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An electric vehicle, or EV, is a Vehicle with one or more Electric motors for propulsion. The motion may be provided either by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83] driven by rotary motors, or in the case of tracked vehicles, by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84]s.

The Energy used to propel the vehicle may be obtained from several sources:

from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85] stored on the vehicle in on-board batteries: Battery electric vehicle (BEV)

from both an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6]) and a fueled propulsion power source: Hybrid vehicle

generated on-board using a combustion engine, as in a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86] locomotive

generated on-board using a Fuel cell: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87]

generated on-board using There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88], on nuclear There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90]s

from more esoteric sources such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9]

from a direct connection to land-based generation plants, as is common in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10]

Advantages of electric vehicles

Electric motors are a good choice to drive vehicles because they can be finely controlled, they deliver power efficiently and they are mechanically very simple. Electric motors often achieve 90% conversion efficiency over the full range of speeds and power output and can be precisely controlled. Electric motors can provide high torque while an EV is stopped, unlike There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11]es and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12]. Electric motors also have the ability to convert movement energy back into electricity, through There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91]. This can be used to reduce the wear on brake systems and reduce the total energy requirement of a trip.

Large-scale electric transport

Most large electric transport systems are powered by stationary sources of electricity that are directly connected to the vehicles through wires. Due to the extra infrastructure and difficulty in handling arbitrary travel, most directly connected vehicles are owned publicly or by large companies. These forms of transportation are covered in more detail in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95]es. A hypothetical electric vehicle design is the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96], a cross between cars and trains optimised for independent travel.

In most systems the motion is provided by a rotary electric motor. However, some trains unroll their motors to drive directly against a special matched track. These are known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97] and are most commonly used in maglev trains which float above the rails through magnetic force. This allows for almost no rolling resistance of the vehicle and no mechanical wear and tear of the train or track. The levitation and the forward motion are independent effects the forward motive forces still require external power, but There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98] achieves levitation at low speeds without any.

Chemical-electric power

Chemical energy is a common independent energy source. Chemical energy is converted to electrical energy, which is then regulated and fed to the drive motors. Chemical energy is usually in the form of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14] locomotion.

Another common form of chemical to electrical conversion is by electro-chemical devices. These include There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15]. By avoiding an intermediate mechanical step, the conversion efficiency is dramatically improved over the chemical-thermal-mechanical-electrical-mechanical process already discussed. This is due to the higher carnot efficiency through directly oxidizing the fuel and by avoiding several unnecessary energy conversions. Furthermore, electro-chemical batteries conversions are easy to reverse, allowing electrical energy to be stored in chemical form.

Despite the higher efficiency, electro-chemical vehicles have been beset by many technical issues which have prevented them from replacing the more cumbersome heat engines. Heat engines have been easier to scale up, with the largest electrical generators always being driven by heat engines. Fuel cells are fragile, sensitive to contamination, and require external reactants such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17] than heat engines. However, recent advances in battery efficiency, capacity, materials, safety, toxicity and durability are likely to allow their superior characteristics to be widely applied in car-sized EVs,

For especially large electric vehicles, such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100]s, the chemical energy of the diesel-electric can be replaced by a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101]. The nuclear reactor usually provides heat, which drives a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102], which drives a generator, which is then fed to the propulsion.

Flywheel energy storage

There have been a number of experiments using There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103] in electric vehicles. The Flywheels store energy as rotation, which is converted to electricity via a generator, which then drives the wheel motors. It might seem odd to convert rotational energy to electrical energy, only to convert it back again to rotate the vehicle's drive wheels, but in fact it is a necessary step: In order to hold a useful amount of energy, flywheels need to spin extremely fast, and an electric generator is usually a more practical converter for this high speed rotational energy than a mechanical gearing system would be.

Electric cars

There are two commonly available electric vehicle designs for automobiles: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104] or BEVs, which convert chemical energy to electrical energy in batteries and Hybrid vehicles, which convert chemical energy to electrical energy via an internal combustion engine and a generator. A third, less established form, is the 'plug-in hybrid' which attempts to combine the benefits of both these designs. It allows the moderate capacity batteries of a hybrid vehicle to be recharged not only from the internal combustion engine and generator, but alternatively from an external source of electricity (such as a domestic electricity supply).

Light EVs include electric There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105]s, the aerial There was an error working with the wiki: Code[106], and some There was an error working with the wiki: Code[107] systems such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[108].

According to the (US) Electric Auto Association, as many as ten thousand full-sized electric cars were in use in American roads in 2006. Most are There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] to electric propulsion by owners or small shops six major automakers built about five thousand full-sized EVs for US drivers in the 1990s. Almost all now have been repossessed and crushed by their makers (see "Who Killed the Electric Car?" a documentary film about the General Motors EV1.)A few hundred major-maker EVs survive, mostly There was an error working with the wiki: Code[109]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[110]s.

Recently, a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[111], Tesla Motors has begun EV production. In a few months Tesla has sold hundreds of its high-performance Roadsters they are powered by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[112] packs (LION) similar to, but larger than, those found in laptop computers. The Tesla Roadster can accelerate from 0-60mph in 4 seconds and has a range of 250 miles.

