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PESWiki:Naming conventions

Lasted edited by Andrew Munsey, updated on June 14, 2016 at 9:47 pm.

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| This page is an PESWiki:Policies and guidelines on PESWiki. It has wide acceptance among editors and is considered a standard that all users should follow. When editing this page, please ensure that your revision reflects There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1]. When in doubt, discuss first on the talk page.

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:PW:NAME redirects here. For usernames in general, see PESWiki:Username (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[42] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[43]).

Naming conventions is a list of guidelines on how to appropriately create and name pages. It is important to note that these are conventions, not rules carved in stone. As PESWiki grows and changes, some conventions that once made sense may become outdated, and there may be cases where a particular convention is "obviously" inappropriate. But when in doubt, follow convention.

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PESWiki:How to edit a page

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PESWiki:Naming conventions

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Generally, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[8] should give priority to what the majority of English speakers would most easily recognize, with a reasonable minimum of ambiguity, while at the same time making linking to those articles easy and second nature.

Another way to summarize the overall naming convention principles:

:Names of the articles should be optimized for readers over editors and for a general audience over specialists.

In addition to following the naming conventions it is also important to follow the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[9]. Following consistent conventions in both naming and linking makes it more likely that links will lead to the right place. A PESWiki:Redirect should be created for articles that may reasonably be found under two or more names (such as different spellings or former names). Conversely, a term that may be used to describe several different search terms may require a PESWiki:Disambiguation.

If you wish to propose a new naming convention, do so on There was an error working with the wiki: Code[10] and the PW:NW, as well as at any related pages. Once a strong There was an error working with the wiki: Code[11] has formed, it can be adopted as a naming convention and listed below.

General conventions

Lowercase second and subsequent words in titles

Convention: Do not capitalize second and subsequent words unless the title is a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[44] (such as a name) or is otherwise almost always capitalized (for example: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[45] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[46], but not There was an error working with the wiki: Code[47]). The first letter of an internal wikilink need not be capitalized and will direct the reader to the same page (for example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[48] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[49] can be used interchangeably as needed).

However, a workaround has been suggested for those who want to conform to more conventional methodologies for titling articles. See There was an error working with the wiki: Code[12]

Rationale and specifics: See There was an error working with the wiki: Code[50] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[51].

Prefer singular nouns

Convention: In general only create page titles that are in the singular, unless that noun is always in a plural form in English (such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[52] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[53]).

Exceptions include There was an error working with the wiki: Code[54], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[55], ... - see: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[56]

Category names follow different pluralization conventions, see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[57].

Rationale and specifics: See There was an error working with the wiki: Code[58]

Redirect adjectives to nouns

Convention: Adjectives (such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[13] to nouns (in this case, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[59]).

Rationale and specifics: See There was an error working with the wiki: Code[60]

Use gerund of verbs

Convention: Use the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[14]) unless there is a more common form for a certain verb.

Rationale and specifics: See There was an error working with the wiki: Code[61]

Use English words

Convention: Name your pages in English and place the native transliteration on the first line of the article unless the native form is more commonly recognized by readers than the English form.

Rationale and specifics: See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[62]

Use common names of persons and things

Convention: Except where other accepted PESWiki:Naming conventions give a different indication, use the most common name of a person or thing that does not conflict with the names of other people or things.

Rationale and specifics: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[63]

Be precise when necessary

Convention: Please, do not write or put an article on a page with an ambiguously named title as though that title had no other meanings. If all possible words have multiple meanings, go with the rule of thumb of naming guidelines and use the more popular term.

Rationale and specifics: See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[64] and PESWiki:Disambiguation

Prefer spelled-out phrases to acronyms

Convention: Avoid the use of acronyms in page naming unless the term you are naming is almost exclusively known only by its acronym and is widely known and used in that form (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[15] are good examples of acronyms that are commonly thought of as words).

Rationale and specifics: See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[65]

Avoid the definite article (

Convention: If the definite or indefinite article would be capitalized in running text, then include it at the beginning of the page name. This would be the case for the title of a work such as a novel. Otherwise, do not include it at the beginning of the page name.

Examples: "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[66]" instead of "The Netherlands", or "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[67]" instead of "The Punisher". Exceptions: "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[68]", There was an error working with the wiki: Code[69], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[70], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[71]

Rationale, specifics and exceptions: See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[72]

Use of

Sometimes two or more closely-related or complementary concepts are most sensibly discussed on a common page rather than a page each. Where possible, use a name covering all cases: for example There was an error working with the wiki: Code[73] covers There was an error working with the wiki: Code[74] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[75], both of which redirect to it. Where an overarching name is not practicable, use each individual name in the article title, joined by "and". Examples: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[76], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[77], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[78]. Each word should redirect (or be linked from a disambiguation page) to the combined name, e.g. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[79]. If there is no obvious ordering, place the more commonly encountered word first where applicable. If one is not commonly encountered first place the words alphabetically. Either way, the reverse-ordered name should exist as a redirect (e.g. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[80]).

