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Amateur radio, often called Ham radio, is a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61] and public service enjoyed by about 3 million people throughout the world. An There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62], also known as a ham or radio amateur, uses advanced radio equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. Amateurs and researchers have uinvestigated the use of amateur radio to transcieve power and utilize the longwave signals and ultra shortwave, which is akin to Tesla's wireless power system.

History

Throughout its history, amateur radio enthusiasts have made significant contributions to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65], and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66]. The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67] and social benefit derived from research by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68]s has founded new industries, built economies, empowered nations, and saved lives.

The birth of amateur radio and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2] has mostly been historically associated with various experimenters. There are many contenders to being the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3], that honor has been disputed between not only the original experimenters, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4]. In the beginning of 1895, Tesla was able to detect signals from the transmissions of his New York lab at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69] (a distance of 50 miles). Marconi demonstrated the transmission and reception of Morse Code based radio signals over a distance of 2 or more kilometres (and up to 6 kilometres) on Salisbury Plain in England in 1896. Marconi, by 1899, sent wireless messages across the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70] and, according to his reports, the first transatlantic transmission (1902).

In the period following Marconi's experiments (1900-1908) many people throughout the world began experimenting with radio. Communications were made in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71] by use of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72]s or high frequency alternators. These first amateur radio operators are the roots of the modern international phenomenon of amateur radio.

In 1912, the United States Congress passed the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5] for an amateur radio operator was well established, the origins of which are obscure.

By 1917, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] had put a stop to amateur radio. In the United States, Congress ordered all amateur radio operators to cease operation and even dismantle their equipment. These restrictions were lifted after World War I ended, and the amateur radio service restarted on October 1, 1919.

In 1921, a challenge was issued by American hams to their counterparts in the United Kingdom to receive radio contacts from across the Atlantic. Soon, many American stations were beginning to be heard in the UK, shortly followed by a UK amateur being heard in the US in December of 1922. November 27, 1923 marked the first transatlantic two-way contacts between amateurs in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] Fred Schnell and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7] amateur Leon Deloy. Shortly after, the first two way contact between the UK and USA was in December 1923, between There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75]. In the following months 17 American and 13 European amateur stations were communicating. Within the next year, communications between North and South America South America and New Zealand North America and New Zealand and London and New Zealand were being made.

The first International Radiotelegraph Conference was held in Washington, DC, USA in 1927-28.At the conference, the familiar amateur radio There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76] were established by treaty and international radio callsign prefixes were devised.

During the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12], the priest Fr. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] when he volunteered to take the place of one of the condemned men. On There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78] he was There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79] by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80] as Saint Maximilian Kolbe, Apostle of Consecration to Mary and declared a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81]. He is considered the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82] of Amateur radio operators.

Again during World War II, as it had done during the first World War, the United States Congress suspended all amateur radio operations. With most of the American amateur radio operators in the armed forces at this time, the US government created the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83] which would remain active through 1945. After the War the amateur radio service began operating again, with many hams converting war surplus radios, such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84], to amateur use.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1] commemorating amateur radio.]]

During the 1950s, hams helped pioneer the use of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85] for HF voice communication. In 1961 the first orbital satellite carrying amateur radio (OScar) was launched. Oscar I would be the first of a series of amateur radio satellites created throughout the world.

The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86] met in Geneva, Switzerland in 1979. Among the many topics covered at this meeting was the creation of three new amateur radio bands: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[89]. Today, these three bands are referred to collectively as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90] by amateur radio operators.

During the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14] forces seized control of the phones and radio network on the islands and had cut off communications with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15] amateur radio operator There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91], GM3ITN was able to relay crucial information from fellow hams Bob McLeod and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92] on the islands to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93] in London, including the details of troop deployment, bombing raids, radar bases and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94] activities.

Major contributions to communications in the fields of automated message systems and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95] were made by amateur radio operators throughout the 1980s. These computer controlled systems were used for the first time to distribute communications during and after disasters.