History

Introduction

Electric Car Timeline

Electric motive power started with a small railway operated by a miniature electric motor, built by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20] invented the first crude electric carriage, powered by non-rechargable There was an error working with the wiki: Code[113]s. http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectrica.htm

By the 20th century, electric cars and rail transport were commonplace, with commercial electric automobiles having the majority of the market. Electrified trains were used for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21]. Electric vehicles were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of light, powerful There was an error working with the wiki: Code[114], electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early 1900s. They were produced by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[115], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[116], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[117], and others and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles.

Details

History of the electric vehicles begine in the mid-1800s and held the vehicular There was an error working with the wiki: Code[118] until around 1900. The high cost and low top speed of electric vehiclescompared to later There was an error working with the wiki: Code[119] vehicles caused a worldwide decline in their use, and only relatively recently have they re-emerged into the public eye.

Origins and developments
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and an electric car, 1913 (courtesy of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[120])]]
Image:PierceArrowTCP.jpg
, from French export catalog, may have been used by Nikola Tesla. ]]

Electric motive power started with a small railway operated by a miniature electric motor, built by Thomas Davenport in 1835. In 1838, a Scotsman named Robert Davidson built an electric locomotive that attained a speed of four miles an hour. In England a patent was granted in 1840 for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, and similar American patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in 1847. Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the first crude electric carriage, powered by non-rechargable Primary cells.

By the 20th century, electric cars and rail transport were commonplace, with commercial electric automobiles having the majority of the market. Electrified trains were used for coal transport as the motors did not use precious oxygen in the mines. Switzerland's lack of natural fossil resources forced the rapid electrification of their rail network. Electric vehicles were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of light, powerful internal combustion engines, electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early 1900s. They were produced by Anthony Electric, Baker Electric, Detroit Electric, and others and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles.

Future trends

Improved long term energy storage

There have been several developments which could bring back electric vehicles outside of their current fields of application, as scooters, golf cars, neighborhood vehicles, in industrial operational yards and indoor operation. First, advances in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22], in large part driven by the consumer electronics industry, allow full-sized, highway-capable electric vehicles to be propelled as far on a single charge as conventional cars go on a single tank of gasoline. Lithium batteries have been made safe, can be recharged in minutes instead of hours, and now last longer than the typical vehicle. The production cost of these lighter, higher-capacity lithium batteries is gradually decreasing as the technology matures and production volumes increase.

Battery Management and Intermediate Storage

Another improvementwas to decouple the electric motor from the battery through electronic control while employing [[ultra-capacitor]s to buffer large but short power demands and recuperable braking energy.

The development of new cell types compared with intelligent cell management improved both weak points mentioned above. The cell management is not only able to monitor the health of the cells but by having a redundant cell configuration (one cell more than needed) and a sophisticated switched wiring it is possible to condition one cell after the other while the rest are on duty.

Range extending energy converters on board

Perhaps the most important point is that a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[121] operation (electric only) is no longer considered dogma. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[122]s can use an engine for longer trips. The use of Fuel cells instead of Internal combustion engines can create propulsion systems that are nearly emissions-free (regarding local emissions).

plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a Hybrid vehicle which has additional battery capacity and the ability to be recharged from an external electrical outlet. In addition, modifications are made to the vehicle's control software. The vehicle can be used for short trips of moderate speed without needing the Internal combustion engine (ICE) component of the vehicle, thereby saving fuel costs. In this mode of operation the vehicle operates as a pure Battery electric vehicle with a weight penalty (the ICE). The long range and additional power of the ICE power train is available when needed.

PHEVs are commonly called "grid-connected hybrids," "gas-optional hybrids" (GO-HEVs), "full hybrids," and are sometimes called HEV-30 (for instance, to denote a hybrid with a 30-mile (50 km) electric range, compared to a HEV-0 (a non-plug-in hybrid). However, Ford, GM, and Toyota have all used the term "Full Hybrid Technology" to describe configurations that allow electric-only operation at low speeds (yet not PHEVs). Two other PHEV names used by a major U.S. automotive supplier and in a 1999 SAE paper are "energy hybrids" and "true hybrids." PHEVs can also operate in a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[123] where both gas and external electricity are used simultaneously to increase gas mileage for a particular range, usually at least double that of its electric-only range, but highly dependant upon the stage length between rechargings.

Types

Some early non-production plug-in hybrid electric vehicle There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23] have been based on the version of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24]. Early There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] conversions by CalCars have demonstrated 10 miles (15 km) of EV-only and 20 miles (30 km) of double mileage mixed-mode range. A company offering conversions to consumers named Hybrids Plus is using A123 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] batteries and has 15 or 30 miles of electric range. A company planning to offer conversions to consumers named EDrive systems will be using Valence There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] batteries and have 40-50 miles of electric range. Another company offering a plug-in module for the Toyota Prius is Hymotion. All of these systems replace the original battery and its ECU (Electronic Control Unit), while leaving the existing HSD system unchanged. This technology would be fairly simple to apply to other hybrid configurations. A conversion to plug-in mode involves increasing the capacity of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] battery is retained), and adding an on-board AC powered charger to recharge the larger pack from mains power. Additionally, a method is required to encourage the vehicle to make full use the greater available electrical energy.

The cost of electricity for a Prius PHEV is about $0.03/mi ($0.019/km), based on 0.262 kWh / mile and a cost of electricity of 0.10 $ / kWh. Though the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[124] could potentially change the hybrid landscape by introducing a versatile and fuel-efficient PHEV. Meanwhile, Ford's chief engineers have suggested PHEVs are in their view technically suboptimal in that they use two complete There was an error working with the wiki: Code[125]s.

