generate their own electric fields.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[133], such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[134], deliberately generate strong fields to detect or stun their prey.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[135]s in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[136] transmit information by electrical impulses known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[137]s.

External articles and references

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Merriam-Webster: Electricity

Tyndall: Faraday as Discovery: Identity of Electricities

US Energy Department Statistics

Read Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Electricity

How to save on your electricity bills

Electricity around the world

A Comprehensive Collection of Franklin’s Electrical Works: The Electrical Writings of Benjamin Franklin, Created and Collected by Robert A. Morse (2004)

Understanding Electricity and some Electronics in 10 minutes(Steve Rose, Maui)

Electricity Misconceptions

Electricity and Magnetism

Electricity and electrical installation guide

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

Cardano, Girolamo, De subtilitate rerum. Libri XXI. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[138], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[139], 1550. Described at [http://www.sparkmuseum.com/BOOK_CARDANO.HTM, facsimile here.

Douglas Harper (2001). Online Etymology Dictionary: electric. Retrieved August 29, 2006.

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Electricity - A visual directory of electricity related websites. (EnergyPlanet.info)

See also

{| class="wikitable"

! colspan="5" | SI Electromagnetism units

|-

!Symbol

!Name of Quantity

!Derived Units

!Unit

!Base Units

|-

| I

| Current (electricity)

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1])

| A

| A = W/V = C/s

|-

| q

| Electric charge, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17]

| C

| A·s

|-

| V

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19]

| Volt

| V

| J/C = kg·m2·s&minus3·A&minus1

|-

| R, Z, X

| Electrical resistance, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2]

| &Omega

| V/A = kg·m2·s&minus3·A&minus2

|-

| &rho

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] Metre

| &Omega·m

| kg·m3·s&minus3·A&minus2

|-

| P

| Electrical power

| Watt

| W

| V·A = kg·m2·s&minus3

|-

| C

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23]

| F

| C/V = kg&minus1·m&minus2·A2·s4

|-

|

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5]

| reciprocal There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24]

| F&minus1

| V/C = kg·m2·A&minus2·s&minus4

|-

| &epsilon

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] per Metre

| F/m

| kg&minus1·m&minus3·A2·s4

|-

| &chie

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27]

| (dimensionless)

| -

| -

|-

| G, Y, B

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7]

| S

| &Omega&minus1 = kg&minus1·m&minus2·s3·A2

|-

| &sigma

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] per Metre

| S/m

| kg&minus1·m&minus3·s3·A2

|-

| H

| Magnetic field

| Ampere per Metre

| A/m

| A·m&minus1

|-

| &Phim

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10]

| Wb

| V·s = kg·m2·s&minus2·A&minus1

|-

| B

| Magnetic field

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11]

| T

| Wb/m2 = kg·s&minus2·A&minus1

|-

|

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12]

| A/Wb

| kg&minus1·m&minus2·s2·A2

|-

| L

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13]

| H

| Wb/A = V·s/A = kg·m2·s&minus2·A&minus2

|-

| &mu

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14]

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15] per Metre

| H/m

| kg·m·s&minus2·A&minus2

|-

| &chim

| There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33]

| (dimensionless)

| -

| -

|}

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