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This page is a copy of the page at Wikipedia:Energy_Catalyzer, which is up for deletion, as of November 1, 2011. "This is another free energy scam with a lot of self-promotional publicity but no science behind it." See our directory page here at Directory:Andrea A. Rossi Cold Fusion Generator (E-Cat)

I should say that it does not surprise me at all that Wikipedia would put this article on the chopping block. They are very mainstream and won't touch anything that is cutting edge, and especially not something that is bleeding edge.
When I first found out about Wikipedia back in December 2004, I was really excited and began posting content there. Every page I posted was deleted for being too "unsubstantiated," even when I was quoting original sources. They wanted a citation from the New York Times.
That is what spurred me to commenced PESWiki in August 2005, when I found a couple of guys at the TeslaTech conference who knew how to do it.
What I think of when I think of Wikipedia is a commercial pen crammed full of domesticated turkeys who have never know life in the wild, and whose existence is for one purpose: getting fattened for slaughter. Not only are we wild here are PESWiki, but we are like eagles in comparison to the turkeys of Wikipedia. Trying to reason with someone at Wikipedia is a waste of time. They are a bunch of slaves to the powers that be, and they can't comprehend the freedom we enjoy here.
Now, here's something interesting. Check out their traffic over the past year: It is down by 13% while ours is holding steady: Gratefully, the mainstream is loosing ground. People are going where the action and life is. -- SilverThunder 10:09, 1 November 2011 (PDT)

If Wikipedia does delete that page, then we can clean up the content down below so it reads well. We have an older version of the Mediawiki software, and I guess the references are not set up the same way.

The Energy Catalyzer (sometimes shortened to E-Cat) is an apparatus built by inventor<ref>Italian Office for Patents and Trademarks "processo ed apparecchiatura per ottenere reazioni esotermiche, in particolare da nickel ed idrogeno." [process and equipment to obtain exothermal reactions, in particular from nickel and hydrogen], Patent Number 0001387256, Deposited 9 April 2008, Issued 6 April 2011, Inventor: Andrea Rossi.</ref> Andrea Rossi,<ref>Cold Fusion: “You have to embrace this”, Mats Lewan, Ny Teknik, February 23, 2011</ref> with support from his scientific consultant, physicist and emeritus professor<ref >, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Professori emeriti</ref> Sergio Focardi. The 2008<ref>International Application No. PCT/IT2008/000532, International Filing Date: 04.08.2008</ref> patent application<ref name=patent_app>"Method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions".</ref> claims "a method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions," with production of copper.<ref >"A new energy source from nuclear fusion".</ref> Although the patent cites previous works on cold fusion,<ref>Template:Cite patent</ref> one statement by Rossi asserted that it is not cold fusion, but rather LENR, Low-Energy Nuclear React ion.<ref name="not fusion NET">"Energy catalyzer: it works and it's not fusion".</ref><ref name="zyga" /> Claims of a similar system, but yielding considerably less power, had previously been advanced by Focardi et al.<ref name=Focardi_1998>Focardi S, Gabbani V, Montalbano V, Piantelli F, Veronesi S, "Large excess heat production in Ni-H systems", Il Nuovo Cimento A. 111, 1998. pages 1233–1242</ref> According to Focardi, "the hydrogen is heated at a given temperature with a simple resistor. When the ignition temperature is reached, the energy production process starts: the hydrogen atoms penetrate into the nickel and transform it into copper.”<ref>{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}, "Fusione fredda realizzata a Bologna. Sarà vero?". Daily Wired, {{{date}}} (Accessed: {{{accessdate}}})</ref>

The device has been demonstrated to an invited audience several times, and has been commented on positively by Bologna physics professor Giuseppe Levi.<ref>Low Energy Nuclear Revolution - full reportage on the E-Cat. Giuseppe Levi: "At the present time, on the basis of the current experiments, I'm sufficiently certain about what we witnessed, and I can say that both in December and January energy was produced with power on the order of around 10 kilowatts. We also ran another test, a "tecnical" and "private" one - these technical tests are necessary to enable us to understand how to set up the final test - and this was a long test, lasting about 18 hours, in which the minumum power produced was on the order of 15kW - this is extremely conservative data."</ref> The international patent application received an unfavorable preliminary report on patentability because it seemed to "offend against the generally accepted laws of physics and established theories" and to overcome this problem the application should have contained either experimental evidence or a firm theoretical basis in current scientific theories.<ref name="lisa">Template:Citation</ref> Due to this secrecy, journalists were not allowed to examine the core of the reactor, and there is still uncertainty about the viability of the invention.<ref name=Nyteknik_Defkalion>Lewan, Mats, "Cold Fusion: Here's the Greek company building 1 MW". {{{publisher}}}, February 7, 2011 (Accessed: {{{accessdate}}})</ref> Mark Gibbs of Forbes commented: "until a verifiably objective analysis is conducted by an independent third party that confirms the results match the claims there’s no real news".<ref >"Believing in Cold Fusion and the E-Cat".</ref>


