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Richard Buckminster ("Bucky") Fuller (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32], and Inventor.

Introduction

Throughout his life, Fuller was concerned with the question of whether humanity has a chance to survive lastingly and successfully on planet Earth, and if so, how? Considering himself an average individual without special monetary means or academic degree, he chose to devote his life to this question, trying to find out what an individual like him could do to improve humanity's condition that large organizations, governments, or private enterprises inherently could not do. Pursuing this lifelong experiment, Fuller wrote twenty-eight books, coining and popularizing terms such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34]. He also boasts numerous inventions chiefly in the fields of design and architecture, the best known of which is the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35].

Late in his life, after working on his concepts for several decades, Fuller had achieved considerable public visibility. He traveled the world giving lectures, and received numerous honorary doctorates. Most of his inventions, however, never made it into production, and he was strongly criticized in most of the fields that he tried to influence (such as architecture), or simply dismissed as a hopeless There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6]. Fuller's proponents, on the other hand, claim that his work has not yet received the attention that it deserves.

Biography

Fuller was born on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36], the son of Richard Buckminster Fuller and Caroline Wolcott Andrews. The Fuller family in particular produced noted New England non-conformists. Buckminster Fuller's father died when the boy was 12. Spending his youth on a farm on Bear Island off the coast of Maine, he was a boy with a natural propensity for design and for making things. He often made things from materials he brought home from the woods, and he even sometimes made his own tools. Notably, he experimented with designing a new apparatus for the human-powered propulsion of small boats. Years later he decided that this sort of experience had provided him not only an interest in design, but a habit of being fully familiar and knowledgeable about the materials that his ambitious later projects would require for actualization. Indeed, Fuller earned a machinist's certification, and he also knew how to fabricate using the press brake, stretch press, and other tools and equipment relied upon in the sheet-metal trade.

Fuller was sent to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] but was expelled from the university twice: first, for entertaining an entire dance troupe and second, for his "irresponsibility and lack of interest." By his own appraisal, he was a non-conforming misfit in the fraternity environment. Later in life, Fuller received a Sc.D. from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37] in 1969.

Between his sessions at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38]. In the Navy he was employed as an aboard-ship radio operator, as an editor of a publication, and as a crash-boat commander. After discharge, he again worked for a period in the meat-packing business, where he acquired management experience. In the early 1920s he and his father-in-law developed the Stockade Building System for producing light-weight, weatherproof, and fireproof housing — though ultimately the company failed.

In 1927 at the age of 32, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] and jobless, living in inferior housing in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11], he saw his beloved young daughter Alexandra die of the complications of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40]. He felt responsible, and this drove him to drink and to the verge of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41]. At the last moment he decided instead to embark on "an experiment, to find what a single individual can contribute to changing the world and benefiting all humanity."

Fuller accepted a position at a small college in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43]. There, with the support of a group of professors and students, he began work on the project that would make him famous and revolutionize the field of engineering, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44]. Using lightweight plastics in the simple form of a tetrahedron (a triangular pyramid) he created a small dome. He had designed the first building that could sustain its own weight with no practical limits. The U.S. government recognized the importance of the discovery and employed him to make small domes for the army. Within a few years there were thousands of these domes around the world.

For the next half-century Buckminster Fuller contributed a wide range of ideas, designs and inventions to the world, particularly in the areas of practical, inexpensive shelter and transportation. He documented his life, philosophy and ideas scrupulously in a daily There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45] and in 28 publications. Fuller financed some of his experiments with inherited family money, sometimes augmented by funds invested by his professional collaborators, one example being the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] project.

His international recognition was established by the success of his huge There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12]. In 1965 Fuller inaugurated the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47] (1965 to 1975) at the meeting of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49]. This was (in his own words) devoted to applying the principles of science to solving the problems of humanity.

Fuller believed human societies would soon be relying mainly on renewable sources of energy, such as solar- and wind-derived electricity. He hoped for an age of "omni-successful education and sustenance of all humanity." He regarded information as "negative entropic".

Fuller was ultimately awarded 25 US patents and many honorary doctorates. On There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51] Fuller received the Gold Medal award from the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52] and also received numerous other awards.

He died at the age of 88, a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53] of the design, architecture, and 'alternative' communities (such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54] an experimental artists community to whom he awarded the 1966 "Dymaxion Award" for "poetically economic" domed living structures). His wife was comatose and dying of cancer and while visiting her in the hospital he exclaimed at one point: "She is squeezing my hand!". He then stood up, suffered a massive heart attack and died an hour later. His wife died 36 hours later. He is buried in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55] near Boston, Massachusetts.

