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This document is an edited compilation of many letters that I have written to others requesting more information, since my article first appeared on peswiki.com, addressing general concepts, more details on the actual Water Powered Car forensic reconstruction, and some of my personal experiences with suppression and control techniques.
I hope it gives you enough information to build, and help change our world.
The ETSE concept is really a hybrid of refrigeration technology, having an ability to move heat (or cold) in an "un-natural" direction, I.E. moving heat into a hotter space from a colder space, or generating cold in a colder space by rejecting heat to a hotter space. We still have the requirement of energy input (this not a "magic" energy scheme), and similar to a paddle wheel in a stream, in order to generate usable mechanical motion, we need to dip our paddles (motor means) into a moving stream.
The beauty of using liquid refrigerants is that in their liquid phase, they are non-compressible (if comingled with a compressible thermal transfer gas), but HUGELY expandable into a gas, and a gas is VERY compressible.
Heat still goes "downhill" to cold, but by compressing a gas, you artificially increase it's temperature (called adiabatic heating). With this property of matter, nearly any ordinary Carnot cycle style engine can be made to operate on ambient energy, but much like the ordinary engine has to throw away generated heat (giving us an energy flow to tap into), the ETSE must throw away COLD, in order to give us that energy stream to tap.
An ETSE will not work in a closed room, for it will soon exhaust it's fuel source.
Ok, that's not entirely true, you COULD do it, but you'd end up with a self-powered refrigerator that would shut off once the isolated heat energy in the room is reduced to below operation requirements. Random heat in the contents is turned into the organized energy of air circulation, and ordered molecular structure (like ice). Hmmm, needs thought, and certainly experimentation! :)
While there has been some speculation that general use of this technology might result in bringing on another ice age, in reality, if ambient heat is used for mechanical motion, incoming solar heat is not removed from our environment, it's merely delayed, while the motion of the vehicles and machine parts will return thermal energy to the environment.
About the only way we could actually cool the earth using this technology, is to turn that heat energy into potential energy (such as a fuel), and ship it off of the earth. Obviously it will result in local cooling, such as on a California freeway, in a traffic jam while everyone is idling and going nowhere.
The ETSE is still a heat engine, and added heat will increase the available power. For example, in the converted diesel style engine that I speculate was the actual 1929 Water Powered Car, it had to travel in the hot California afternoons to prevent valve ice build up.
It would be a very simple fix to add a heat source (such as a propane torch) to the intake air to make an all-weather machine (including an arctic rover). Of course IF you use water as the refrigerant, below freezing weather would NOT save much fuel, but it would be a LOT more efficient than the same style of engine that tries to heat the arctic air to boiling water temperatures! :)
There are MANY ways to use the ETSE concept, and there are always solutions to encountered problems.
The best configuration (in my opinion), is a compressor that increases the pressure (and temperature) of intake air, pushing it into a high efficiency counter-flow heat exchanger, heating a boiler for a refrigerant that is used in a mechanical expander, which gives us both the energy to drive the motor we need to run our mechanical beast, AND turn the compressor.
Counter-flow means that the hottest air comes in at the top of an upright, insulated cylindrical heat exchanger (for fun, let's say the outside pressure tank), and the finned refrigerant coils inside are moving the liquid refrigerant up.
The air in the exchanger tank will lose it's heat to the refrigerant and come out at the bottom (ideally) close to the ambient outdoor temperature, where it is in contact with refrigerant that is also near ambient temperature in the bottom coils.
As the refrigerant moves up through the coils toward the top, it is absorbing more and more heat, until it comes out from the top (where the hottest compressed air is), in a superheated state, ready to flash boil into steam to drive your motor means. This could be an ordinary piston expander, or a turbine.
For maximum efficiency, we would put the steam condenser (like a car's radiator) into the compressor intake air stream, so that any residual heat in the condensing refrigerant coming from our motor, would recycle any unused heat of compression left after we cooled it by expansion for our mechanical needs.