By international agreement in the past, amateur radio operators were required to have a qualification endorsement of Morse Code proficiency to use frequencies below 30 MHz. In 2003 the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96] (WRC) met in Geneva, Switzerland, and Morse code is no longer an internationally required qualification for an There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97]. This does not preclude any licensing authority from requiring the proficiency of Morse code to obtain an amateur radio license, however countries are no longer obliged by international treaty to require Morse code proficiency. Current rules in the United States require some Morse code proficiency to allow operation on frequencies below 30 MHz. Proceedings by the FCC are currently underway regarding whether the requirement will be kept. Discussions regarding whether it should engender lively debate among amateur radio operators.

Amateur radio activities and practices

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98] communications. Increasing a person's knowledge of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99] and Radio There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100] as well as radio contesting are also popular aspects of amateur radio.

Radio amateurs use a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17] to communicate with one another. Voice transmissions are the most common way hams communicate with one another, with some types of emission such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] (SSB) offering more reliable communications when signals are marginal and using smaller amounts of bandwidth.

Radiotelegraphy using Morse code remains surprisingly popular, particularly on the shortwave bands and for experimental work on the microwave bands, with its inherent There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19]-only transmitters are simple to construct when compared to voice transmitters.

The explosion in personal computing power has led to a boom in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101] modes such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102], which a generation ago required cumbersome and expensive specialist equipment. Hams led in the development of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103], which has since been augmented by more specialized modes such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104] which is designed to facilitate real-time, low-power communications on the shortwave bands. Other modes, such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105] suite, are aimed at extremely marginal There was an error working with the wiki: Code[106] modes including There was an error working with the wiki: Code[107] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[108] or Earth-Moon-Earth (EME).

Similarly, fast scan There was an error working with the wiki: Code[109], once considered rather esoteric, has exploded in popularity thanks to cheap camcorders and good quality video cards in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[110]. Because of the wide There was an error working with the wiki: Code[111] and stable signals required, fast scan amateur television is limited in range to at most 100 km (about 60 miles) in normal conditions.

The modes noted above are typically used in direct, radio-to-radio communication. On VHF and higher frequencies, automated relay stations, or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[112]s, are used to increase range. Repeaters are usually located on the top of a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[113] or tall There was an error working with the wiki: Code[114]. A repeater allows the radio amateur to communicate over hundreds of square miles using only a relatively low power hand-held There was an error working with the wiki: Code[115]. Repeaters can also be linked together, either by use of other amateur radio bands, by wireline, or, increasingly via the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[116].

While many hams just enjoy talking to friends, others pursue interests such as providing communications for a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22] There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23].

Most hams have a room or area in their home which is dedicated to their radio and ancillary test equipment, known as the "shack" in ham There was an error working with the wiki: Code[117].

Many hams enjoy meeting each other in person at events held in various locations. These annual events are generally known as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[118] with the largest being held in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[119].

QSL cards

Traditionally, radio amateurs exchange QSL cards with other stations to provide written confirmation of a conversation (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24]). These are required for many amateur operating awards, and many amateurs also enjoy collecting them simply for the pleasure of doing so.

DXing

Many amateurs enjoy trying to contact There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] in as many different parts of the world as they can on shortwave bands, or over as great a range as possible on the higher bands, in a pursuit which is generally known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26] (DX stands for Distance).

Awards

Operating awards are given to hams who contact (or "work") a certain number of distant stations. The number of operating awards available is literally in the thousands. The most popular awards are the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[120] award, usually the first award amateurs in the United States aim for, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[121] award, also an entry level award on the shortwave bands, and the more challenging There was an error working with the wiki: Code[122] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[123] (DXCC) awards. DXCC is the most popular awards programme, with the entry level requiring amateurs to contact 100 of the (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[124]) 335 recognized countries and territories in the world, which leads on to a series of operating challenges of increasing difficulty. Other popular awards include contacting remote islands, US counties, and lighthouses. Many awards are available for contacting amateurs in a particular country, region or city.

DX-peditions

Certain parts of the world have very few radio amateurs. As a result, when a station with a rare ID comes on the air in these areas, other radio amateurs flock to communicate with it. Often amateurs will travel specifically to a country or island, in what is known as a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[125], to activate it. Big DX-peditions can contact and communicate with as many as 100,000 individuals in a few weeks.