Philosophy and worldview

Buckminster Fuller strove to inspire humanity to take a comprehensive view of the finite world we live in and the infinite possibilities for an ever-increasing standard of living within it. Deploring There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13], he advocated a principle that he termed "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56]" — which in essence (according to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57]) Fuller coined to mean "doing more with less." Wealth can be increased by recycling resources into newer, higher value products whose more technically sophisticated design requires less material. In practice, it has often meant miniaturization, for example, as when table-model calculating machines were succeeded over time by smaller ones, until the calculator of today fits in one's hand. Fuller also introduced There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58], which explores holistic engineering structures in nature (long before the term There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59] became popular).

Fuller was one of the first to propagate a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16]), he declared that it had cost nature "over a million dollars" per U.S. gallon ($300,000/L) to produce. From this point of view its use as a transportation fuel by people commuting to work represents a huge net loss compared to their earnings (See: Critical Path pp. xxxiv-xxxv).

He dedicated himself to advancing the success and fulfillment of humanity and lived by a set of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17] he was deeply concerned about Sustainability and about human survival under the existing socio-economic system, yet was profoundly optimistic about humanity's prospects. Defining wealth in terms of knowledge, as the "technological ability to protect, nurture, support, and accommodate all growth needs of life", his analysis of the condition of "Spaceship Earth" led him to conclude that at a certain point in the 1970s humanity had crossed an unprecedented watershed.

What might otherwise sound like an article of faith in some spiritual or philosophical system had for Fuller become an objective fact — that the accumulation of relevant knowledge, combined with the quantities of key recyclable resources that had already been extracted from the earth, had reached a critical level, such that competition for necessities was no longer necessary. Cooperation had became the optimum survival strategy. "Selfishness", he declared, "is unnecessary and...unrationalizable...War is obsolete..."

By considering historical comparisons like the fact that even relatively poor people today are able to travel at speeds and with a degree of comfort which were unobtainable at any price in earlier times, and that illnesses that were fatal even to kings in the past can now be cured with affordable drugs, he concluded that everyone alive today can potentially live like a "billionaire." Hence he described the human race as "four billion billionaires."

Besides important comprehensiveness of thought and his philosophical concepts, Fuller's most lasting insights may be geometric. He claimed that the natural There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18]. He developed this in several ways, from the close-packing of spheres and the number of compressive or tensile members required to stabilize an object in space. Some deep confirming results were that the strongest possible homogeneous There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60] is cyclically tetrahedral.

Major design projects

Fuller was most famous for his There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61]s, which can be seen as part of military There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62] stations, civic buildings, and exhibition attractions. Their construction is based on extending some basic principles to build simple There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63] structures (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65], and the closest packing of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66]s). Built in this way they are extremely lightweight and stable. The patent for geodesic domes was awarded in 1954, part of Fuller's decades-long efforts to explore nature's constructing principles to find design solutions.

Previously, Fuller had designed and built prototypes of what he hoped would be a safer, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20]-shaped body (which in one of the prototypes was about 18 feet long), was large enough to seat 11 people. It somehow resembled a melding of a light aircraft (without wings) and a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67] van of 1950s vintage. The car was essentially a mini-bus in each of its three trial incarnations, and its concept long predated the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68] mini-bus conceived in 1947 by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69].

Despite its length, and due to its three-wheel design, the Dymaxion Car turned on a small radius and parked in a tight space quite nicely. The prototypes were efficient in fuel consumption for their day. Fuller poured a great deal of his own money (inherited from his mother) into the project, in addition to the funds put in by one of his professional collaborators. An industrial investor was also keenly interested in the unprecedented concept. Fuller anticipated the car could travel on an open highway safely at up to about 100 miles per hour (160 km/h) however, due to some concept oversights, the prototypes proved to be unruly over the speed of 50 mph (80 km/h), and difficult to steer properly. Research came to an end after one of the prototypes was involved in a collision resulting in a fatality.

In 1943, industrialist There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70] asked Fuller to develop a prototype for a smaller car, and Fuller designed a five-seater the car never went into the development or production stages.

Another of Fuller's ideas was the alternative-projection There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71]. This was designed to show the Earth's continents with minimum distortion when projected or printed on a flat surface.

Fuller's energy-efficient and low-cost There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21] packages, with interior color panels available at local dealers' premises. A circular structure at the top of the house was designed to rotate around a central mast to take advantage of natural winds for cooling and air circulation.