Current PHEV conversions install a higher capacity battery than common hybrids like the Toyota Prius in order to extend the range. This additional cost is offset by fuel operating cost savings because just $1.00 worth of electricity from the wall (at $0.09/kW·h) will drive you the same distance as a gallon of gasoline. During the year 2006, many government and industry researchers will focus on determining what level of all-electric range is economically optimum for the design.

While PHEV concepts and research have been neglected for many years by industry and government, strong interest is budding in 2006 to such a level that the architecture has even been included as an area of research in President George W. Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative. The "addiction to oil" mentioned in his 2006 State of the Union Address could be largely eliminated by PHEVs and this fact is the most dramatic advantage of the architecture. Although the technology exists today it is often classified by many to be in the initial research phases and likely to not be available for several years (largely due to the current cost of appropriate batteries).

Advantages and disadvantages

A 70-mile range HEV-70 may annually require only about 25% as much gasoline as a similarly designed HEV-0, depending on how it will be driven and the trips for which will be used. A further advantage of PHEVs is that they have potential to be even more efficient than their HEV-0 cousins because more limited use of the PHEV's internal combustion engines may allow the engine to be used at closer to its maximum efficiency. While a Prius is likely to convert fuel to motive energy on average at about 30% efficiency (well below the engine's 38% peak efficiency) the engine of a PHEV-70 would likely operate far more often near its peak efficiency because it is not needed during transient operation conditions. These architectures would be highly likely to employ a parallel hybrid configuration whereby mechanical engine power is allowed to transfer most efficiently directly to the wheels (when the engine is activated).

Another advantage of the PHEV architecture is the synergy it offers with biofuels. It has long been understood that crop production in most countries is not sufficient to supply all of the biofuel needs of society, especially when food production is the obvious primary purpose. However, PHEVs dramatically reduce the requirement for liquid fuel to as little as 20% of an equivalent HEV-0. This produces a synergy between PHEVs and biofuels whereby extreme reductions in petroleum usage are possible. For example, E85 which is composed of 85% ethanol stretches petroleum by a factor of about 2.5 today. Combining E85 as the liquid fuel with a PHEV-70 results in a petroleum stetch factor of 10 (2.5 x 4). If an HEV-0 achieves 50 mpg U.S. (4.7 L/100 km), the similar PHEV-70 would develop 500 mpgp (0.47 L/100 km) (petroleum consumption) if fueled by E85.

Disadvantages include the weight and cost of a larger battery pack. The cost of a battery pack is especially relevant because with current technology battery packs are likely to need to be replaced before the car itself is replaced. Additionally, the mileage gain from a PHEV are highly dependent upon the way a vehicle is used, and the opportunities to recharge by plug. In the most extreme of circumstances a PHEV might get worse mileage than an HEV. For example, in a vehicle being used 24 hours a day for commercial purposes the larger battery capacity (as compared to an HEV) might lack any advantage, while the greater battery weight (than in a corresponding HEV) would reduce mileage.

Commercialisation Issues

Unlike a conventional hybrid electric vehicle current PHEV implementations use the full charge cycle of its battery, which reduces the life of the battery. Mass-produced Hybrid electric vehicles by design avoid a complete or near complete discharge of the battery. Some argue that current PHEV implementations aren't practical on a large scale because of reduced battery life, which is not true of commercial hybrids. However, see "Hybrid Vehicles Gain Traction", in the April 2006 issue of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[126], in which the authors argue that PHEVs will soon become standard in the automobile industry.

Here are the design issues and trade-offs that need to be solved together:

#Battery life, which should be sufficient to maintain at least 85 to 90 percent of initial operational capabilty for at least 150,000 miles (240,000 km)

#Capacity to store electric energy. Affects vehicle weight, range, acceleration, and top speed. Energy density by weight for gasoline is 60-85 times higher than for a Lithium Ion battery so a 50 litre tank of gasoline (40 kg) carries as much energy as a Lithium Ion battery weighing 2400 kg or more. However internal combustion engines are vastly inefficient compared to electric motors.

#Heat dissipation of larger capacity batteries, especially when batteries are fast charged, which may require active liquid cooling devices (these devices may double for cabin air cooling and heating)

#Weight issues with increased batteries: slower acceleration, reduced gas mileage when used for long trips, increased strain on system components such as brakes, etc..., many of which can be addressed by appropriate system design such as increased regneration capability (to save brakes), and larger electric motor (for acceleration).

#Costs

#Safetyhttp://www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?id=17250&ch=biztech&sc=&pg=1, owing to the greater total energy storage, but not significantly beyond that imposed by a conventional hybrid vehicle

For example, if the current Prius were made plug-in capable using its existing small battery pack its range would only be a few miles with low acceleration and low top speed. Alternately, using unsophisticated technology, a very heavy battery would be required which would cause other design problems. These limitations are expected to be resolved within a few years by employing modern batteries.