However, now we have a problem of waste to deal with. It cost us energy to run our compressor, and ideally we would also want to use the energy left in the now cooled (near ambient), lower volume high pressure air at the bottom of our exchanger/boiler tank.
Unfortunately, that air has water vapor and carbon dioxide in it, and if we tried to run another bladed turbine, or a piston expander with that relatively cold air, as soon as it expands to anywhere near atmospheric pressure, water ice, and carbon dioxide ice will also happen, clogging up our valves, or coating our turbine blades, soon plugging up the works. Conceivably liquid air might also be generated, depending on how much heat we extract at how high a pressure.
My solution is to vent our waste cold gas through a very old engine style, the Hero steam engine, where Hero (Heron?) of Greece had a kettle of water over a fire, that had two upright hollow pipe arms, that held a turning sphere with two jets coming out at opposing right angles, which would spin when the steam came out. The sphere is not a necessary item, it just looked cool!
The expanding gas (dropping in temperature VERY rapidly) can be vented outside of our vehicle (say from the bottom side), with spinning jets like the Hero motor, perhaps driving an alternator to extract as much of the residual energy of compression as possible (everything, including the OINK! :)
The air stays relatively compressed (and above the freezing point for water) to the point where it exits the constricted jet nozzles, and then the water and CO2 ice can safely form outside of our machinery (leaving a steaming ice slick behind our getaway car).
Living in the Northwest US, we have cold days, and my preference for a refrigerant would be propane or even methane (natural gas). As long as we keep oxygen out of our steam engine / boiler loop, it won't spontaneously combust. It's cheaper than buying clorofluorocarbons, relatively safe chemically if accidentally released (unless of course a BUNCH of it got out with an open flame or spark nearby), and the "overflow" tank could be tapped (and refilled) to operate our intake air burners needed for passing acceleration, or operating on very cold days.
I like an old piston pump/motor design called the Dogleg Expander, which has two rotating piston casings (like six gun revolver cylinders), at an angle to each other, that when rotating with bent, dual ended pistons, can be an air compressor on one end, and our steam expander on the other. It was invented in the 1970's, and is now out of patent.
It has the advantages of few moving parts, and the rotation of the casings can also be arranged to become pass-port valving, eliminating the need for the Rube Goldberg array of valves, rocker arms, valve cam shaft, and timing chain dohickies.
It can be made by any skilled craftsperson with a metal lathe (or even just a drill press if clever, exacting, and persistant), and with proper tolerances, rather tight so you don't lose refrigerant, or have blow-by air in the air compressor.
I modeled one with my 3D CAD program, and rendered a gif animation to show how it works, but at 616 kilobytes, it's a bit weighty, and I won't attach it to this letter. I now have a 102 kb animation available for attatchment to any requesting letters (edit 6 May 2009).
If you want me to send it separately, let me know. It doesn't show valving (hydraulic use, compressor use, and steam expander uses require differing valve requirements), and frankly, even though the dogleg expander is now public domain, the valving particulars, and "novel use" characteristics may in fact be patentable.
If you decide to build, just be advised that the oil companies and governments have suppressed this concept for 80 years now, and I know for a fact, they don't play fair.
Again, let me know if you want the Dogleg expander animation, and I will send it.
I hope this gives you enough to get your motor running.
Here is a reprint (with minor edits), that I sent to another inquirer that delves further into the physics, Water Powered Car particulars, and some of my experience with suppression and control tactics.
Keep in mind that it is a conceptual shortcut, and niggling details have been pointed out, such as a lack of oil pickup, and as such, lubrication will be a problem, crank case oil will swamp the pistons, and the machine is likely to rust fairly rapidly if not built from appropriate materials. The rest of the concepts stand for themselves, if you have a good knowledge of general science.
As stated in the peswiki.com article, I am speculating on the actual water powered car, given the facts concerning common technology of the time, the reported operation parameters (late afternoon travel), and a garage inventor's intimate knowledge that re-purposing of existing items to achieve a new result is rather common.
