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Review:Magnetic Universe Theory Of Science

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Title changed to "Two Particles Universe Theory of Science".

Luxon-like theory consisting of two elementary particles, positive and negative particles, and one electric force in three dimensional volume.

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By Yaniv Stern
First published here May 27, 2010


My name is Yaniv Stern and I got a PhD in biology from the University of Leeds in England. The theory of evolution has reduced all of biological diversity to a single cell. When I broke this cell further down through its constituent molecules and atoms at the sub atomic level I discovered increasing complexity with many elementary particles and forces and this did not make sense to me. I felt that as matter is broken down further and further, fewer elementary particles and forces should exist, the simpler the rules of science should become. So I decided to reconstruct physics. I took basic physical properties of matter, light and gravity and linked them using only two elementary particles, positive and negative particles, and one electric force in three dimensional volume. Outlined is a brief description of my theory, please hold on because I will end by describing an experiment that could distinguish between my theory and traditional physics.

Contents

Matter

Image:Matter 500.gif

The most fundamental units of matter in the universe are positive and negative particles. I wanted to name these particles and as elementary positive and negative particles were already discovered and named I thought to name an elementary positive particle a "positron" and an elementary negative particle an "electron". So when I use these terms think of charged elementary particles only – NOT in terms of their allocated masses and spins. The universe is asymmetrical with many more positrons than electrons. Positive repulsive forces between positrons push the expansion of the universe and light and heat are made up of electrons. Nuclear matter is made up of protons and neutrons which are themselves made up of positrons and electrons and I will explain in the next two slides and cationic matter is made of interactions between nuclears and electrons. In a neutral universe with equal number of positive and negative particles one would expect neutral atoms to form – but in a positively charged universe with many more positrons than electron there is not sufficient number of electrons to neutralise the positive charge of nuclears so most atoms remain positively charged cations.

Elementary Interactions

Image:Elementary interactions1.jpg

Elementary interactions are based on the rules of electricity: similarly charged particles repel each other and oppositely charged particles attract each other (Benjamin Franklin, 1750). Two positrons repel each other, two electrons repel each other, a positron and an electron are attracted to each other and interact to form a neutral particle named "neutrino". A simultaneous interactions between two positrons and one electron form a "proton" and a simultaneous interaction between two electrons and one positron forms an "anti-proton". A proton and an anti-proton interact to form a "neutron". These interactions occurred early in the universe when it was small and dense. A proton decays into a positron and a neutrino, an anti-proton decays into an electron and a neutrino, and a neutron decays into a proton an electron and a neutrino.

Nuclears

Image:Nuclears 500.gif

This image shows the first nuclears of the periodic table. A single proton constitutes hydrogen. A proton and an anti-proton constitute a neutron. A proton plus a neutron form another isotope of hydrogen. This isotope plus another proton could constitute helium and an additional proton could constitute lithium. Additional neutrons are also required to stabilise the increasing repulsive forces inside nuclears. These interactions were repeated to form heavier nuclears of the periodic table and occurred early in the universe just after protons, antiprotons and neutrons were formed.

Cations

Image:Cations.jpg

Charged particles in nuclears move around and change positions (curvy grey arrows). At any point on the surface of nuclears charges rapidly alternate. Electrons are attracted (arrows) to nuclears by more positive charges but repelled (flat headed arrows) by negative charges. Unable to establish permanent contacts electrons form a cloud around nuclears.

Atoms and Temperature

Image:Atoms temperature.jpg

Heat consists of negative particles, electrons, and atomic charge is temperature-dependent. At cold temperature atoms are positively charged and positive charge of atoms decreases at increasing temperature. Matter is made up of positive cationic matter. Positive repulsive forces between nuclears are balanced by contributory electric forces, the negative adhesive charge of electrons and the counteracting positive charge of the environment – the entire universe. In solids nuclears share many electrons and retain fixed positions. When solids are heated and more electrons are introduced cations absorb electrons, share fewer electrons, and are free to move around and melt into liquid. Further heating and negative repulsive forces between electrons push cations apart forcing evaporation.