To solve this one can:

#Increase the number of batteries of the type currently use: Adds weight and only increases range mildly

#Use the full charge/discharge of a battery: Reduces the life of the existing battery

#Use alternative battery technology: Currently expensive, but under heavy research<pesn type= http://renewableenergyaccess.com/rea/news/story?id=45679." str=" Life expectancy unknown but expected to be greaterhttp://www.marketwire.com/mw/release_html_b1?release_id=160603. For [[Lithium ion battery|lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries"></pesn>] Toyota reports a heat dissipation issue.http://www.forbes.com/2006/05/26/toyota-prius-hybrid-cx_jf_0530flint.htmlhttp://www.courier-journal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060728/BUSINESS/607280343

The next major update to the Prius, perhaps in 2008 or later, is rumored to use Li-ion batteriesThis Guardian article suggests it will have a 15 km (9 mile) electric only range.[http://www.guardian.co.uk/japan/story/0,,1743808,00.html

Models, prototypes and conversions

One production PHEV has gone on sale, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[127], in France in 2003. In addition, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[128] is currently building PHEVs based on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[129] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[130]. Light Trucks are also offered by Micro-Vett SPA the so called Daily Bimodale.

A number of prototypes have been created. At the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[131], teams led by Prof. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[132] have designed working prototypes. Some independent researchers have demonstrated conversions of vehicles such as the Toyota Prius, while leaving the majority of the stock There was an error working with the wiki: Code[133] intact and unchanged by simply adding battery capacity and a grid charger.

The California Cars Initiative, a non-profit advocacy and technology development group in California, has converted the '04 and newer Toyota Prius to become a prototype of what it calls the PRIUS+. With the addition of 130 kg (300 lb) of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[134], the PRIUS+ achieves roughly double the gasoline There was an error working with the wiki: Code[135] of a standard Prius and can make trips of up to 15 km (10 miles) using only electric power. It is now working with EDrive Systems, a new Southern California company that plans to install aftermarket conversions for 2004-2006 Priuses with a target fuel efficiency of 1.0 L/100 km (230 mpg).

The Electric Power Research Institute of Palo Alto, along with a number of utilities and government agencies, is working with DaimlerChrysler to deliver three plug-in hybrids built on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30]. Hymotion, a Canadian company, introduced plug-in hybrid upgrade kits in February 2006. Designed for the Toyota Prius and the Ford Escape and Mariner Hybrids, these kits will be offered to fleet buyers at first and should be available to the general public in 2007.

Motorcycle and small car manufacturer There was an error working with the wiki: Code[136] has produced several prototype light sports cars capable of operation in this mode. The first of these used a 400&nbspcc motorcycle engine to give a primarily electric vehicle a "limp home" capability. A subsequent model was more capable of general operation over a wide range of conditions and ranges.

Vehicle-to-grid

Another advantage of a gridable vehicle is their potential ability to load balance or help the grid during peak loads. By using excess battery capacity to send power back into the grid and then recharge during off peak using cheaper power such vehicles are actually advantageous to utilities as well as their owners. This is accomplished with what is known as V2G or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[137] technology. Even if such vehicles just led to an increase in the use of night time electricity they would even out electricity demand (which is typically higher in the day time) and provide a greater return on capital for electricity infastructure.

Battery electric vehicle

As discussed below There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] 1&nbspL three cylinder ICE. One advantage of this configuration is that the ICE or other There was an error working with the wiki: Code[138] can be tuned to maximize efficiency by running at an ideal constant power level.

Image:Rav4evdrawing.jpg
is powered by twenty-four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices.]]

A battery electric vehicle (BEV) is an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32]. Electric vehicles use There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35] and similar vehicles, because batteries are less appropriate for larger long-range applications.

BEVs were among the earliest automobiles, and are more There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36] than most internal combustion vehicles. They produce no exhaust fumes, and minimal pollution if charged from most forms of Renewable energy. Many are capable of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[139] performance exceeding that of conventional There was an error working with the wiki: Code[140] powered vehicles. New models can travel hundreds of miles on a charge, even after 100,000 miles of battery use. BEVs reduce dependence on Petroleum, mitigate There was an error working with the wiki: Code[141] by alleviating the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[142], are quieter than internal combustion vehicles, and do not produce noxious fumes. While limited travel distance between battery recharging, charging time, and battery lifespan have been drawbacks, new battery and charging technologies have substantially increased range and battery life, and decreased recharging time.

Though some models are still in limited production, most popular roadworthy BEVs have been withdrawn from the market and have been destroyed by their manufacturers. A handful of future production models have been announced, although many more have been prototyped. In the US, most practical BEVs are after-market conversions of internal-combustion vehicles by hobbyists, because of the lack of current production vehicles. The major US automobile manufacturers have been accused of deliberately There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37] their electric vehicle production efforts. Oil companies have used patent protection to keep modern battery technology from use in BEVs as shown below.

History

BEVs were among the earliest automobiles. Between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] businessman There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39] invented the first crude electric carriage. Professor There was an error working with the wiki: Code[143] of Groningen, Holland, designed the small-scale electric car, built by his assistant There was an error working with the wiki: Code[144] in 1835.

The improvement of the storage battery, by Frenchmen There was an error working with the wiki: Code[145] in 1865 and by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[146] in 1881, paved the way for electric vehicles to flourish. France and Great Britain were the first nations to support the widespread development of electric vehicles.

Just prior to 1900, before the pre-eminence of powerful but polluting There was an error working with the wiki: Code[147], electric automobiles held many speed and distance records. Among the most notable of these records was the breaking of the 100 km/h (62.14 mph) speed barrier, by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[148] on April 29, 1899 in his 'rocket-shaped' EV, La Jamais Contente which reached a top speed of 105.88 km/h (65.79 mph).