In a standard diesel engine, the captured air charge will reach over 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit at it's maximum compression, and the injected fuel charge (best if atomized) must attain over 450 degrees F to ignite, so we can safely assume that water would reach the same temperature if it is substituted.
According to my Encyclopedia Americana, water at 461.1 degrees F will boil at 500 PSI (absolute, knock off about 14.7 psi for atmospheric pressure). Water expands to 1,600 times it's volume when it turns to gas, so one cubic centimeter of water will become 1.6 liters of gas (at atmospheric), or a LOT of pressure if contained! :)
The reason I believe that the original inventor removed the springs from the intake valve stems, is that the heat stripped air will become VERY cold once the cylinder space expands, and the dew point of the water vapor will be reached before the cylinder reaches full volume. This will cause a violent pressure collapse and a vacuum, that would suck the piston back in the wrong direction, if the now spring-less intake valves didn't pop open as vacuum breakers to let in more warm ambient air
Though the steam pressure doesn't continue for the full stroke, it may still be applying pressure at the half-way point, where the leverage is greatest on the crankshaft (at a right angle).
As a glass blower back in the early 70's, I would make barometer swans, where a single opening at the beak end was left open. By heating the body and sticking the beak into colored water, it would sip up a small amount, which I would then boil to fill the cavity with vapor. Putting the beak back into the water would draw in water when it started to cool, and once the sides began to cool more from the incoming water, an incredibly violent implosive force would fill the body in a split second, often breaking the ones that were badly made. Of course it was a bit tricky to maintain a captured air bubble for the barometer function, because the entire body wants to fill up if there is NO air left in there, displaced by vapor.
If the dew point can be delayed until bottom dead center (perhaps with supercharging the air intake), the collapse could extract additional energy once it's on the "forward" side of the crankshaft (which would require different valving characteristics).
The reason I flipped the engine upside down is to drain condensed water out through the exhaust valves. If it were left upright, water build-up would soon be greater than the volume left at full compression, and as you know, that would result in a blown head gasket, a broken piston arm, wrist pin, or worse, a broken crank shaft! :)
Though limited power can be obtained with this machine description, depending on the ambient temperature (and a wider separation between vapor and solid phases of the water), it's easy enough to add a little extra heat (such as a propane torch, etc), which would be throttled according to the exhaust temperature (above freezing).
Ideally, start water injection at the beginning of compression, it will reduce compression energy cost, achieve better thermal transfer, and since it doesn't ignite, won't knock (and will only produce power steam once the piston chamber drops to the boiling pressure for it's given achieved temperature).
Of course the above description is a commingled media machine, where the refrigerant and the thermal input substance (air in this case) share the same space, and water can carry off a lot of "cold" if thrown away, rather than being recycled.
Greater power can be obtained by using a semi-closed loop system, where the compressed air transfers it's heat of compression through an efficient heat exchanger/boiler (counter-flow preferred), driving a steam turbine for instance, as described above.
If the air is cooled DURING it's compression (say in the heat exchanger/pressure vessel), less energy will be needed on the front end to compress that air.
If you want to pursue this concept, be advised that it's dangerous.
A program called "Strange Universe" aired an episode where a refrigeration technician from one of the Southern states made a closed loop version and was demonstrating it at a county fair.
The program hosts asked viewers to write in on the question "do you think the government is involved in the suppression of inventions", and that they would give a tally next week. One of the show's hosts disappeared without comment, NO mention of the previous weeks subject was aired, and the program fizzled out with ghosts, vampires, and el chupacabre stories until it disappeared altogether.
Given my experience in our own local library (Silverton OR), they tend to be rather efficient about removing public knowledge.
While doing my own research, the Colorado Springs notes appendix from Tesla's (authored by him) book disappeared in mid sentence, from a locked storage copy from the Oregon State Library (including the shards of paper from the stitched binding). A two book lending library set by Wilhelm Reich turned into one book before it was delivered! The book on his sexual theories arrived, his Orgone energy accumulator description and theories didn't, and they wanted ME to pay for it!
