PowerPedia:Are there five fundamental forces in Nature?

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Current Nuclear Physics has not answer for a fundamental problem in Theoretical Physics: the influence of spin in the proton-neutron interaction.

From the concepts of current Nuclear Physics, for the explanation of the spin influence there is need to consider a fifth fundamental force in Nature, as shown here.

In Quantum Ring Theory(1) it is proposed that such spin influence is consequence of a kind of dynamic gravity.

The spin influence in the proton-neutron interaction

Spin is the rotation motion of a body about an axis which crosses its center.

For instance, our planet has a spin: its rotation, which entire revolution wastes 24 hours.

Supose that you put two whirligig girating on a surface, and they are very close one each other (almost touching one each other).

If they girate in the same direction, we say that their spins are parallel.

If one gyrates clockwise direction, and the other one counter clockwise direction, their spins are antiparallel.

If the axis of the whirligig are perfectly aligned, we say they are essencially parallel (or essentially antiparallel).

In Nuclear Physics, protons and neutrons are named nucleons.

The elementary particles have spin.

For the proton and neutron, each spin is 1/2.

The spins of two particles are additioned or deducted.

One proton and one neutron bounded form a deuterium.

If the proton and the neutron have parallel spins, the deuterium will have spin 1/2+1/2=1.

If the two spins are antiparallel, the deuterium will have spin 1/2-1/2=0.

In the page 778 of the book Quantum Physics by Eisberg and Resnick, they write:

''“We know that there no exist deuteriums in which the spins of nucleons are essentially antiparallel, because up to the present day a deuterium with null nuclear spin was never observed.

What is the reason?

A possible explanation would be the following: the potential nucleon-nucleon depends on the spin, and it is significantly stronger when the two nucleons interact with spins essentially antiparallel.” ''

That is, actually there is not explanation, from the concepts of current Nuclear Physics.

If the physicist should be honest, for solving the problem they would have to admit that there is one more fundamental force in Nature, beyond those four forces that they postulate:

- gravitational force

- electromagnetic force

- weak force

- strong force


- spin force

But the physicists are not honest.

They prefer dissimulate by thinking that the problem does not exist.

Analysis of the situation

So that to explain the effect of spin in the proton-neutron interaction in the deuterium, there is need to consider that, no matter what is the force that produce such interaction, it must come from one of the four fundamental forces of Nature.

As the proton-neutron interaction occurs through the strong force, then it’s obvious that the force that promotes the spin influence must have the same order of magnitude of the strong force.

Then let’s see them:

- gravitational force: it is 1040 times weaker than the strong force. Then it must be discarded.

- electromagnetica force: it is 100 times weaker than the strong force. Then it must be discarded.

- weak force: it’s very weak. It must be discarded.

It remains the strong force only.

Is it possible the spin force be due to the strong force?

Let’s see it.

Two neutrons with parallel spins never bind.

But if the spin force should be due to strong force, two neutrons would have to bind by forming a dineutron with spin 1, as happens when a deuterium is formed.

Then the strong force must be discarded too.

Well, no one among the four fundamental forces has escaped from our scrutiny.

What to make now?

May the spin force to be a kind of dynamic gravity?

In the book Quantum Ring Theory there is a chapter entitled Strong Nuclear Force as Consequence of Gravitational Interactions.

In that chapter it is proposed that strong force is a kind of dynamic gravity, which magnitude is the same of the strong force.

In december-2009, along a discussion with a physicist on the question about the fundamental nature of the strong force, he argued that “if the strong force is a kind of dynamic gravity, as proposed in Quantum Ring Theory, we had to have some experimental findings pointing it out to us”.

He said:

"Such dynamical gravity, which you propose in QRT, and according you depends on the velocity... is there an experimental basis for its proposal? Is there somebody that uses in astronomy of cosmology?"

No, nobody uses it in astronomy or cosmology (actually it’s a stupid question, because the dynamic gravity, if it really exists, occurs by velocities very near to light velocity, and they do not exist in cosmology).

But we could ask to that physicist:

And what about the influence of spin in the proton-neutron interaction?

Isn’t an evidence?

Let’s analyse this question

There are 3 solutions to be considered

The problem of spin influence in the proton-neutron interaction within a deuterium must be solved through three different solutions:


To consider that spin influence is a kind of dynamic gravity.

That is, the proton and the neutron, while they gyrate almost touching one each other (they are apparted by a distance of about 1 fermion), they dragg gravitons due to such rotation. Those gravitons, dragged by the spin, constitute the dynamic gravity, responsible for the influence of spin in the proton-neutron interaction.

This is the solution proposed in QRT

In the book QRT it is shown that from such solution it’s possible to explain the following interactions, [b]that it’s impossible to explain from current Nuclear Physics:[/b] proton-proton, proton-neutron, neutron-neutron.


To propose the existence of a fifth fundamental force of Nature: the force due to the spin.

That would have to be the solution adopted by the physicists, since they did not succeed to find a better solution from what it’s known from current Nuclear Physics.

But such solution was not addopted.


To dissimulate that the problem of spin influence in the proton-neutron interaction does not exist.

This one was the solution adopted by the physicists.


Maybe the autor of Quantum Ring Theory made a mistake, when he decided to undertake an effort, so that to find solutions for some problems that live without solution in the Theoretical Physics.

Perhaps the best solution for solving the fundamental problems of Physics must be simply to dissimulate that such problems does not exist.... in the same way as made by the physicists in the question on the spin influence in the proton-neutron interaction.

If the best solution is indeed to dissimulate that fundamental problems do not exist, then the author of QRT confesses that he made a mistake, because he did not understand the correct way for solving fundamental questions in Theoretical Physics.

See also

PowerPedia:Quantum Ring Theory


1- W. Guglinski, Quantum Ring Theory-foundations for cold fusion, Bäuu Institute Press, 2006