Special event stations

Many amateurs also enjoy contacting the many special event stations on the air. Set up to commemorate special occurrences, they often issue distinctive QSLs or certificates for communicating with them. Some use unusual prefixes, such as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27] could use during the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28], or the OO prefix used by Belgian amateurs in 2005 to commemorate their nation's 175th anniversary. Some events are held annually such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[126] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[127]. Many amateurs decorate their radio "shacks" with these certificates.

Contesting

Contesting, also known as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[128], is a competitive activity pursued by amateur radio operators. In a contest, an amateur radio station, which may be operated by an individual or a team, seeks to contact as many other amateur radio stations as possible in a given period of time and exchange information. Rules for each competition define the amateur radio bands that may be used and the kind of information that must be exchanged in each contact. These contacts contribute to a score by which stations are ranked. Each competition is sponsored separately and has its own set of rules. Contest sponsors publish the results in magazines and on web sites. Over time, the number and variety of radio contests has increased, and many amateur radio operators today pursue the sport as their primary amateur radio activity.

Round table discussion groups

Many Amateur radio operators enjoy participating in round table discussion groups or "Rag Chew Sessions" on the air. These discussion groups have been a mainstay of Amateur radio since its inception.

Round table discussion groups are often configured to allow the conversation to pass from one participant to another. The participants spend time developing and presenting their thoughts as the conversation passes from one person to another much as conversation would flow at a dinner table after a good meal. The conversation usually revolves around do-it-yourself experimentation repairs and topics related to radio, computers and electronics however, there is no limit to their scope.

Nets

Related to round tables is another popular activity called the "Net", which is a regularly scheduled (usually weekly) on-air meeting with other amateur radio operators, hosted and moderated by a station referred to as "Net Control". Nets may be used simply as a readiness tool for operators to be familiar with Net control procedures in an emergency, could be an informal round table at a scheduled time, or may be topical, covering specific ham-related interests shared by a group of operators. Most Nets are hosted on local FM repeaters or on HF frequencies. Many Nets feature a playback of audio news recordings such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[129]. Since most local club FM repeaters host Nets, it is often the most accessible large-scale activity for new hams, by being able to participate using simply an HT.

Portable operations

Licensed amateurs often take portable equipment with them when traveling, whether in their luggage or fitted into their cruising yachts, caravans or other vehicles. On long-distance expeditions and adventures such equipment allows them to stay in touch with other amateurs by reporting progress, arrival and sometimes exchanging safety messages along the way.

Many hams at fixed locations are pleased to hear directly from such travelers. From in a yacht in mid-ocean or a 4x4 inside the Arctic Circle, a friendly voice and the chance of a kind fellow-enthusiast sending an e-mail home is very well received.

See There was an error working with the wiki: Code[130] for further details about operation in this way at sea.

Amateur radio licenses in some countries allow for phone patching, or the direct connection of amateur transceivers to telephone lines. Thus, a traveler may be able to call another amateur station and, via a phone patch, speak directly with someone else by telephone.&nbsp

Emergency communications (EMCOM)

In times of crisis and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[131]s, ham radio is often used as a means of emergency communication when wireline and other conventional means of communications fail. Recent examples include the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[132] on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[133] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[134], the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[135] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[136] in September, 2005, where amateur radio was used to coordinate disaster relief activities when other systems failed.

Amateur radio operators who are involved in emergency communications often belong to a national emergency club, such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[137] and Hamnet in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[138].

Storm watching

In areas where severe storms are possible, such as the Midwestern and southern states of the U.S., storm watching groups such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32] coordinate amateur radio operators in the roles of storm spotters and chasers to keep track of severe thunderstorms, particularly due to the threat of destructive and deadly tornadoes. Reports from spotters and chasers are given to the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[139] to warn the general public of severe weather conditions in their area.

Low power operations

There is a specialty within amateur radio that concentrates on the construction and operation of low-power transmitters. This activity goes by the name QRP which is an international There was an error working with the wiki: Code[140] for "reduce power". QRP operators use 5 watts output or less on Morse Code and 10 watts on voice.

VHF, UHF and microwave operation

The Amateur radio high bands are the VHF, UHF and microwave frequencies above 30 MHz. These bands typically allow radio amateurs to communicate locally. While many radio amateurs use modest equipment on VHF or UHF frequencies primarily for local communications, other amateurs use more sophisticated systems to communicate over as wide a distance as possible.