I contributed my copy of Joseph Newman's Energy Machine to our library (after giving a public speach on the subject at that library), and inside of 6 months, it not only disappeared from behind the desk (signed out only), it even disappeared from the online catalog!
Suppression is very, very real, I know so from personal experience!
I ran into self-identified operatives from a here un-named large oil company myself (we'll call it Eksoff for short) in the late 70's, that included a gay ex-Ohio congressman (a "special friend" of a vice president of that company), that tried to pull me back in after I had escaped the first group, when I didn't go for the compromising women they threw at me.
The "housemate" paid caretaker position, with use of his motorcycle, Z-car, and promise of "connected" introductions for my then rather meager energy inventions came to an abrupt halt, when I finally figured out what "at least come home with me for one night and try it" actually meant, after a rather pleasant evening of dining, drinking, pool, and a LOT of talk. I then had to walk home 20 miles back to my parent's place from shortly after bar closing, to dawn of the next day. What can I say, I was clueless in my youth! :)
Apparently they just couldn't believe that when I didn't go for the admittedly attractive (but inappropriate) women and girls was a matter of my ethics, that I MUST be gay! That's the way they actually think (or project, if you're psych savvy).
The women included an under-age and VERY friendly daughter of a married but separated gal neighbor living downstairs in the "free" duplex apartment, that the "sister of a Vice President of Eksoff" had set me up with in Eugene Oregon circa 1978.
I even had to contend with an overly gregarious married gal (part of a crew of "minders" that surrounded me), with her husband sleeping in the next room! When I didn't go for the bait, she took up with my under-age brother, just to maintain tabs on me after I had "escaped".
Obviously there is more to the story (like how could I be so stupid), but I have only glossed over the highlights. There were muscle-bound pen monkey brothers (ex-convicts that bragged about what they did to "stoolies" in the joint), that were also my "minders" during that period.
They were set up in a contrived situation to stomp me into the next dimension after they could no longer directly observe and control me (dummy me, I fell for a "party" with "free beer" after I had escaped).
Psychic ju-jitsu (such as strategically placed tears), is a powerful non-weapon! HEY, everyone in the room was carrying full 40 ounce beer bottle clubs!
I could take a sucker-punch to the jaw by the daily beer delivering operative (last named Ghoul, appropriately skinny and devious), that had heard from Linda (the Eksoff VP sister), that I told her that he made his money by "re-recycling" already returned store containers for our beer, and was not a good candidate for my recently vacated apartment (which when he was told that by Linda, took exception). SO, I reacted with curiosity rather than violence, facing the alternative! :)
If there is an oil company out there that wants to sue me for slander by admitting that they were the company in question, I will be happy to name names, and expand on the lurid details in a court of record. I am now a hermit, VERY suspicious of a "good thing" coming out of the blue, and I pack heat.
Be careful, when they find your weakness (mine was "free beer", that started being delivered to me before 10 am daily in a plausible manner from day one at move-in), they will exploit ANY crack in your veneer. Just remember, TANSTAAFL! (There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch - Douglas Adams "Hitchiker's Guide to the Universe").
Those folks just don't play fair! One of them (I think the gal in the downstairs apartment), took pity, and called my folks to come and get me, pale, emaciated, and babbling incoherently. If I had believed that a permanent magnet motor was possible at that time (I was grilled and pumped by another operative on how I thought it might work), I may not still be alive today.
Those were innocent times indeed! :)
Just be careful is what I'm saying, and trust NO ONE, especially if it seems too good to be true, if you choose to actually build and (not recommended) demonstrate publically.
As long as I don't have a working model myself, I can be dismissed as a kook, and am relatively safe (though I do sleep with a pistol and shotgun beside by my bed these days, along with a hair-triggered dog - Fair warning Eksoff! ;).
David Eugene Cowlishaw Monday - 27 April 2009 Graphics added 7 May 2009