Conceived nearly two decades before, and developed in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72], the house was designed to be lightweight and adapted to windy climes. It was to be inexpensive to produce and purchase, and easily assembled. It was to be produced using factories, trained workers, and technologies that had produced There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] aircraft. "Ultramodern"-looking, it was structured of metal and sheathed in polished aluminum, and the basic model enclosed 1000 square feet (90 m²) of floor area. Due to high-level publicity, there were very many orders in the early Post-War years however, the company that Fuller and others had formed to produce the houses failed due to internal management problems.

Buckminster Fuller made a radical commitment to understanding, discovery, and research. He wanted to be a trailblazer, which is a risky role in any field. His life and his work therefore constituted a kind of noble gamble.

Practical achievements

Certainly, a number of Fuller's projects did not meet success in terms of commitment from industry or acceptance by a broad public. However, many geodesic domes have been built and are in use. According to the Buckminster Fuller Institute Web site, the largest geodesic-dome structures (listed in descending order from largest diameter) are:

/

Fantasy Entertainment Complex: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74], 710 feet / 216 m

Multi-Purpose Arena: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75], 614 feet / 187 m

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76]: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77], WA, USA, 530 feet / 162 m

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78]: Northern Michigan Univ. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79], USA, 525 feet / 160 m

Walkup Skydome: Northern Arizona Univ. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80], USA, 502 feet / 153 m

Round Valley High School Stadium: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81]-There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82], USA, 440 feet / 134 m

Former Spruce Goose Hangar: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83], USA, 415 feet / 126 m

Formosa Plastics Storage Facility: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84], 402 feet / 123 m

Union Tank Car Maintenance Facility: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85] USA, 384 feet / 117 m

Lehigh Portland Cement Storage Facility: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86] USA, 374 feet / 114 m

The Eden Project, Cornwall, United Kingdom [Eden Project

Fuller's development of the dome and his roles as a philosopher and as a gadfly within the design and architectural communities left an important legacy. He introduced a number of concepts, and if every one wasn't entirely new, we can still say that he honed each one well.

Thousands of geodesic domes have been built, but they are not an everyday sight in most places. Contrary to initial hopes, in practice most of the smaller owner-built geodesic structures proved to have drawbacks (discussed in the Wikipedia section on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87]s) plus, as a home, many people have been put off by the domes' unconventional appearance.

An interesting spin-off of Fuller's dome-design conceptualization was the Buckminster Ball, which was the official FIFA approved design for footballs (soccer balls), from their introduction at the 1970 World Cup until recently. The design was essentially a "Geodesic Sphere", consisting of 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal panels. This was used continuously for 34 years until it was replaced by a 14-panel version in the 2006 World Cup.

While an envisioned widespread and common adoption of geodesic domes is yet to materialize, Fuller's ideas, teachings, and attitude to life and creativity, in combination, have prodded designers and engineers. What Fuller accomplished, in this sense, was to make professionals and students think "outside the box" to question convention. Fuller was followed (historically) by other designers and architects (for example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22]" project — and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88]) willing to explore the possibilities of new geometries in the design of buildings, not based on the conventional rectangles. The English writer, playwright, and philosopher There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89] wrote something quite relevant to the pioneering forays of Fuller still to be brought to full result: "We must beat the iron while it is hot, but we may polish it at leisure."

Facts and Figures

Fuller was friends with Boston artist There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90].

He experimented with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91].

He was a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23].

A new There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24] of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92] (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93]) and a particular molecule of that allotrope (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94] or buckyballs) have been named after him. The Buckminsterfullerene molecule, which consists of 60 carbon atoms, very closely resembles a spherical version of Fuller's geodesic dome.

On There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96] the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97] released a new commemorative stamp honoring R. Buckminster Fuller on the 50th anniversary of his patent for the geodesic dome and on the occasion of his 109th birthday.

Fuller documented his life every 15 minutes from 1915 to 1983, leaving behind 270 feet / 80 m worth of journals. He called this the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98]. This is said to be the most documented human life in history.

He dedicated the US Pavilion dome at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99] to his wife Anne when they celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary there.

Around 1979-1980, Bucky shared a lecture tour across America with philosopher There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100].

