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Diesel or diesel fuel is a specific There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3] of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17] (mostly Petroleum) that is used as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] in a Diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. The term typically refers to fuel that has been processed from petroleum, but increasingly, alternatives such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20] (BTL) or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21] (GTL) diesel that are not derived from petroleum are being developed and adopted.

Petroleum diesel

Diesel is produced from Petroleum, and is sometimes called petrodiesel when there is a need to distinguish it from diesel obtained from other sources such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22]. It is a Hydrocarbon mixture, obtained in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23] of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24] between 250&nbsp°C and 350&nbsp°C at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25].

The density of diesel is about 850 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26]s per There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27] whereas There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] (British English: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29]) has a density of about 720 g/l, about 15% less. When burnt, diesel typically releases about 40.9 There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30]s (MJ) per liter, whereas gasoline releases 34.8 MJ/L, also about 15% less. Diesel is generally simpler to refine than gasoline and often costs less (although price fluctuations sometimes mean that the inverse is true for example, the cost of diesel traditionally rises during colder months as demand for heating oil, which is refined much the same way, rises).

Diesel powered cars generally have about a 40% better mileage than equivalent gasoline engines and produce only about 69% of the greenhouse gases. This greater <pesn type= results in 15% higher greenhouse gas emissions per liter compared to gasoline, the 40% better There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32] achieved by modern diesel-engined automobiles offsets the higher-per-liter emissions of greenhouse gases, resulting in lower There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] emission per kilometer (69% of that of gasoline).

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2332669.stm]<pesn type=" str=" For this reason, proponents of diesel powered automobiles often cite this advantage as a way to reduce [[Greenhouse gas"></pesn>] emissions.

On the other hand, diesel fuel often contains higher quantities of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] to dramatically reduce the level of sulfur in diesel fuels. In contrast, the United States has long had "dirtier" diesel, although more stringent emission standards have been adopted with the transition to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34] (ULSD) starting in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35] and becoming mandatory on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36], 2010 (see also There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37]). U.S. diesel fuel typically also has a lower There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] (a measure of ignition quality) than European diesel, resulting in worse cold weather performance and some increase in emissions.

High levels of sulfur in diesel are harmful for the environment because they prevent the use of catalytic diesel particulate filters to control diesel particulate emissions, as well as more advanced technologies, such as nitrogen oxide (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] of the fuel, meaning that There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39]s must be put into the fuel to help lubricate engines. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40] is an effective lubricant.

Chemical composition

Petroleum derived diesel is composed of about 75% There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6]), and 25% There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41]s (including There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43]s). The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H26, ranging from approx. C10H22 to C15H32.

Algae, microbes, and water

There has been a lot of discussion and misinformation about There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44] in diesel fuel. An algae is a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45], and it requires sunlight to live and grow. As there is no sunlight in a closed fuel tank, no algae can survive there. However, some There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] can survive there. They can feed on the diesel fuel.

These microbes form a slimy colony that lives at the fuel/water interface. They grow quite rapidly in warmer temperatures. They can even grow in cold weather when fuel tank heaters are installed. Parts of the colony can break off and clog the fuel lines and fuel filters.

It is possible to either kill this growth with a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47] treatment, or eliminate the water, a necessary component of microbial life. There are a number of biocides on the market, which must be handled very carefully. If a biocide is used, it must be added every time a tank is refilled until the problem is fully resolved.

Biocides attack the cell wall of microbes resulting in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48], the death of a cell by bursting. The risk of filter clogging may continue for a short period after biocide treatment until cellular residues break down and are absorbed into the fuel.

Synthetic diesel

Wood, straw, corn, garbage, and sewage-sludge may be dried and gasified. After purification the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49] process is used to produce synthetic diesel.

Other attempts use enzymatic processes and are also economic in case of high oil prices.

Synthetic diesel may also be produced out of Natural gas in the GTL process or out of coal in the CTL process. Such synthetic diesel has 30% less particulate emissions than conventional diesel (US- California).

Biodiesel

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There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50] can be obtained from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51] (vegidiesel / vegifuel), or animal fats (bio-There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52]s, using There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53]). Biodiesel is a non-Fossil fuel alternative to petrodiesel. It can also be mixed with petrodiesel in any amount in modern engines, though when first using it, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54] properties of the fuel tend to dissolve accumulated deposits and can clog fuel filters. Biodiesel has a higher gel point than petrodiesel, but is comparable to diesel #2. This can be overcome by using a biodiesel/petrodiesel blend, or by installing a fuel heater, but this is only necessary during the colder months. There have been reports that a diesel-biodiesel mix results in lower emissions than either can achieve alone. A small percentage of biodiesel can be used as an additive in low-sulfur formulations of diesel to increase the lubricity lost when the sulfur is removed.

Chemically, most biodiesel consists of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55] (usually There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56]) There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57]s instead of the alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons of petroleum derived diesel. However, biodiesel has combustion properties very similar to petrodiesel, including combustion energy and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58] ratings. Paraffin biodiesel also exists. Due to the purity of the source, it has a higher quality than petrodiesel.