BEVs, produced by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[149], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[150], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[151] and others during the early 20th Century for a time out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles. Due to technological limitations and the lack of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[152]-based electric technology, the top speed of these early production electric vehicles was limited to about 32 km/h (20 mph). These vehicles were successfully sold as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[153]s to upper-class customers and were often marketed as suitable vehicles for women drivers due to their clean, quiet and easy operation.

The introduction of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40] in 1913 simplified the task of starting the internal combustion engine, formerly difficult and sometimes dangerous. This innovation contributed to the downfall of the electric vehicle, as did the invention of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41] -- and to replenish their water supply. EVs may have fallen out of favor because of the mass-produced and relatively inexpensive There was an error working with the wiki: Code[154], which had been produced for four years, since 1908. Internal-combustion vehicles advanced technologically, ultimately becoming more practical than -- and out-performing -- their electric-powered competitors.

Another blow to BEVs was the loss of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42] Direct current electric power transmission system in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[155]. This deprived the BEV of the source of DC current necessary to recharge their batteries. As the technology of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[156]s was still in its infancy, producing DC current locally was unfeasable.

By the late 1930s, the electric automobile industry had completely disappeared, with battery-electric traction being limited to niche applications, such as certain industrial vehicles.

The 1947 invention of the point-contact There was an error working with the wiki: Code[157] marked the beginning of a new era for BEV technology. Within a decade, Henney Coachworks had joined forces with National Union Electric Company, the makers of Exide batteries, to produce the first modern electric car based on transistor technology, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[158], produced in 36-volt and 72-volt configurations. The 72-volt models had a top speed approaching 96 km/h (60 mph) and could travel nearly an hour on a single charge. Despite the improved practicality of the Henney Kilowatt over previous electric cars, it was too expensive, and production was terminated in 1961. Even though the Henney Kilowatt never reached mass production volume, their transistor-based electric technology paved the way for modern EVs.

As of July, 2006, there are between 60,000 and 76,000 low-speed, battery powered vehicles in use in the US, up from about 56,000 in 2004 according to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[159] estimates.

Incentives, quotas, and patent control in the US

Since the late 1980s, electric vehicles have been promoted in the US through the use of tax credits. BEVs are the most common form of what is defined by the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43], Ford Motor Company, and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44] refused to meet the demand despite their production capability. US electric car leases in the 1990s were at reduced costs, and so whether high enough volumes to avoid financial loss could have been obtained is unknown.

The California program was designed by the CARB to reduce air pollution and not specifically to promote electric vehicles. So the zero emissions requirement in California was replaced by a combined requirement of a very small number of ZEVs to promote research and development, and a much larger number of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[160]s (PZEVs), an administrative designation for a super ultra low emissions vehicle (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[161]), which emit about ten percent of the pollution of ordinary low emissions vehicles and are also certified for zero evaporative emissions.

During the development of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45], General Motors made a controlling investment in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46]. This interest was subsequently sold to the oil company There was an error working with the wiki: Code[162], which was acquired in its entirety by another oil company, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[163]. The "large format" NiMH batteries are no longer available to U.S. electric vehicle converters or lightweight BEV manufactures. The manufacturing unit, COBASYS, is currently declining to manufacture and market these batteries for battery electric automotive use in the US and has shut down (through patent control) Panasonic's large format battery importation to the US. The COBASYS web page concerning transportation applications addresses only large multi-passenger Hybrid vehicles, vehicles not comprising a substantial threat to the largest market of the oil industry. In order to use NiMH batteries without violating Chevron's patents, hybrid automobile manufacturers are required to design vehicles which are at least 50% powered by gasoline otherwise, they are limited to the use of "D" cell-sized NiMH ("small format") batteries.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2]

:''For details about production lease vehicle destruction, see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47] below.

:''For a possible end-run around the NiMH roadblocks see the lithium-ion item in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48] below.

Outside the US

France

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[164] saw a large development of battery-electric vehicles in the 1990s the most successful vehicle was the electric There was an error working with the wiki: Code[165]/There was an error working with the wiki: Code[166], of which several thousand have been built, mostly for fleet use in municipalities and by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[167].

Norway

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[168], zero-emission vehicles are tax-exempt and are allowed to use the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[169].

Switzerland

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[170], battery-electric vehicles are popular with private users. There is a national network of publicly accessible charging points, called Park & Charge, which also covers part of Germany and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[171].

United Kingdom

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49]. In most United Kingdom cities, low-speed electric There was an error working with the wiki: Code[172]s (milk trucks) are used for the home delivery of fresh There was an error working with the wiki: Code[173].

Italy

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[174], all private ZEVs are exempt from taxes and have a substantial insurance fee reduction. In most cities the trash collection is performed by BEV trucks.