One technique some amateur radio operators use to communicate over long distances is to use the surface of the moon as a passive reflector. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33] operation, or EME, allows communications between any two places on the earth which can see the moon at the same time.

Amateurs also operate on frequencies in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[34]. In addition to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[35] amateurs also can operate under There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36] rules which allow for higher There was an error working with the wiki: Code[37]. These networks give amateurs access to speeds measured in the megabits per second. Several long link amateur microwave networks exist. With high gain antennas and commonly available consumer grade Wireless There was an error working with the wiki: Code[141]s, links of several miles are common and links to 50 miles are more have been accomplished.

Amateur radio licensing

In most countries, amateur radio operators are required to pass an exam displaying knowledge and understanding of key concepts. This practice is in contrast to other personal radio services such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[142], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[143], or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[144] / There was an error working with the wiki: Code[145] that are unlicensed and more heavily restricted. In return, hams are granted operating privileges in larger segments of the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[146] spectrum using a wide variety of communication techniques that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Hams are also allowed to use equipment that they have either built themselves or modified from existing commercial or amateur gear. This privilege is unavailable in virtually any other radio service.

Getting started

Many people become started in amateur radio by finding a local club. Clubs can provide information about licensing in their respective area, local operating practices and technical advice. (See There was an error working with the wiki: Code[147])

In many countries, amateur licensing is a routine and civil administrative matter. Amateurs are required to pass an examination to demonstrate technical knowledge, operating competence and awareness of legal and regulatory requirements in order to avoid interference with other amateurs and other radio services. In the majority of countries, there are a series of exams available, each progressively more challenging and granting progressively more privileges in terms of frequency availability, power output, and permitted experimentation than previous exams.

In some countries, however, amateur radio licensing is either inordinately bureaucratic (for example in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[148]) or challenging because some amateurs must undergo difficult security approval (as in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[149]). A handful of countries, currently only There was an error working with the wiki: Code[150] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[151], simply do not permit their citizens to operate There was an error working with the wiki: Code[152]s, although in both cases a limited number of foreign visitors have been permitted to obtain amateur licenses in the past decade.

A further difficulty occurs in developing countries, where licensing structures are often copied from European countries and annual license fees can be prohibitive in terms of local incomes. This is a particular problem in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[153] and to a lesser extent in poorer parts of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[154] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[155]. Small countries or those with weak administrative structures may not have a national licensing scheme and may require amateurs to take the licensing exams of a foreign country in lieu.

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[156] serves as an example of the way some countries award different levels of amateur radio licenses based on knowledge and telegraphy skill.

When licensed

After licensing in the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] to the radio amateur. This callsign is unique to the operator. The holder of a callsign uses it on the air to legally identify the operator or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39] during any and all radio There was an error working with the wiki: Code[157]. In certain jurisdictions, once licensed, an operater may also opt for a vanity callsign for a fee.

Privileges of the amateur

In contrast to most commercial and personal radio services, most radio amateurs are not restricted to using type-approved equipment, and therefore some radio amateurs home-construct or modify equipment in any way so long as they meet national and international standards on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[158]s.

As noted, radio amateurs have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum, enabling choice of frequency to enable effective communication whether across a city, a region, a country, a continent or the whole world regardless of season or time day or night. The shortwave bands, or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40], can facilitate worldwide communication, the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41] bands offer excellent regional communication, and the broad There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43]) transmissions and high-speed There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44].

Although permitted Power (physics) levels are moderate by commercial standards, they are sufficient to enable global communication even with the least effective There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45] systems and world-wide communications at least occasionally even with moderate antennas. Power limits vary from country to country. for For example, the highest license classes are: 2 Watt in most countries of the former Yugoslavia, 1.5 kilowatts in the United States, 1 kilowatt in Belgium and Switzerland, 750 watts in Germany, 400 watts in the United Kingdom, 300 watts in Italy and 150 watts in Oman. Lower license classes are usually restricted to lower power limits for example, the lowest license class in the UK has a limit of just 10 watts.

