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PowerPedia:Water as fuel
The water fuel cell appears to be a perpetual motion device that function by breaking water into hydrogen and oxygen gases using less energy than that present in the bond itself. The water fuel cell was claimed to produce several times more energy than it consumed (for instance, by connecting it to an engine that would burn the hydrogen back into water), and a car prototype powered by a water fuel cell was assembled.
The main concept underlying the technology is an irreversible reaction induced by voltage breakdown. Compliance with the parameters of an irreversible reaction dictates that the system in entropically driven rather than thermodynamically driven. The energy input into the system is the magnitude require to charge a capacitor, with pure water as dielectric material, to voltage breakdown threshold.
Its name notwithstanding, the water fuel cell is not a fuel cell. It is also not an electrolyzer because the system explicity violates the 1'st and 2'nd laws of electrolysis. The device utilizes the paramenter of "voltage breakdown" to force pure water into higher state of entropy, resulting in decomposition.
A Breakdown of the Fundamental Equations
- Water as Fuel > The Sandia National Labs Journal Article > A Consolidating Analysis of the Article
Noah Seidman, of the Water/Fuel Converters Project, has analyzed data produced by Sandia National Labs and, has created a compilation of several equations pertaining to voltage breakdown. The following are capacitor calculations that can be used in conjunction with the equations in the previous link. Capacitor Calculations. (News From Water Fuel LLC; Dec. 21, 2006)
Stanley Meyer was granted patents in the United States and abroad starting in 1989; patents, in general, are not equivalent to peer review, and do not imply the findings have been confirmed and reproduced by independent parties. However, in Meyer's case, the Methods patent was only granted after a Sec. 101 review, in which he was required to demonstrate a working unit before a board of experts appointed by the USPTO, in person (which most would consider to be a substantially more authoritative review than passive papers being traded back and forth by peers who've never laid eyes on the thing before). The "water fuel cell" consists of stainless steel plates arranged as a capacitor, with pure water acting as the dielectric.
Meyer presented his fuel cell device to Professor Michael Laughton, Dean of Engineering at Queen Mary College, London, Admiral Sir Anthony Griffin, a former controller of the British Navy, and Dr. Keith Hindley, a UK research chemist.  According to the witnesses, the most startling aspect of the Meyer cell was that it remained cold, even after hours of gas production as his system appeared to operate on mere milliamperes, rather than the amperes that conventional electrolysis would require. The witnesses also stated:
- After hours of discussion between ourselves, we concluded that Stan Meyer did appear to have discovered an entirely new method for splitting water which showed few of the characteristics of classical electrolysis. Possible Theory On How The Water Fuel Cell Works Confirmation that his devices actually do work come from his collection of granted US patents on various parts of the WFC system. Since they were granted under Section 101 by the US Patent Office, the hardware involved in the patents has been examined experimentally by US Patent Office experts and their seconded experts and all the claims have been established.
The claim about amperage appears strange, as amperage measures the flow of charge (and therefore electrons, which have a fixed charge), and the quantity of charge to be transferred between the electrodes to split water is fixed to two faradays per mole water (about 10,700 coulombs per gram). A reduction in the required energy to split water could have therefore only manifested itself in a reduction in voltage.
It should be remarked that neither Meyer, nor Laughton, nor Griffin, nor Hindley have published any peer-reviewed research papers in the scientific literature (as far as can be reviewed on ScienceDirect), which is detrimental to their credibility. Mr. Laughton wrote a generic "Executive summary" about Combined heat and power in the Journal of Applied Energy, but no original research is presented. (An unrelated Anthony Griffin, from Ontario, Canada, can appear in searches.)
- U.S. Patent 5,149,407 (G.patent; PDF): Process and apparatus for the production of fuel gas and the enhanced release of thermal energy from such gas
- U.S. Patent 4,936,961 (G.patent; PDF): Method for the production of a fuel gas
- U.S. Patent 4,826,581 (G.patent; PDF): Controlled process for the production of thermal energy from gases and apparatus useful therefore
- U.S. Patent 4,798,661 (G.patent; PDF): Gas generator voltage control circuit
- U.S. Patent 4,613,779 (G.patent; PDF): Electrical pulse generator
- U.S. Patent 4,613,304 (G.patent; PDF): Gas electrical hydrogen generator
- U.S. Patent 4,465,455 (G.patent; PDF): Start-up/shut-down for a hydrogen gas burner
- U.S. Patent 4,421,474 (G.patent; PDF): Hydrogen gas burner
- U.S. Patent 4,389,981 (G.patent; PDF): Hydrogen gas injector system for internal combustion engine
- Collection of information about patents
- U.S. Patent 6,419,815 (G.patent; PDF): Method for producing orthohydrogen and/or parahydrogen, Stephen Barrie Chambers
Indirectly Related concepts
External links and references
- ^ Infinite Energy 19: p. 50–51 (1998). <http://www.rexresearch.com/meyerhy/meyerhy.htm#obit>
- ^ Sunday Times Innovation 1 December, 1996. 
- ^ Wireless World January 1991. <http://www.angelfire.com/sd/paulkemble/stan4.html>
- Gerneral websites
- Electrolysis methods for cars running on water
- Stanley Meyer Bio from waterpoweredcar.com
- Stanley Meyer: Water Fuel Cell.
- End of road for car that ran on Water—Text of the article of the London Sunday Times.
- Fuel for fraud or vice versa? (On Stanley Meyer)—summary of the article in New Energy News.
- Meyer's rebuttal letter to New Energy News.
- Interview with Stanley Meyer from the 1995 film, Equinox: It Runs on Water
- A separate incident of someone claiming a water-powered car and taking $100,000 from investors
- Successful replication of Meyer's Water Cell by Dave For a detailed report, please click here.
- German replication of Stanley Meyer's water fuel cell
- Directory:Water Dissociation Using Zero Point Energy
- OS:Water Fuel Cell
- PowerPedia:Water gas
- PowerPedia:Browns gas
- Directory:Hydrogen from Water