:"If somebody kept a very accurate record of a human being, going through the era from the Gay 90s, from a very different kind of world through the turn of the century — as far into the twentieth century as you might live. I decided to make myself a good case history of such a human being and it meant that I could not be judge of what was valid to put in or not. I must put everything in, so I started a very rigorous record." http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2003/january22/bucky-122.htmlhttp://www-sul.stanford.edu//depts/spc/fuller/about.html

Buckminster and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101] were very close friends and the song "What One Man Can Do" on John's 1982 album "Seasons of the Heart" was written on the occasion of R. Buckminster's 85th birthday. John dedicated this song to him.

Neologisms

'World-around' is a term coined by Fuller to replace worldwide. The general belief in a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] detracts from and misleads intuition. The terms sunsight and sunclipse are other neologisms, according to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102].

Fuller also coined the phrase There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103], and coined the term (but did not invent) There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104]. It has also been claimed that Fuller coined the phrase There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105] in 1927, however many credit There was an error working with the wiki: Code[106] for the term in 1923.

Patents

R. Buckminster Fuller's 28 patents

Concepts and buildings

His concepts and buildings include:

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[107] (1928) See There was an error working with the wiki: Code[108]

Aerodynamic There was an error working with the wiki: Code[109] (1933)

Prefabricated compact bathroom cell (1937)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[110] of the world (1946)

Buildings (1943)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[111] structures (1949)

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[112] for Ford Motor Company (1953)

Patent on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[113]s (1954)

The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[114] (1961) and the World Game Institute (1972)

Patent on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[115] (1961)

Fuller's Literature

4-D Timelock (1928)

Nine Chains to the Moon (1938, ISBN 0-224-00800-5)

The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller (1960, ISBN 0-385-01804-5) With Robert W. Marks. Anchor Press, Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Untitled Epic Poem on the History of Industrialization (1962, ISBN 0-671-20478-5)

Education Automation: Freeing the Scholar to Return to his Studies (1962, ISBN 0-8093-0137-7) - online at http://reactor-core.org/education-automation.html

Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (1963/1969/1971, ISBN 0-525-47433-1) - online at http://bfi.org/node/422

Your Private Sky (ISBN 3-907044-88-6)

Ideas and Integrities (1969, ISBN 0-02-092630-8)

Utopia or Oblivion: The Prospects for Humanity (1969, ISBN 0-7139-0134-9)

Approaching the Benign Environment (1970, ISBN 0-8173-6641-5)

I Seem to Be a Verb (1970)

No More Secondhand God and Other Writings (1963/1971)

Buckminster Fuller to Children of Earth (1972, ISBN 0-385-02979-9)

Intuition (1972, ISBN 0-385-01244-6)

Earth, Inc. (1973, ISBN 0-385-01825-8)

Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking (1975/1979, ISBN 0-02-541870-X [vol. 1], ISBN 0-02-541880-7 [vol. 2]) - online at http://www.rwgrayprojects.com/synergetics/synergetics.html

And It Came to Pass — Not to Stay (1976, ISBN 0-02-541810-6)

Tetrascroll: Goldilocks and the Three Bears: A Cosmic Fairy Tale (1977/1982, ISBN 0-312-79362-6) - online at http://www.fullereducation.org/fec_folder/tetrascroll.pdf

R. Buckminster Fuller on Education (1979, ISBN 0-87023-276-2)

Critical Path (1981, ISBN 0-312-17491-8)

Grunch of Giants (1983, ISBN 0-312-35194-1) - online at http://reactor-core.org/grunch-of-giants.html

Inventions: the Patented Works of R. Buckminster Fuller (1983, ISBN 0-312-43477-4)

Humans in Universe (1983, Mouton ISBN 0-89925-001-7) with Anwar Dil

Cosmography (1992, ISBN 0-02-541850-5)

Secondary literature

Related concepts

General

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[116]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[117]: Noted transcendentalist and Buckminster Fuller's great aunt.

Mark Victor Hansen (co-author of Chicken Soup for the Soul)

Former students

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[118]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[119]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[120]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[121]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[122]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[123]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[124]

External articles and references

General

Buckminster Fuller Institute: With several complete works online.