Some people suggest that the amateur portion of the radio spectrum is like a national park: something like the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46] of natural phenomenon. Through the licensing requirement, radio amateurs become like trained There was an error working with the wiki: Code[159] guides and backpackers. Where the backpackers and guides know about the beauty of the parks as well as the rules of engagement with wildlife in the park system, radio amateurs learn to appreciate and respect the beauty of the very limited electromagnetic space and the rules of engagement of human interaction within that space. In contrast, all of humanity benefits from the radio spectrum's existence, although it can not actually be seen.

In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission licenses operators in the Amateur Service as part of a mission that includes radio experimentation, public service, and the maintaining of a trained pool of technically-oriented operators. In exchange for learning the information needed to pass the federal test, licensed operators are allowed to use some 1300 distinct modes of communications at power levels ranging from microwatts to thousands of watts, effective radiated power.

International licensing and operation

When traveling abroad, the visitor must hold a reciprocal license with the country in which she or he wishes to operate. Reciprocal licensing requirements vary from country to country. Some countries have bilateral or multilateral reciprocal operating agreements allowing hams to operate within their borders with a single set of requirements.

Governance and amateur radio societies

The There was an error working with the wiki: Code[160] (ITU) governs the allocation of communications frequencies world-wide, with participation by each nation by representation from their communications regulation authority. National communications regulators have some liberty to restrict access to these frequencies or to award additional allocations as long as radio services in other countries do not suffer interference.

In some countries, specific There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47] are restricted to certain parts of the radio spectrum, and in most other countries, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[161] (IARU) member societies adopt voluntary plans to concentrate modes of transmission in specific frequency allocations within IARU guidelines to ensure the most effective use of available spectrum.

Many countries have their own national (non-government) amateur radio society that coordinates with the communications regulation authority for the benefit of all Amateurs. The oldest of these societies is the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[162], formed in 1910 other notable societies are the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[163], the American Radio Relay League, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[164], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[165] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[166].

Band plans and frequency allocations

Through There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48] agreement, frequencies have been set aside for amateur radio (known as the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[167]). Using allocated frequencies as a basis of planning, national telecommunication agencies decide which of the international allocations can be used within their borders. National amateur radio societies often have band plans to further divide those allocations, often by use.

However, there is at least one case of amateur radio operators being allowed by a national telecommunication agency to use frequencies outside of the internationally allocated amateur radio bands. In There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49] members. Casual conversation and rag chewing is discouraged, but local hams are encouraged to test their capability on the repeater regularly. NEMA also maintains a repeater within the two meter band on 147.80 MHz. However, REACT members are not allowed to use this repeater.

In space

There are a number of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50]. "More people have operated from the ISS than from (insert There was an error working with the wiki: Code[168] location here)" is a not infrequent remark to express the rarity of certain terrestrial locations. Amateur radio gear operating at more than 200 kilometers are called OScars or Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio. To date over 70 such satellites have been launched and more are scheduled to launch in the near future.

One of the newer There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51]) with a stock "rubber duck" antenna.

Amateur radio in popular culture

Amateur radio can be found throughout popular culture as a plot device. An example from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52]. In this romantic sci-fi, the two main characters, a father and son (played by There was an error working with the wiki: Code[169] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[170] respectively), communicate via the same amateur radio, one of them living in 1969 and the other in 1999. This communication is, of course, impossible, but was used as a plot device. A wealth of additional information may be found at the main article link shown above. Another example would be the "Radio Ham" episode of 1960s British comedy series "Hancock's Half Hour". There are also famous There was an error working with the wiki: Code[171]s such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[172] of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[173], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[174], Gen. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[175], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[176], the late There was an error working with the wiki: Code[177], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[178] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[179] of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[180] as well as many astronauts and cosmonauts.