Selected production vehicles

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3]

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Some popular battery electric vehicles sold or leased to fleets include (in chronological order):

{|class="wikitable"

!Name

!Comments

!Production years

!Number produced

!Cost

|-

!There was an error working with the wiki: Code[175]

|The first electric car, capable of speeds of up to 25 mph and it was reputedly easy to drive, and could cruise a distance of 50 miles when fully charged

|1899-1915

|?

|US $2300

|-

!There was an error working with the wiki: Code[176]

|Sold mainly to women and physicians. 80 miles (typical) to 211.3 (maximum) miles between battery recharging. Top speed about 20 mph, considered adequate for town driving at the time.

|1907-39

|US $3000 depending on options

|-

!There was an error working with the wiki: Code[177]

|The first modern (transistor-based) electric car, capable of highway speeds of up to 60 mph and outfitted with modern hydraulic brakes.

|1958–60

|1000

|~ US $40K without subsidies

|-

!There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50]

|Three-wheeled EV with pedal assist option. Produced in Germany.

|1996+

|>750

|~ US $16K

|-

!There was an error working with the wiki: Code[178] minivan

|Second generation of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[179], using 324&nbspvolt lead-acid batteries in '97 and 336&nbspvolt NiMH from '98 on 80&nbspmiles per hour top speed, range 70-90&nbspmiles

|1997–2000

|1600

|~ £8K US $15K

|-

!colspan=5|There was an error working with the wiki: Code[180]s (NEVs, top speed limited to 25 MPH)

|-

!There was an error working with the wiki: Code[181]

|Five models currently in production, including two pickup trucks all electronically limited to 25 MPH to qualify as NEVs, and using lead-acid batteries. Acquired by [[DaimlerChrysler] in 2000.]

|1998+

|>30,000

|varies by model, US $7K to $12.5K

|-

!There was an error working with the wiki: Code[182]

|Three door two passenger hatchback with various battery options, 35 mile range.

|2006+

|unknown

|US $12K to 14K

|-

!There was an error working with the wiki: Code[183]

|Five models currently in production, all very similar to Sedan model, using lead-acid batteries and limited to 25 MPH to qualify as NEVs. Sedan range is 30 miles.

|2001+

|

|

|}

Comparison to internal combustion vehicles

BEVs have become much less common than Internal combustion engine vehicles. Therefore, it is often helpful to consider many aspects of BEVs in comparison to ICE vehicles.

Cost

Electric vehicles typically cost between two and four cents per mile to operate, while gasoline-powered ICE vehicles currently cost about four to six times as much. The total cost of ownership for modern BEVs depends primarily on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51], the type and capacity of which determine several factors such as travel range, top speed, battery lifetime and recharging time several trade-offs exist.

Battery electric vehicles seem to have a cost advantage when it tomes to automotive accidents. Unlike ICE components battery cells can often be partially or completely salvaged to be reused. Because they don't have combustible matterial, the batteries can usually be reused even in the most extreme accidents.

With batteries making up to 90 percent of materials cost, this spells a a significantly lower collision repair costs, as the batteries can usually still be reused. When it comes to cost, battery electric vehicles are actually beneficial as some supercars range in the hundreds of dollars per month in accidental insurance coverage.

Energy efficiency and emissions

Production and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52] BEVs typically use 0.3 to 0.5 kilowatt-hours per mile (0.2–0.3 kWh/km). Nearly half of this power consumption is due to inefficiencies in charging the batteries. The US fleet average of 23 miles per gallon of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53].

When comparisons of the total, well-to-wheel energy cycle are made, the relative efficiency of BEVs drops, but such calculations are usually not provided for internal combustion vehicles. Generally well-to-station efficiency is left unstated (e.g. the energy used to extract & transport petroleum, produce specialized fuels such as gasoline or electricity, and then transport finished products to market). Normally only the station-to-wheel efficiencies are provided.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[184] (CO2) emissions are useful for comparison of electricity and gasoline consumption. Such comparisons include energy production, transmission, charging, and vehicle losses. CO2 emissions improve in BEVs with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[185] electricity production but are fixed for gasoline vehicles. (Unfortunately, such figures for the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[186], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[187], EVPlus, and other production vehicles are unavailable.)

{|class="wikitable"

!Model!!There was an error working with the wiki: Code[188]s CO2(conventional,mostly Fossil fuel electricity production)!!Short tons CO2(renewable electricity production, e.g., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[189]or Wind power)

|-

|2002 Toyota RAV4-EV (pure BEV)||3.8||0.0

|-

|2000 Toyota RAV4 2wd (gasoline)||7.2||7.2

|-

!colspan=3|Other battery electric vehicle(s)

|-

|2000 Nissan Altra EV||3.5||0.0

|-

!colspan=3|Hybrid vehicles

|-

|2001 Honda Insight||3.1||3.1

|-

|2005 Toyota Prius||3.5||3.5

|-

|2005 Ford Escape H 2x||5.8||5.8

|-

|2005 Ford Escape H 4x||6.2||6.2

|-

!colspan=3|Internal combustion engine vehicles

|-

|2005 Dodge Neon 2.0L||6.0||6.0

|-

|2005 Ford Escape 4x||8.0||8.0

|-

|2005 GMC Envoy XUV 4x||11.7||11.7

|}

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54] has a large impact on energy efficiency as the speed of the vehicle increases. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55] is available.

Total environmental impact

Many factors must be considered when comparing vehicles' total environmental impact. The most comprehensive comparison is a "cradle-to-grave" or lifecycle analysis. Such an analysis considers all inputs including original production and fuel sources and all outputs and end products including emissions and disposal. The varying amounts and types of inputs and outputs vary in their environmental effects and are difficult to directly compare. For example, whether the environmental effects of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56] production facility are less than those of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57] is unknown. Similar comparisons would need to be addressed for each input and output in order to make fair judgement of relative total environmental impact.