Notes to R. Buckminster Fuller's Work

Synergetics on the Web

Build Genius: Zome System

Chris Fearnley's List of Buckminster Fuller Resources on the Internet

FAQ — R. Buckminster Fuller

Fuller, R. Buckminster — includes list of books written by and about Fuller

R. Buckminster Fuller on PBS

Information about Fuller's commemorative postage stamp

Wired News Article on the Buckminster stamp

The Dymaxion house at the Henry Ford museum

Buckminster Fuller discussed on The State of Things

Buckminster Fuller and interstellar communication explored: 'An Unlikely Oracle: R. Buckminster Fuller'

The Buckminster Alternative Fuller's life as a lesson in living

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

Audio and video

Technology and peace

Directory of Audio and Video real streams from the Buckminster Fuller Institute

The — video, audio, and full transcripts.

http://collections.stanford.edu/bucky/bin/page?forward=home includes 1700 hrs. of audio-visual material

CBC Archives - clip about United States Pavilion at Expo 67

Books, journals and other sources

Sidney Rosen Wizard of the Dome: R. Buckminster Fuller, Designer for the Future. 1969 (ISBN 0-316-75707-1)

Hugh Kenner Bucky: A guided tour of Buckminster Fuller. 1973 (ISBN 0-688-00141-6)

Donald Robertson Mind's Eye Of Buckminster Fuller. 1974 (ISBN 0-533-01017-9) Vantage Press, Inc., New York.

Alden Hatch Buckminster Fuller At Home In The Universe. 1974 (ISBN 0-440-04408-1) Crown Publishers, New York.

E. J. Applewhite Cosmic Fishing: An account of writing Synergetics with Buckminster Fuller. 1977 (ISBN 0-02-502710-7)

A Fuller Explanation by Amy C. Edmondson offers a discussion of his work in geometry and systems.

Buckminster Fuller also appears as a character in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[125]'s book "Das falsche Buch".

Lloyd Sieden Buckminster Fuller's Universe, His Life and Work. 1989 (ISBN 0-7382-0379-3), explores Fuller's personal life, his beliefs and drives.

Martin Pawley Buckminster Fuller. 1991 (ISBN 0-8008-1116-X), offers an architectural critic's assessment of Fuller's ideas and projects.

His former student There was an error working with the wiki: Code[126] wrote BuckyWorks: Buckminster Fuller's Ideas for Today 1997 (ISBN 0-471-19812-9).

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2] Preface dedicates book to Bucky and relates the potential of networked There was an error working with the wiki: Code[127]s to Bucky's Geoscope.

McHale, John. R. Buckminster Fuller. George Brazillier, Inc., New York. hardback. 1962.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3]

Lord, V. Athena. Pilot For Spaceship Earth. Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc., New York. hardback. 1978 (ISBN 0-02-761420-4)

Snyder, Robert. Buckminster Fuller: An Autobiographical Monologue/Scenario. St. Martin's Press, New York. hardback. 1980 (ISBN 0-312-24547-5)

Synergetic Stew: Explorations In Dymaxion Dining. The Buckminster Fuller Institute, Philadelphia. paperback. 1982 (ISBN 0-911573-00-3)

Ward, James. Ed. The Artifacts Of R. Buckminster Fuller, A Comprehensive Collection of His Designs and Drawings in Four Volumes: Volume One. The Dymaxion Experiment, 1926-1943 Volume Two. Dymaxion Deployment, 1927-1946 Volume Three. The Geodesic Revolution, Part 1, 1947-1959 Volume Four. The Geodesic Revolution, Part 2, 1960-1983: Edited with descriptions by James Ward. Garland Publishing, New York. 1984 (ISBN 0-8240-5082-7 [vol. 1], ISBN 0-8240-5083-5 [vol. 2], ISBN 0-8240-5084-3 [vol. 3], ISBN 0-8240-5085-1 [vol. 4])

Brenneman, Richard. Fuller's Earth, A Day With Bucky And The Kids St. Martin's Press, New York, c. 1984. hardcover (ISBN 0-312-30981-3)

E. J. Applewhite, ed. Synergetics Dictionary, The Mind Of Buckminster Fuller in four volumes. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York and London. 1986 (ISBN 0-8240-8729-1)

Potter, R. Robert. Buckminster Fuller (Pioneers in Change Series). Silver Burdett Publishers. 1990 (ISBN 0-382-09972-9)

Pawley, Martin. Buckminster Fuller. Taplinger Publishing Company, New York. 1991. hardcover (ISBN 0-8008-1116-X)

Krausse, Joachim and Lichtenstein, Claude. ed. Your Private Sky, R. Buckminster Fuller: The Art Of Design Science. Lars Mueller Publishers. 1999 (ISBN 3-907044-88-6)

Zung, T.K. Thomas. Buckminster Fuller: Anthology for a New Millennium. St. Martin’s Press. 2001 (ISBN 0-312-26639-1)

Disney's Dome, Ray Charles

See also

- PowerPedia

- Main Page

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