Magnets and Electricity

Image:Magnets1.jpg

The magnetic force can be explained using electrons, holes and an assumption that charged particles moving in opposite directions interact more strongly than charged particles moving in the same direction. (a) Currents moving in the same direction along conductors and around nuclears in magnets attract because attractive forces between electrons and holes is stronger than repulsive forces between electrons and repulsive forces between holes. (b) Currents moving in opposite directions along conductors and around nuclears in magnets repel because repulsive forces between electrons and repulsive forces between holes are stronger than attractive forces between electrons and holes. (c) Interactions between electrons and holes in a compass and a conductor are strongest and most stable when the compass is aligned perpendicularly to the conductor. Magnetic fields of planets and stars could be generated by internal convection currents and magnetic fields of galaxies by rotation of stars towards the centre of the galaxy. Material from stellar collisions jets out along magnetic field lines.

Light

Chromatic Refraction

Image:Chromatic refraction.jpg

White light shines through a prism refracts into distinct colors. The theory proposes white light consists of electrons traveling at different speeds. Fast electrons carry more speed and are refracted less than slower electrons when pass from one medium to another. The theory predicts red light consists of electrons traveling faster than blue light electrons.

Diffraction of Light

Image:Diffraction230111.jpg

The bright and dark stripes observed in double slit experiments could be explained if light travels in pulses (a). (b) Diffraction grating shows red light diffracts more than blue light so red light consists of longer distance (wavelength) between pulses than blue light.

Photoelectric Effect

Image:Photoelectric_effect.jpg

Blue light shines on a charged metal ejects faster electrons than red light (a). (b) Blue light consists of slower electrons that exert longer and stronger repulsive forces on electrons in the metal. (c) Red light consists of faster electrons that exert shorter and weaker repulsive forces on electrons in the metal.

Radiation Curves

Image:Radiation curves1.jpg

Radiation curves are explained with intensity of electrons (number of electrons per volume or time) and speed of electrons emitted from stars. The intensity of electrons depends on the temperature of a star. Hot stars emit more intense radiation than cooler stars. The speed of electrons also depends on temperature of a star. Hot stars emit faster (redder) spectrum than cooler stars.

Motion-Dependent Doppler Shift

Image:Doppler shift.jpg

As in traditional theory an observer facing an approaching object experiences shorter distance between pulses (higher frequency) than an observer facing a receding object.

Polarisation of Light

Image:Polarization of light.jpg

Polarisation of light requires an asymmetry and could be explained with discs, say, fast electrons flatten into discs. An electron with a vertical plane could pass through a polarising material with a vertical alignment but an electron with a horizontal plane collides with the material. Polarization of radio waves could be a different phenomenon such as alternating electric and magnetic fields.

Gravity

Gravity On Earth

Image:Gravityonearth2015.jpg

The positive charge of earth creates a positive field. A cation at close proximity to earth experiences this field. The field pulls on electrons and pushes on the nuclear forming a dipole with a negative pole facing earth and a strong positive pole facing away from earth. The negative pole of the cation decreases the positive charge of the cation and consequently decreases the repulsive positive force from the direction of earth. The strong positive pole of the cation increases the repulsive cosmological force from above pushing the cation down.

Planetary Orbits

Image:Planetaryorbits2015.jpg

The positive charge of the sun creates a positive field. Cationic dipoles in planets respond to this field, forming a weak positive hemisphere facing the sun and a strong positive hemisphere facing away from the sun. The weak hemisphere decreases the repulsive force from the direction of the sun and the strong hemisphere increases the cosmological repulsive force from the opposite direction to the sun pushing planets towards the sun into orbits.

Optical Distortion of Distant Images

Image:Opticaldistortion2015.jpg

Stars have a measured angular separation. When the sun is located between the stars they appear to be further apart with increased angular separation. The theory proposes negative light particles are bent inwards by the positive field of the sun.


Cosmos

Evolution of the Universe

Image:evolution universe.jpg

The universe began as a primordial sphere made up of positive and negative particles. This primordial sphere had two important properties; one it was asymmetrical with many more positive than negative particles. Positive repulsive forces inside this sphere triggered its expansion (the big bang) and push the universe apart to this day and forever. The second property of this primordial sphere was that distribution of electrons was not homogenous, but patchy, with electron-poor patches and electron-rich patches. Electron-poor patches expanded into inter-galactic voids and electron-rich patches developed into stars, galaxies and the large scale filamentous structure of the universe. The diagram on the right shows stages early in the evolution of the universe. At first elementary particles interacted to form protons and antiprotons. More positrons implies that more protons were synthesized than antiprotons. Protons and antiprotons interacted to form neutrons, and neutrons interacted with protons to form heavier nuclears. Once nuclears formed electrons interacted with nuclears to form cations and once temperature sufficiently cools cations interact together to form molecules by sharing electrons. The theory predicts CMBR consists of low intensity and low pulse frequency (long wavelength) very fast electrons.