Do not use "and" to bias article names. For example, the article would be There was an error working with the wiki: Code[81], rather than "Islam and terrorism".

Do not use an article name that suggests a hierarchy of articles

Since There was an error working with the wiki: Code[16] when the article name contained a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[82] this feature is discontinued for articles, but you may use it on user and talk pages).

Special characters

Some special characters either cannot be used or may cause problems. For example you should not use a piping character (|), curly braces ({}), or square brackets ([]) in a name. Titles must not begin with an interlanguage link code followed by a colon. For foreign names with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[17], see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83]. For use of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[84]s, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[85]es and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[86]s in page names, see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[87]. Non-language characters such as "?", "?", and ", sometimes found in advertisements or logos, are not the common English usage. See There was an error working with the wiki: Code[88] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[83].

See There was an error working with the wiki: Code[90].

Avoid non alpha-numeric characters used only for emphasis

To maintain the functionality of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[18] and avoid needless PESWiki:Redirect pages, page names should not begin with non alpha-numeric (A-Z,0-9) characters used solely for emphasis. Also keep in mind that PESWiki There was an error working with the wiki: Code[19] a collection of standalone quotations that is what There was an error working with the wiki: Code[91] is for. If a quotation is worthy of an article do not use quotation marks to start the page name, just use the quotation.

Non alpha-numeric characters may still be appropriate if a common term for the article is generally expressed as a non alpha-numeric phrase. In these cases the character(s) are not being used solely for emphasis. A PESWiki:Redirect page may be helpful in such cases.

Controversial names

In a few cases of naming conflicts, editors have been unable to reach a strong consensus to support one name above another name. In these instances, both names are allowed. The current title of a page is not intended to imply that either the title name is preferred or the alternative name is discouraged in the text of articles. The article title should also not be used as a precedent for the naming of any other articles. Editors are strongly discouraged from editing for the sole purpose of changing one controversial name to another. The naming convention used by the earliest contributor takes precedent. Any effort to change between names should be examined on a case-by-case basis, and discussed on talk pages before making changes. However, rather than debating controversial names, please consider other ways to improve PESWiki.

Other specific conventions

Aircraft names

Aircraft names are too varied to give full guidelines here see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[92].

Animals, plants, and other organisms

The capitalization on the common names of species has been hotly debated in the past and remains unresolved. As a matter of truce both capitalized and non-capitalized (except for proper names) are acceptable, but a PESWiki:Redirect should be created from the alternative form. Scientific names are always written in italics. The first name (genus) is capitalized, the second (species) is not. Examples: Homo sapiens, Tyrannosaurus rex, Velociraptor.

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[93]''

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[94]''

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[95]''

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[96]''

Books - literary works

Convention: Use the title of the work as the article's title, following all applicable There was an error working with the wiki: Code[20].

To disambiguate, add the type of literary work in parentheses, such as "(novel)", "(novella)", "(short story)", etc. You may use "(book)" to disambiguate a non-fiction book. If further disambiguation is needed, add the author's surname inside the parentheses: "(Orwell novel)", "(Asimov short story)", etc.

Rationale, specifics and exceptions: see: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[97]

Broadcasting

Radio and television stations in countries where There was an error working with the wiki: Code[21] world). Those article titles should instead be chosen to reduce the possibility for confusion and title duplication as much as possible. In places with a mix of call signs and station names, such as most of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[22] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[98], the station name should normally be used, except when the call sign is well-known.

Categories

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[99].

Chemistry

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[100] also section below There was an error working with the wiki: Code[101]

Companies

Convention: The legal status of the company (Corp., plc or LLC), is not normally included, i.e. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[102] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[103]. When disambiguation is needed, legal status, main company interest or "(company)" can be used to disambiguate: for example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[104] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[105]. When the legal status is used, it is abbreviated in the article title. In the article itself, the title sentence of the article should include the abbreviated legal status. For example: Generic Corp. Ltd. is largest provider of widgets in the world.

Please note, "company", "international" "group" "industries" or similar suffixes are not legal statuses and should be included as specified by the originating business. For example: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[106], but There was an error working with the wiki: Code[107].

Legal status may be included when disambiguation is not needed for companies that have commonly used acronyms such as Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC).