Ethanol can be added to petroleum diesel fuel in amounts up to 15% along with additives to keep the ethanol emulsified. http://www.ne-ethanol.org/facts/ediesel.htm, however the cetane rating and lubricity of the fuel are both reduced and must be corrected with additives.

Applications

Internal Combustion Engines

Diesel engines are a type of Internal combustion engine. Rudolf Diesel originally designed the diesel engine to use There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59]s as a fuel in order to help support agrarian society and to enable independent craftsmen and artisans to compete with large industry.<pesn type= Diesel engines are used in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62]s and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63]s.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7] SM1B with a Packard Diesel in 1928. A Packard diesel motor designed by L.M. Woolson was fitted to a Stinson X7654, and in 1929 it was flown 1000 km non-stop from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] was powered by four 16 cylinder diesel engines, each with approximately 1200 horsepower available in bursts, and 850 horsepower available for cruising.

The very first diesel-engine There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64], a distance of nearly 1300 km. This feat helped to prove the usefulness of the Internal combustion engine.

Automobile racing

In 1931, Dave Evans drove his There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65] Diesel Special to a nonstop finish in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66], the first time a car had completed the race without a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67]. That car and a later Cummins Diesel Special are on display at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68] Hall of Fame Museum.

With turbocharged Diesel-cars getting stronger in the 1990s, they were entered in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11]. After winning the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14] regulations are seen as pro-diesel. French automaker There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69] is also planning to enter a diesel powered There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70].

In an effort to further demonstrate the potential of diesel power, California-based Gale Banks Engineering designed, built and raced a Cummins-powered pickup at the [[Bonneville Salt Flats] in October 2002. The truck set a top speed of 222 mph and became the world’s fastest pickup, and almost equally as notable, the truck drove to the race towing its own support trailer.

On 23 August 2006, the British-based earthmoving machine manufacturer There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] raced the specially designed JCB Dieselmax car at 350.092 mph/563.418 km/h. The driver was There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71]. The car was powered by two modified JCB 444 diesel engines.

Other uses

Bad quality (high There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72]) diesel fuel has been used as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] extraction agent for the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74] of this metal from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75] mixtures. This has been proposed as a means of separating the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76] palladium from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78] which comes from used There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79]. In this solvent extraction system the Hydrocarbons of the diesel act as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80] while the diThere was an error working with the wiki: Code[81] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82]s act as the extractant. This extraction operates by a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83] mechanism. So far neither a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84] or full scale plant has been constructed to recover palladium, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86] from Nuclear wastes created by the use of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79].

Taxation

Diesel fuel is very similar to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88] which is used in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89]. In Europe, the United States and Canada, taxes on diesel fuel are higher than on heating oil due to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90], and in those areas, heating oil is marked with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91] and trace chemicals to prevent and detect There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92]. Similarly, "untaxed" diesel is available in the United States, which is available for use primarily in agricultural applications such as for tractor fuel. This untaxed diesel is also dyed red for identification purposes, and should a person be found to be using this untaxed diesel fuel for a typically taxed purpose (such as "over-the-road", or driving use), the user can be fined US$10,000. In the United Kingdom it is known as red diesel, and is also used by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93] vehicles. Diesel fuel, or Marked Gas Oil is dyed green in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94]. The term DERV (short for "diesel engined road vehicle") is also used in the UK as a synonym for diesel fuel. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95], taxes on diesel fuel are lower than on gasoline as majority of the transportation that transports grains and other essential commodities across the country runs on diesel.

Related

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Diesel Hybrid vehicle.

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External articles and references

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DieselNet.com: US Diesel Fuel

Alternative Diesel Fuels - Tutorial on using renewable biofuels in a diesel engine

U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration: Safety and Health Topics: Diesel Exhaust

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

US Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. Emission Facts: Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions Resulting from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel. Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1995. Toxicological profile for fuel oils. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service

http://www.fas.usda.gov/pecad/highlights/2005/01/btl0104/syntheticdiesel.htm. Retrieved on December 5, 2005. appears to be at this link http://www.fas.usda.gov/pecad2/highlights/2005/01/btl0104/syntheticdiesel.htm now

SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL. Retrieved on December 5, 2005.

Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Retrieved on December 5, 2005.

Torgov, V.G. Tatarchuk, V.V. Druzhinina, I.A. Korda, T.M. et. al, Atomic Energy, 1994, 76(6), 442-448. (Translated from Atomnaya Energiya 76: No. 6, 478-485 (Jun 1994))

United States Government Printing Office (2006-10-25). Title 26, § 48.4082-1 Diesel fuel and kerosene exemption for dyed fuel.. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR). Retrieved on 2006-10-28. “Diesel fuel or kerosene satisfies the dyeing requirement of this paragraph (b) only if the diesel fuel or kerosene contains— (1) The dye Solvent Red 164 (and no other dye) at a concentration spectrally equivalent to at least 3.9 pounds of the solid dye standard Solvent Red 26 per thousand barrels of diesel fuel or kerosene or (2) Any dye of a type and in a concentration that has been approved by the Commissioner.? Cited as 26 CFR 48.4082-1. This regulation implements 26 U.S.C. § 4082-1.

See also

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Category:Fuels

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