Demonstrations and investigations

The device has not yet been independently verified. Several demonstrations were given to invited guests. In January and February two demonstrations were given in the presence of Levi.<ref name=lewan20110202>"Cold fusion: Observing researcher wants more tests".</ref><ref name=Nyteknik_18h_test >Lewan, Mats, "Cold Fusion: 18 hour test excludes combustion". {{{publisher}}}, February 23, 2011 (Accessed: {{{accessdate}}})</ref> In March two Swedish scientists witnessed a demonstration.<ref name=autogenerated2>Interview with Sven Kullander and Hanno Essén (Swedish w. English subtitles). (2001-05-09). Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref><ref name=NyTeknikEcat>Template:Cite</ref> In April some representatives from the press were invited,<ref name="Rai News May 5, 2011">La magia del signor Rossi, Angelo Saso, Rai News (Italian) (2011-05-03 20:35). Retrieved on 2011-07-10. (Youtube version in Rai News official channel. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.)</ref> and two demonstrations followed in September and October. None of these were set up to provide scientific evidence.

January to April demonstrations

Held in Bologna, January 14, 2011, the demonstration was monitored by independent scientific representatives of the University of Bologna, including a researcher in physics, Giuseppe Levi. Levi concluded that the power and energy produced was "impressive," and that the Energy Catalyzer might be working as a new type of energy source. Ny Teknik, a Swedish technology magazine, reported that editorial staff were polled on their reaction to this report. "The result: two-thirds do not believe in it."<ref name=lewan20110202 /> Of this demonstration, Discovery Channel analyst Benjamin Radford wrote that "If this all sounds fishy to you, it should,"<ref >"Italian scientists claim to have demonstrated cold fusion (w/ Video)".</ref> and that "In many ways cold fusion is similar to perpetual motion machines. The principles defy the laws of physics, but that doesn’t stop people from periodically claiming to have invented or discovered one."<ref >"Cold fusion: Cold Fusion Claims Resurface".</ref>

Nonetheless, Levi in an interview with Ny Teknik, stated “What has impressed me, and what sets this work apart from everything I’ve ever seen, is that we have 10 kW of measured energy output, and this output is completely repeatable. But what I want to do now is an experiment with continuous operation for at least one or more days. Since there are very specific limits on how much energy you can generate from a given amount of mass, I can thus rule out a chemical reaction as the energy source.”<ref name=lewan20110202 />

Another test, lasting 18 hours, was performed in Bologna, from February 10–11, 2011, by Levi and Rossi, but was not conducted in public.<ref name=Nyteknik_18h_test >Lewan, Mats, "Cold Fusion: 18 hour test excludes combustion". {{{publisher}}}, February 23, 2011 (Accessed: {{{accessdate}}})</ref>

According to Levi, the process was 'ignited' by 1,250 watts for five to ten minutes, and power was then reduced to 80 watts (for the control electronics). Cooling was supplied by tap water and flow volume was monitored.<ref name=Nyteknik_18h_test /> As reported by Ny Teknik, "Initially, the temperature of the inflowing water was 7 degrees Celsius and for a while the outlet temperature was 40 degrees Celsius. A flow rate of about one liter per second, equates to a peak power of 130 kilowatts. The power output was later stabilized at 15 to 20 kilowatts."<ref name=Nyteknik_18h_test /> Levi calculated consumption of hydrogen at 0.4 grams. “In my opinion, all chemical sources are now excluded,” he told Ny Teknik.<ref name=Nyteknik_18h_test />

On March 29, 2011 two Swedish physicists, Hanno Essén, associate professor of theoretical physics and a lecturer at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology and former chairman of the Swedish Skeptics Society and Sven Kullander, Professor Emeritus at Uppsala University and also chairman of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences’ Energy Committee, participated as observers in a test of a smaller version of the Energy Catalyzer.<ref name=autogenerated2 /> The test ran for six hours, power output was estimated at 4.4 kW, and total energy produced at about 25 kWh.<ref name=NyTeknikEcat /> Essen and Kullander reported, "Any chemical process should be ruled out for producing 25 kWh from whatever is in a 50 cubic centimeter container. The only alternative explanation is that there is some kind of a nuclear process that gives rise to the measured energy production."<ref name=Nyteknik_3Apr2011_report>Template:Cite</ref> In a later conversation, a few months after the test, Essén stated "I want to wait for more facts. The facts I know add up to make this interesting and worth pursuing, but I am still very uncertain about this."<ref>"Report #3: Scientific Analysis of Rossi, Focardi and Levi Claims".</ref>