Rationale and specifics: see: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[108]

See also: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[109]

Elections

Convention: Use the format "Demonym type election, date", for example "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[110]". For future elections of uncertain date one can use the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[111] format for special elections or elections of subnational parliaments, use the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[112] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[113] format.

Events and incidents

This set of conventions covers current and historical events such as military conflicts and terrorist incidents.

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[114]

Film titles

Convention: Films often share the same name as other films, books or terms. When PESWiki:Disambiguation a film from something else use "(film)" in the title when only one film had that name and (YEAR film) in the title when there are two or more films by that name (example: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[23]).

Rationale and specifics: see: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[115]

Government departments, ministers etc.

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[116]

Historical names and titles

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[117]

Identity

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[118]

Initials

The convention dealing with initials is part of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[119]

Ireland and Irish names

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[120]

Isotopes and Nuclides

Convention: Isotopes when written out are common nouns, and should begin with the uncapitalized element name, folowed by a hyphen (not &ampmdash) and then the mass number. For example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[121], or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[122]. The uncapitalized name of elements when written out (but not in symbol) follows IUPAC convention for chemical elements, and is not changed with the isotope is written out. See IUPAC Provisional Recommendations for the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (2004) (online draft of an updated version of the "Red Book")

Languages, both natural and programming

Convention: Languages which share their names with some other thing should be suffixed with "language". If the language's name is unique, there is no need for any suffix. For example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[123], but There was an error working with the wiki: Code[124].

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[24] and groups of languages are pluralized. Thus, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[125] rather than 'Niger-Congo language', and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[126] rather than 'Sino-Tibetan language'.

Programming languages should be disambiguated with the suffix "(programming language)" if the name is not unique enough. For example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[127], but There was an error working with the wiki: Code[128].

Rationale and specifics: See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[129]

Legislation in the United Kingdom

Acts should be titled with the short name form and then the year, without any comma between them (i.e., There was an error working with the wiki: Code[25] from There was an error working with the wiki: Code[130] if the Act is uniquely named.

If several Acts have the same short name, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[131] should either redirect to the most commonly-used Act of the series if one does (e.g., the Data Protection Acts), or if not either serve as a disambiguation page (e.g., Representation of the People Acts) or redirect to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[132] (plural) which would serve as an article about the series of Acts.

If two Acts are passed with the same name and year in two parliaments as different enactments of the same piece of legislation, have just one article (e.g. the Act of Union 1707) if the two Acts are different pieces of legislation, use paranethetical disambiguation based on jurisdiction or entity (e.g., the European Communities Act 1972 in the UK and Republic of Ireland being at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[133] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[134]).

Lists

Convention: Put a list of Xs as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[135], rather than There was an error working with the wiki: Code[136], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[137], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[138], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[139], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[140], etc.

Rationale and specifics: see: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[141]

Long lists

In the event that a list becomes so long as to necessitate a split, follow the guidance at There was an error working with the wiki: Code[142], where the preferred style given is for List of foos: A, and for ranges: List of foos: W-X-Y-Z

Literary works

See above:There was an error working with the wiki: Code[143]

Manuscript names

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[144].

Mormonism

See above: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[145]

Music
Pieces of music

Convention: Name the article in its most common form, adding the composer's surname in parentheses after it if more than one piece has that title. For example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[146], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[147], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[148].

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[149]

Album titles and band names

Convention: In band names and titles of songs or albums, unless it is unique, the standard rule in the English language is to capitalize words that are the first or the last word in the title and those that are not There was an error working with the wiki: Code[26]s (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[27]), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[28]), There was an error working with the wiki: Code[29]s (an, a, the), or the word to when used to form an infinitive. Note that short verbs (Is, Are, Do) and pronouns (Me, It, His) are capitalized. Words of five letters or longer are generally capitalized, regardless of their part of speech. Do not replicate stylized typography in logos and album art, though a redirect may be appropriate (for example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[150] redirects to There was an error working with the wiki: Code[151]).

When necessary, disambiguation should be done using (band), (album), or (song) (such as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[30] are released. When a track is not strictly a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[152] (in other words a composition without lyrics, or an instrumental that is not a cover of a song), disambiguation should be done using (composition) or (instrumental).

Operas

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[153]

Numbers and dates

Articles about numbers and related meanings are at N (number) without commas, for example There was an error working with the wiki: Code[31] became King of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[154]), and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[155], not There was an error working with the wiki: Code[156] (the year the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[157] began to rule There was an error working with the wiki: Code[158]).

rationale and specifics: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[159]''

Covered in that guideline:

page names for articles on dates, on time periods, on numbers

the use of There was an error working with the wiki: Code[160] as well as There was an error working with the wiki: Code[161] in page names

page names for articles on various topics containing a number and/or time indicator in the title.

