PESWiki:Citing PESWiki

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Frequently, people want to know how to cite PESWiki in other works.

: As with any source, especially those of unknown authorship, you should be wary and independently verify the accuracy of PESWiki information if possible see our General disclaimer page.

A wiki is an unusual form of media, and as such doesn't conform well to the usual book citation formats. There was an error working with the wiki: Code[1], so you will need to use an electronic format instead. The exact citation format will depend upon the citation style guide that you are following, but here are a few general principles to consider:

You should not cite any particular author or authors for a PESWiki article, in general. PESWiki is collaboratively written. However, if you do need to find the list of authors of a particular article, you can check the Help:Page history.

Your citation should normally list both the article title and PESWiki much as you would for an article in a paper publication.

The citation should normally include the full date and time of the article revision you are using, because the page may well change drastically between when you view it and when somebody else following your reference views it. This can be found by clicking the Page history link at the left or top of the page, and looking at the time of the topmost revision (times are in Coordinated Universal Time, or UTC, unless you have logged in and entered an offset in your preferences). You can also find the date and time of last revision at the bottom of the page.

Most citation styles will likely require the full article URL. If greater brevity is desired, however, you may optionally include just the PESWiki URL (e.g. for an article) because the article URL can be inferred from the article title. Note you should find a "There was an error working with the wiki: Code[2]" in the page history. This lets the URL include a unique identifier such that you can tie your reference back to the exact version of the article you are referencing it may or may not be desirable to adopt this approach, depending upon the context of your reference. This lets you show what you saw and will not show any page vandalism (or any other changes, for that matter) made after you accessed the page.

Many citation styles also request the date on which you retrieved the page.

Keep in mind: PESWiki is not authored solely by accredited researchers (anyone can add to it). For many purposes, it may not be considered an acceptable source. In particular, many schools do not consider PESWiki an acceptable source for student papers, especially without corroboration, and we ourselves advise caution when using PESWiki as a source in serious research projects. Still, we believe that PESWiki generally provides good overviews of most topics that it covers.


There are a number of different guides which set styles for the format of citations. The following example assume you are citing the PESWiki entry "Directory:Electric Vehicles", using the version that was submitted at 23:35 UTC (see the Help:Page history for this information), and that you retrieved the article on 5 Jul 2006.

The following general style citation is a suggested and recommended by PESWiki for formatted hyperlinked references:


: PESWiki contributors, "Directory:Electric Vehicles". PES Network Inc., USA. 5 Jul 2006.

The basic source would be Contributing Editors, "Cited article name". Source publisher, Location. Day Month, Year.

Alternatively, you can use the fiollowing:

: Article source: "Directory:Electric Vehicles" PESWiki: Pure Energy Systems Wiki. Pure Energy Systems, Inc. . (Licensed under GNU Free Documentation License

Yet another example notice might take the form as follows:

:Article source: PESWiki: Pure Energy Systems Wiki. Pure Energy Systems, Inc. . (Licensed under GNU Free Documentation License

A citation in MLA style, as recommended by the Modern Language Association:


: "Directory:Electric Vehicles." PESWiki. 5 Jul 2006 .

Style guides

Various organizations have created systems of citation to fit their needs. The following guidelines may be useful to read:

Radford, Robert, How to write footnotes or endnotes.

Psychology with Style: A Hypertext Writing Guide

General Guidelines for Citing Government Publications

Guide to Citation Style Guides

Below are available style guides:

A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation

AMA Citation Style

An online guide to different citation formats


Citation Styles Handbook: APA

Citation Styles Handbook: MLA

Citing Electronic Documentation (APA, Chicago, MLA)

Using American Psychological Association (APA) Format (Updated to 5th Edition)

The Columbia Guide to Online Style

Chicago/Turabian Documentation

Citation Guide - Turabian (.PDF file)

Sociology style (ASR)

Other tools are available also:

Inflight Referencer, software that creates APA, Harvard and custom citations and bibliography lists.

The Citation Machine, a site which generates full MLA and APA citations.

The Citation Functions: Literary Production and Reception by The (In)Citers, featuring full position statements and citation bibliography - 'CiteULike: Everyone's library' (citation compilation wiki)

APSA Documentation, a site that presents the format used by the APSA.

American Political Science Association, the page on the APSA site listing its publications, including the Style Manual for Political Science (for purchase)

StudentABC - Citation Machine Automatically generate an APA or MLA citation from a URL