Stars

Image:Stars300115.jpg

The colour of a star depends on its positive charge because negative light particles lose speed as they escape the pull of the star. A young hot star has a low positive charge and appears red. As the star cools and becomes more positively charged radiated light particles slow more and the star appears blue. The intensity of light also decreases as the star ages. The size of the star increases as the universe expands. Inside the star positive repulsive forces are balanced by the positive charge of the universe and negative adhesive charge of electrons. As the universe expands and the density of positrons decreases and the positive cosmological force weakens, positive repulsive forces inside a star push its expansion and stars will gradually expand to space or rapidly explode.

Galactic Red-Shift

Image:Red shift1.jpg

Light received from a distant galaxy is redder than light received from a closer galaxy because light received from a distant galaxy was emitted by younger, hotter, redder stars. The intensity of light received from a distant galaxy is lower than intensity of light received from a closer galaxy because intensity decreases with distance.

Time

Image:Time1.jpg

Time is a measure of change and change is driven by the positive charge of the universe. The positive charge of the universe pushes its expansion – changes in distances, it pushed the formation of stars and galaxies and changes in physical properties of stars such as luminosities, temperature and sizes. Change/time is one directional – future.

Predictions

So I came up with a theory that reduces the four fundamental forces of nature to one, elementary particles to two, dimensions to three, and provides many other connections, as well as links the physical, chemical and biological sciences. But is it right? Well, a scientific theory has to be tested by experiments and my theory certainly provides many experimentally testable predictions. But I looked for a simple and fundamental experiment to test a prediction of my theory against a prediction of traditional physics. And I found one.

Weight should decrease at increasing Temperature

Image:Lawsofmotion2015.jpg

The theory predicts weight should decrease at increasing temperature. (a) In a positive universe positive matter experiences positive repulsive forces from all directions. When forces from opposite directions balance an object remains suspended in space and weightless. (b) When forces from opposite directions are unequal, an object is pushed by the stronger force towards the weaker force. A free object moves towards the weaker force while a stationary object gains weight (W). (c ) The difference between opposite forces determines weight, large difference is heavier and small difference is lighter. So if you heat up matter, introduce negative heat particles, lower the positive charge of an object, you lower the difference between forces and its weight. (Rate of fall (g) is determined by the ratio between forces).

In traditional physics w=mg. Since mass is conserved and gravity is a constant, weight should not change at increasing temperature.


Image:Gravityexpansion2015.jpg

Electric forces account for gravity and expansion of the universe. An object (+1) at close proximity to a celestial body (+2) forms a strong dipole and experiences a stronger push towards the celestial body than away from the celestial body. At longer distance from the celestial body the object has a weaker dipole and is repelled by the celestial body plus the cosmological charge (+10) more strongly than by the cosmological charge alone.

Supporting Research

So I searched the literature and found several papers showing weight of heated metals indeed decreases at increasing temperature.

Image:Evidence 1 500.gif

This graph shows weight changes of 20 grams metal rod and tube. The metals were cooled by 5.4 degC, placed on the balance, and allowed to warm back up to room temperature. The rod lost 100 micrograms and the tube lost 200 micrograms. The author proposes ‘’heat convection’’ is responsible for weight reduction. At thermal disequilibrium between air and metals heat flow creates air currents which are responsible for weight reduction. The observation that the tube and the rod with different surface area to volume ratios changed weight by different amounts support a role for ‘’heat convection’’ in weight reduction. But from this experiment you can NOT tell if a fixed amount, say 50 micrograms, is not due to intrinsic temperature of metals.

Image:Evidence 2 500.gif

This graph is from another paper showing weight of a heated thermal insulator, a dewar vessel, also decreases at incresing temperature. In this experiment ‘’heat convection’’ was significantly reduced and weight reduction was recorded. This result suggests intrinsic temperature of metals may also have an effect on weight. The authors of this paper propose temperature decreases the force of gravity. If so, hot objects should fall slower than cold objects and this has to be incorporated into the curvature of space-time and the hot big bang model with explosive consequences. In the theory rate of fall is determined by the ratio between opposite forces so hot and cold objects should fall at the same rate.

Summary

I am looking for scientists to weigh a heated metal in vacuum and find the missing weight predicted by my theory. I am looking for scientists to test the most basic of scientific laws – Conservation of Mass.

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