Organizations (such as political parties)

Convention: For articles on organizations (like political parties) the general rule applies. That means: Name your pages with the English translation and place the original native name on the first line of the article unless the native form is more commonly used in English than the English form. Examples of the last are names of organizations in India, Ireland, Israel, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Quebec, Sri Lanka (English is or was an official language in most of these countries, which led to the general use of the native name) as well as some in Spain (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[162]), Indonesia (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[163]), Russia (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[164] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[165]), Republic of China (Taiwan) (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[166]) and Cambodia (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[167]).

Rationale and specifics: See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[168]

People

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[169] starts from the idea that names in the format are usually the least problematic as page name for an article on a single person.

The guideline concentrates on these cases where this format is not the most obvious, for example, how to deal with middle names, with There was an error working with the wiki: Code[170], with disambiguation (when several people share the same name), etc...

The people NC guideline has absorbed some content previously in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[171] (e.g. abbreviations in names of people), or separate topics on this page, that were not mentioned in specific guidelines until now (e.g. Spanish family names).

Monarchs and nobility

For most Western royalty and nobility, see: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[172]

Ancient Romans

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[173]

Western clergy

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[174]

Places

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[175] and There was an error working with the wiki: Code[176]

City names

Convention: In general, there are no special naming conventions for cities, unless multiple cities with the same name exist.

Discussion, rationale, and specifics: See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[177]

Country-specific topics

Convention: In general, country-specific articles and categories should be named using the form: "(item) of (country)". See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[178].

School names

Schools can share the same name. When PESWiki:Disambiguation a school because an article already exists, the most general locale of the school should be used in parentheses to all articles, and a disambiguation page should be created.

For other recommendations and current discussions see: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[179].

Ship names

Convention: Articles about ships that have standard prefixes should include them in the article title for example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33]. Note that although in text the name but not the prefix is italicized, this is not indicated in the article name, so pipe links are used, for example for the above There was an error working with the wiki: Code[32], There was an error working with the wiki: Code[33]. Articles about ships that do not have standard prefixes should be titled as (Nationality) (type) (Name) for example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36] (There was an error working with the wiki: Code[36].

Rationale and specifics: See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[180]

Slovenian vs Slovene

Convention:

Articles with Slovene in the title should be PESWiki:Redirected to main articles using Slovenian. (Exception: Articles about organizations that use Slovene). For the sake of consistency, "Slovenian" in the title demands the same term be used throughout that article. "Slovene" in the title demands the opposite. (Exception: specific material that reasonably requires inconsistent usage.)

Naming conventions are not applicable to articles that use "Slovene" or "Slovenian" in the body text only. For these articles, either term is allowable, as long as its usage is consistent. For the sake of consistency, it is preferred that subsequent editors respect the terminology used by the originator of the article.

Changes to subsequent material can be made to establish consistency with the originator, but please add a pointer to these guidelines on the talk page of the article to help prevent edit wars. Edits made solely to change one term to the other, overturning the usage of the original contributor and in opposition to reasons given above are discouraged, particularly if continued.

Rationale and specifics: See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[181]

Stub templates and categories

See details in There was an error working with the wiki: Code[182].

In general, stub templates use nouns in lower case letters except where proper names are involved. Abbreviations are allowed but only when completely unambiguous (or one of a small set of commonly used abbreviations such as geo, bio, hist for geography, biography and history), and are otherwise discouraged. Hyphens, rather than spaces, are used, though words may be run together if they form part of a compound noun. Thus, for example, There was an error working with the wiki: Code[3] for French people, but There was an error working with the wiki: Code[4] for the geography of French Polynesia.

Stub categories are also only capitalised for proper nouns, and use noun forms. Thus there is a There was an error working with the wiki: Code[5], rather than There was an error working with the wiki: Code[6] or There was an error working with the wiki: Code[7].

Current exceptions to these rules are in the process of being converted to conform with these conventions.

Television (industry and programming)

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[183] also There was an error working with the wiki: Code[184] above

Time (dates, periods, etc.)

See above: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[185]

Conventions currently archived

These conventions have so far failed to find consensus however, please feel free to revive discussion on a particular subject, either by using the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[38] or start a discussion at the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[39].

Ethno-cultural labels in biographies

See: There was an error working with the wiki: Code[186]

Provinces

Convention: inactive, see There was an error working with the wiki: Code[187]

More issues

There are many other specific issues still being discussed on the There was an error working with the wiki: Code[40].

See also

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[188]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[189]

There was an error working with the wiki: Code[41]

Comments