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PowerPedia:Antonio Meucci

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Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] inventor. He developed some form of voice communication apparatus in 1857. The Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti calls him the "inventore del telefono" (inventor of the telephone). A 2002 U.S. House of Representatives resolution, HR 269, stated that Meucci "set up a rudimentary communication link in his Staten Island home that connected the basement with the first floor... he demonstrated his invention in 1860 and had a description of it published in New York ’s Italian language newspaper.... and was unable to raise sufficient funds to pay his way through the patent application...". In 1876, Bell patented the electro-magnetic transmission of vocal sound by undulatory electric current.

Biography

Meucci was born in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12] and later worked in theatres as a stage technician. He married costume designer There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15]. He was alleged to be part of a conspiracy involving the Italian unification movement in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16]&ndashThere was an error working with the wiki: Code[15], and was imprisoned for three months.

In October There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18], Meucci and his wife left Florence, never to return. They emigrated to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19], stopping first in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20], where Meucci accepted a job at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22]. There Meucci had developed a popular method of using electric shocks to treat illness. While providing a treatment to a friend, Meucci reportedly heard his friend's scream through the piece of copper wire that was between them.

In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7], where he would live for the remainder of his life.

Meucci constructed a form of telephone in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23] as a way to connect his second-floor bedroom to his basement laboratory, as his wife was an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24] suffering from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25]. Before then he had constructed a kind of pipe-telephone that transported sound through a pipe, as a way to communicate between the stage and control room at the theatre.

Though his assets had been substantial, they were quickly used up in the United States. Not only was Meucci helping his countrymen to reach America, but there was also an expensive accident in one of his laboratories. His private finances dwindled so that he soon had to live on public funds and by depending on his friends. It has also been said that his wife sold some of his inventions, including the telephone, to raise cash, while he was recovering from injuries that befell him in a boiler explosion aboard the Staten Island Ferry, Westfield. Some have claimed that Alexander Bell acquired the prototype of Meucci's Telephone and later on patented it as his own invention, though no evidence has ever been shown to support this. In fact, when the Bell telephone company sued Meucci's backers for patent infringement, their defense was that they could not have infringed on Bell's patent, since Meucci's "telephone" had never even worked! The question of whether Bell was the true inventor of the telephone is perhaps the single most litigated fact in U.S. history, and the Bell patents were defended in some 600 cases. Bell never lost a case. HR 269 directly contradicts findings of courts in New York, Massachusetts, Louisiana, Ohio, Maryland, and numerous others states. (See among others American Bell Telephone Co. v. Dolbear, 15 Fed. Rep. 448 American Bell Telephone Co. v. Spencer, 8 Fed. Rep. 509, and American Bell Telephone Co. v. Molecular Telephone, 32 Fed. Rep. 214.)

Contrary to the implications in HR 269, the U.S. courts looked into Antonio Meucci’s claims extensively and were very unequivocal in their findings. Meucci was a defendant in American Bell Telephone Co. v. Globe Telephone Co. and others (the court’s findings, reported in 31 Fed. Rep. 729) The judge was scathing in his criticism of Meucci’s claims and his behavior, and concluded that Meucci was deliberately involved in attempts to defraud investors. Meucci died before the Court reached a verdict and the case was closed.

Invention of the telephone

There exists much dispute over who deserves priority as the first inventor of the telephone, although it seems There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] was the first to transmit articulate speech by undulatory currents of electricity. A history of the telephone says "To bait the Bell Company became almost a national sport. Any sort of claimant, with any sort of wild tale of prior invention, could find a speculator to support him. On they came, a motley array, `some in rags, some on nags, and some in velvet gowns.' One of them claimed to have done wonders with an iron hoop and a file in 1867 a second had a marvelous table with glass legs a third swore that he had made a telephone in 1860, but did not know what it was until he saw Bell's patent and a fourth told a vivid story of having heard a bullfrog croak via a telegraph wire which was strung into a certain cellar in Racine, in 1851 (Casson, p. 96).

Meucci was recently recognized by the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27], in House Resolution 269, dated There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29], as stated, "Expresses the sense of the House of Representatives that the life and achievements of Antonio Meucci should be recognized, and his work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged." The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] retaliated by passing a resolution recognizing Canadian immigrant There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] as the "real inventor of the telephone." [http://www.parl.gc.ca/37/1/parlbus/chambus/house/debates/211_2002-06-21/han211_1200-e.htm

Garibaldi-Meucci Museum

The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] maintains a Garibaldi-Meucci Museum in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32]. The museum is located in a house that was built in 1840, purchased by Meucci in 1850, and rented to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] from 1850 to 1854. Exhibits include Meucci’s models and drawing and pictures relating to his life.

Meucci in popular culture

In the United States, some Italian-Americans are inclined to credit Meucci's claims, as illustrated by the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] mentions Meucci as the inventor of the telephone. In the television series There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34], the character There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35] also mentions Meucci as the inventor of the telephone, stating "he was robbed" of being given proper credit.There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1]

Related

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External articles and reerences

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Meucci, The Forgotten Genius, By Tiziano Thomas Dossena, Bridge Apulia USA 1999

An excellent history of Meucci with photos and copies of his diagrams and instruments

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3], p. 171 notes this claim in a discussion of nationalistic bias in encyclopedias

http://www.esanet.it/chez_basilio/havana2.htm

Gerry Vassilatos Lost Science (ISBN 0-945685-25-4, possible excerpt, review)

Scientific American Supplement No. 520, December 19, 1885

Summary and status of Resolution 269

The Garibaldi-Meucci Museum

The Garibaldi-Meucci Museum (Staten Island site)

HRes 269, text of 17 Oct 2001

HRes 269, text of 11 Jun 2002

Casson, Herbert N.,

Hearing Through Wires - John Bedini's Antonio Meucci-page.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

Antonio Meucci inventors.about.com

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See also

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