A large lifecycle input difference of BEVs compared to ICE vehicles is that they require electricity instead of a liquid fuel. When the electricity is provided from Renewable energy or Nuclear power energy, this is a considerable advantage. However, if the electricity is produced from Fossil fuel sources &mdash as most electricity is &mdash the relative advantage of the electric vehicle is substantially reduced. So, developing additional non-CO2 emitting energy sources is necessary for electric vehicles to further reduce net emissions. Still, the environmental impact of electricity production (indirect emissions) depends on the electricity production mix, and are usually considerably lower than the direct emissions of ICE vehicles.

Another lifecycle input of electric vehicles differing from internal combustion vehicles is the large Battery pack. Modern batteries have been shown to be able to outlast the vehicle they are used in. Batteries tested by Toyota have shown only minimal degradation in performance after 150,000 miles. However real use fiqures show much less milage, typicaly Li-ion batteries degrease in effeciency 20 to 40 percent per year, if you drove around the clock yes they will last 150,00 miles, but if you drive only 6,000 miles per year you would only get 20,000 miles from a battery pack that costs 20,000.00. Your per mile cost would be a stagering 1.00. BEVs do not require a fuel-burning engine and their support systems or the related maintenance, so they are often more reliable and require less maintenance. Although BEVs are uncommon, advances in battery technology have taken place in other markets such as for mobile phones, laptops, forklifts and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[190]s. Improvements to battery technology in such other markets may make BEVs more practical when the new battery technology is proven usable for EV.

Acceleration performance

Many of today's BEVs are capable of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58]. Having multiple motors connected directly to the wheels allows for each of the wheels to be used for both propulsion and as braking systems, thereby increasing There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59], or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60], electric vehicles have greater There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61]. For example, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62]-equipped drag racer BEVs, have simple two-speed transmissions to improve top speed. Larger vehicles, such as electric trains and land speed record vehicles, overcome this speed barrier by dramatically increasing the Wattage of their power system.

Batteries

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63] used in electric vehicles include There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64] ("flooded" and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68], and, less commonly, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70] batteries.

Batteries are usually the most expensive component of BEVs. Although the cost of battery manufacture is substantial, increasing There was an error working with the wiki: Code[191] may serve to lower their cost when BEVs are manufactured on the scale of modern internal combustion vehicles. For new battery technology considered appropriate for serious competition with internal combustion vehicles, large cost decreases will certainly occur when Patents covering the new technologies expire.

Since the late 1990s, advances in battery technologies have been driven by skyrocketing demand for There was an error working with the wiki: Code[192] computers and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[193]s, with consumer demand for more features, larger, brighter displays, and longer battery time driving research and development in the field. The BEV marketplace has reaped the benefits of these advances. If BEV production quotas have been met instead of being repealed, even more demand-driven R&D for large-scale battery technology would likely be taking place.

Charging

Batteries in BEVs must be periodically recharged (see also Replacing, below). BEVs most commonly charge from the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72] and others. Home power such as roof top There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] or Wind power may also be used. Electricity can also be supplied with a portable fueled generator. Although not strictly a BEV, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[194] concept car incorporates There was an error working with the wiki: Code[195] into its exterior to help power its hybrid powertrain.

Charging time is limited primarily by the capacity of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[196] connection. A normal There was an error working with the wiki: Code[197] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[198] is between 1.5 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[199]s (in the US, Canada, Japan, and other countries with 110 Volt supply) to 3 kilowatts (in countries with 240 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[200] supply). The main connection to a house might be able to sustain 10 kilowatts, and special wiring can be installed to use this. At this higher power level charging even a small, 7 kilowatt-hour (14–28 mi) pack, would probably require one hour. This is small compared to the effective power delivery rate of an average There was an error working with the wiki: Code[201] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[202], about 5,000 kilowatts. Even if the supply power can be increased, most batteries do not accept charge at greater than their charge rate ("C1".)

In 1995, some charging stations charged BEVs in one hour. In November 1997, Ford purchased a fast-charge system produced by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74], which charged their lead-acid batteries in between six and fifteen minutes. In February 1998, General Motors announced a version of its "Magne Charge" system which could recharge There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75] batteries in about ten minutes, providing a range of sixty to one hundred miles.

In 2005, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[203] device battery designs by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[204] were claimed to be able to accept an 80% charge in as little as 60 seconds. Scaling this There was an error working with the wiki: Code[205] characteristic up to the same 7 kilowatt-hour EV pack would result in the need for a peak of 336 kilowatts of power from some source for those 60 seconds. It is not clear that such batteries will work directly in BEVs as heat build-up may make them unsafe.

Most people do not always require fast recharging because they have enough time, six to eight hours, during the work day or overnight to recharge. As the charging does not require attention it takes a few seconds for an owner to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76]. Some workplaces provide special parking There was an error working with the wiki: Code[206]s for electric vehicles with charging equipment provided.

The charging power can be connected to the car in two ways:

The first is a direct electrical connection known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[207] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[208]. This might be as simple as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[209] lead into a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[210] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[211] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[212] through to special high capacity cables with connectors to protect the user from High voltages.

The second approach is known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[213] coupling. A special 'There was an error working with the wiki: Code[214]' is inserted into a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[215] on the car. The paddle is one winding of a Transformer, while the other is built into the car. When the paddle is inserted it completes a magnetic circuit which provides power to the battery pack.

The major advantage of the inductive approach is that there is no possibility of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77] as there are no exposed conductors, although interlocks can make conductive coupling nearly as safe. Conductive coupling equipment is lower in cost and much more efficient due to a vastly lower component count.