Related

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[181] - Info on obtaining a license

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[182]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[183] - Amateur Satellite Organization

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[184] - Automatic Position Reporting System

ARRL - American Radio Relay League

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[185] - Young Ladies Radio League

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[186] - Indian Amateur Radio Organisation

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[187]

References and external articles

Source References

History of Wire and Broadcast Communication http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/evol.html

Leland Anderson, "Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power", Sun Publishing Company, LC 92-60482, ISBN 0-9632652-0-2 (ed. excerpts available on line

Rybak, James P., Alexander Popov: Russia's Radio Pioneer http://www.ptti.ru/eng/forum/article2.html

Bishop, Don, Who Invented Radio? http://home.earthlink.net/~drestinblack/who_invented_radio.htm

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[188], Marconi and Tesla: Who invented radio? http://www.pbs.org/tesla/ll/ll_whoradio.html

Silver, H Ward, Ham Radio For Dummies ISBN 0-76455-987-7

Ramsey Moreau, Louise, ARRL History Page, http://www.arrl.org/tis/info/history.html#ham

Columbia University Amateur Radio Club, http://www.w2aee.columbia.edu/arrl-hampromo.html

Lombry, Thierry, History of Amateur Radio, http://www.astrosurf.com/lombry/qsl-ham-history4.htm

DeSoto, Clinton B., 200 Meters & Down, The Story of Amateur Radio ISBN 0-87259-001-1

Coe, Lewis, Wireless Radio: A History Technology, 1996, ISBN 0-786-40259-8

History of Wire and Broadcast Communication http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/evol.html

NRAO, Early Radio Astronomy: The Ham Radio Connection, http://www.nrao.edu/whatisra/hist_ham.shtml

RSGB, The History of Amateur Radio, http://www.rsgb.org/society/history.html

Atlantic Wireless Association, 75 Years Ago in Ham Radio, http://www.eht.com/oldradio/awa/events/transatlantic/75yearsago.htm

Laster, Clay, Beginner's Handbook of Amateur Radio, 3rd edition ISBN 0-830-64354-0

Catholic Forum - Maximillion Kolbe http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintm01.htm

Famous Hams and ex-Hams |url=http://users.tellurian.com/gjurrens/famous_hams.html

Catholic Forum - Maximillion Kolbe http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintm01.htm

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[189] History of Wire and Broadcast Communication http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/evol.html

Bliss, Norman, FCC Rule Book, Tenth Edition ISBN 0-87259-510-2

WRC-03 Modifications to Article 25 http://www.nocode.org/articles/WRC-03_Article_25_Complete.html

History of Wire and Broadcast Communication |url=http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/evol.html

BBC News - The Falklands get wired http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2042375.stm |accessdate=2006-03-02}}

QRZ Callsign Database GM3ITN |url=http://www.qrz.com/callsign/GM3ITN

QRZ Callsign Database VP8ITN http://www.qrz.com/callsign/VP8ITN

The ARRL Letter Vol. 21, No. 19 May 10, 2002. http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/02/0510/

A Brief History of Amateur Satellites, http://www.amsat.org/amsat/sats/n7hpr/history.html

Coe, Lewis., Wireless Radio: A History Technology 1996 ISBN 0-786-40259-8

http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/ra/publication/ra_info/br68i/br68i.htm Amateur Radio (Intermediate) Licence (A) or (B) Terms, Provisions and Limitations Booklet BR68/I

http://wireless.fcc.gov/services/index.htm?job=cft&id=amateur&page=cft_get_call_sign Common Filing Task: Obtaining Vanity Call Sign

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

General References

American Radio Relay League (2006). The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications 2006. 83rd Edition. Newington, Connecticut, USA: American Radio Relay League. ISBN There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53].

Bergquit, Carl (2001). Ham Radio Operator's Guide. Second Edition. Prompt Publishing, 2001. ISBN There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54].

Cain, James D. (2003). YASME: The Danny Weil and Colvin Radio Expeditions. Newington, Connecticut, USA: American Radio Relay League. ISBN There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55]

Dennison, Mike and Lorek, Chris, eds. (2006). RSGB Radio Communication Handbook. 8th Edition. Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56].

DeSoto, Clinton B. (1936). 200 Meters and Down: THe Story of Amateur Radio. West Hartford, Connecticut, USA: American Radio Relay League. ISBN There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57]

Gregory, Danny and Sahre, Paul (2003). Hello World: A Life in Ham Radio. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58]

Messerschmidt, Donald A. (1997). Moran of Kathmandu: Pioneer Priest, Educator and Ham Radio Voice of the Himalaya. Orchard Press. ISBN There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59]

Poole, Ian (2001). HF Amateur Radio. Radio Society of Great Britain. ISBN There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60]

See also

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