Replacing

An alternative to recharging is to replace drained batteries with charged batteries. Discharged modular electric car batteries can be replaced by charged ones in fuel stations, car shops, general shops or similar places. With a standard size, this is the quickest (no charging time): few seconds!

Travel range before recharging

The range of a BEV depends on the number and type of batteries used, and the performance demands of the driver. The weight and type of vehicle also have an impact just as they do on the mileage of traditional vehicles. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[216]s usually use lead-acid batteries because they are the most available and inexpensive. Such conversions generally have a range of 20 to 50 miles (30 to 80 km). Production EVs with lead-acid batteries are capable of up to 80 miles (130 km) per charge. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[217] batteries have higher energy density and may deliver up to 120 miles (200 km) of range. New There was an error working with the wiki: Code[218]-equipped EVs provide 250-300 miles (400-500 km) of range per charge. Finding the balance of range versus performance, battery capacity versus weight, and battery type versus cost challenges every EV manufacturer.

EVs can also use There was an error working with the wiki: Code[219]s or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[220]s in order to function as a Hybrid vehicle for occasions when extended range is desired without the additional weight during normal short range use. Such vehicles become internal combustion engine-powered when utilizing their trailer, allowing greater range that may be needed for longer trips.

Lifespan

Individual batteries are usually arranged into large Battery packs of various Voltage and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[221] capacity products to give the required energy capacity. Battery life should be considered when calculating the extended cost of ownership, as all batteries eventually wear out and must be replaced. The rate at which they expire depends on a number of factors.

The depth of discharge (DOD) is the recommended proportion of the total available energy storage for which that battery will achieve its rated cycles. Deep cycle lead-acid batteries generally should not be discharged below 50% capacity. More modern formulations can survive deeper cycles.

In real world use, some fleet There was an error working with the wiki: Code[222]s, using There was an error working with the wiki: Code[223] batteries, have exceeded 100,000 miles (160,000 km) with little degradation in their daily range. Quoting that report's concluding assessment:

:"The five-vehicle test is demonstrating the long-term durability of Nickel Metal Hydride batteries and electric drive trains. Only slight performance degradation has been observed to-date on four out of five vehicles.... EVTC test data provide strong evidence that all five vehicles will exceed the 100,000-mile mark. SCE’s positive experience points to the very strong likelihood of a 130,000 to 150,000-mile Nickel Metal Hydride battery and drive-train operational life. EVs can therefore match or exceed the lifecycle miles of comparable internal combustion engine vehicles.

:"In June 2003 the 320 RAV4 EVs of the SCE fleet were used primarily by meter readers, service managers, field representatives, service planners and mail handlers, and for security patrols and carpools. In five years of operation, the RAV4 EV fleet had logged more than 6.9 million miles, eliminating about 830 tons of air pollutants, and preventing more than 3,700 tons of tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions. Given the successful operation of its EVs to-date, SCE plans to continue using them well after they all log 100,000-miles."

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[224]'s 1909 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[225] still operates on its original There was an error working with the wiki: Code[226]s. Battery replacement costs of BEVs may be partially or fully offset by the lack of regular maintenance such as oil and filter changes required for internal combustion engine vehicles, and by the greater reliability of BEVs due to their fewer moving parts.

Batteries can pose an environmental hazard, incurring disposal or recycling costs. Some of the chemicals used in the manufacture of advanced batteries such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80] are hazardous and potentially environmentally damaging. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] Traditional car batteries have very successful There was an error working with the wiki: Code[227] programs. Widespread use of battery electric vehicles would require the implementation of similar recycling programs. More modern formulations also tend to use lighter, more biologically remediable elements such as iron, lithium, carbon and zinc. In particular, moving away from toxic metals such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[228] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[229] makes disposal less critical. Batteries might not pose a greater risk than is currently accepted for fossil fuel-based transportation, as petroleum-powered transportation leads to substantial environmental damage in the form of spills, smog, and distillation byproducts.

Safety

The safety issues of battery electric vehicles are dealt with by the international standard There was an error working with the wiki: Code[230] 6469. This document is divided in three parts dealing with specific issues:

On-board electrical energy storage, i.e. the battery

Functional safety means and protection against failures

Protection of persons against electrical hazards.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[231]s and rescue personnel receive special training to deal with the higher voltages and chemicals encountered in electric and hybrid electric vehicle accidents. While BEV accidents may present unusual problems, such as fires and fumes resulting from rapid battery discharge, there is apparently no available information regarding whether they are inherently more or less dangerous than gasoline or diesel internal combustion vehicles which carry flammable fuels.

Hobbyists, conversions, and racing

Hobbyists often build their own EVs by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] existing production cars to run solely on electricity. There is a cottage industry supporting the conversion and construction of BEVs by hobbyists. Universities such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[232] even build their own custom electric or hybrid-electric cars from scratch.

Short-range battery electric vehicles offer the hobbyist comfort, utility, and quickness, sacrificing only range. Short-range BEVs may be built using high-performance lead–acid batteries, using about half the mass needed for a 60 to 80 mile (100 to 130 km) range the result is a vehicle with about a thirty mile (50 km) range, which when designed with appropriate weight distribution (40/60 front to rear) does not require There was an error working with the wiki: Code[233], offers exceptional acceleration in the lower end of its operating range, is freeway capable and legal, and costs little to build and maintain. By including a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[234], short-range BEVs can

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