They were given samples of nickel powder, some unused and some that Rossi reported as used for 2.5 months; analysis showed the unused powder was pure nickel while the used powder contained 10 percent copper and 11 percent iron,<ref name=NyTeknikEcat/> although iron production is not mentioned anywhere in the patent.<ref name=wipopatent>Template:Cite patent</ref> In their test report, Essen and Kullander cautioned, "Since we do not have access to the internal design of the central fuel container and no information on the external lead shielding and the cooling water system we can only make very general comments."<ref name=Nyteknik_3Apr2011_report></ref>

On April 19<ref name=Nyteknik_April19_test >Lewan, Mats, "Test of Energy Catalyzer (April 19)". {{{publisher}}}, April 19, 2011 (Accessed: {{{accessdate}}})</ref> and April 28<ref name=Nyteknik_April28_test >Lewan, Mats, "Test of Energy Catalyzer (April 28)". {{{publisher}}}, April 28, 2011 (Accessed: {{{accessdate}}})</ref> two more demonstrations were held. The first of them<ref name=Nyteknik_April_tests /> was also covered by the Italian 24-hour all-news State-owned television channel Rai News.<ref name="Rai News May 5, 2011" /> This time a Ny Teknik author attended and tested for some previously noted possibilities of fraud. He therefore calibrated the ammeter, measured the water flow by weighing and calibrated the temperature-sensor probe to confirm that all water is converted to steam.<ref name=Nyteknik_April_tests>Template:Sv icon Lewan, Mats, "Ny Teknik tested the energy catalyzer". {{{publisher}}}, {{{date}}} (Accessed: {{{accessdate}}})</ref> The measurements showed a net power of between 2.3 and 2.6 kilowatts. The input power was 300 watts.<ref name=Nyteknik_April_tests />

Template:Visible anchor

On September 7, reporter Mats Lewan from Ny Teknik witnessed a further demonstration in which the Energy Catalyzer was first operated for 90 minutes with input power claimed to be around 2.6 kW after which it ran for 35 minutes with 25W input. The total output energy during the whole demonstration was claimed to have exceeded the electrical input energy. The Energy Catalyzer was a larger size than versions used in previous demonstrations. As reported this larger version will be used in the scheduled 1MW plant.<ref>Ny Teknik: See the E-cat run in self-sustained mode</ref>

Template:Visible anchor

On October 6, 2011, an E-cat was demonstrated, which reportedly lasted for about eight hours, it was claimed that for the first five hours the input power was up to 3kW, after which the power was reduced to 115W. The power output was claimed to be between two and three kilowatts. Possible uncertainties concerning the quality of the steam were said to have been overcome <ref>Fusione fredda: nuovo esperimento, "Questa incertezza si può considerare superata con l’esperimento di ieri." TRANSLATION: "This uncertainty can be considered overcome by means of the experiment of yesterday."</ref> by injecting the steam from the Energy Catalyzer into a heat exchanger, where a flow of water was heated, <ref>TV: New test of the E-cat enhances proof of heat, "The important new element in the test was that it was possible to bypass the controversial energy calculation, based on vaporization, by injecting the steam from the energy catalyzer into a heat exchanger, where a flow of water was heated."</ref> though the accuracy of measurements was reportedly fairly low.<ref>Test of Energy Catalyzer, Bologna October 6, 2011</ref> Roland Pettersson, retired Associate Professor from the University of Uppsala, who witnessed it said "I'm convinced that this works, but there is still room for more measurements".<ref name=lewan20111007>"New test of the E-cat enhances proof of heat".</ref>

Bologna, October 28th 2011 Customer Acceptance Test

On October 28, 2011, a 1MW plant based on the Energy Catalyzer was reported to have been tested, considered satisfactory and approved by engineer Domenico Fioravanti on behalf of an undisclosed customer intending to acquire the plant.<ref name=autogenerated1>Half a megawatt E-cat in Bologna - NyTeknik</ref>

Evaluation of the device

Rossi and Focardi's joint work was rejected by a peer-reviewed scientific journal,<ref>{{{last}}}, {{{first}}}, "Italian scientists claim cold fusion success". {{{publisher}}}, January 24, 2011 (Accessed: {{{accessdate}}})</ref> and appeared in Rossi's self-published blog, Journal of Nuclear Physics.<ref>Journal of Nuclear Physics, (blog)</ref> Closely related work by Focardi was published in 1998 in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Il Nuovo Cimento A.<ref name=Focardi_1998 />

With their report on the April demonstrations,<ref name=Nyteknik_April_tests></ref> Ny Teknik provided some analysis: According to Rossi, the heat is generated from an unknown reaction, which is, according to Essen and Kullander, probably nuclear. The concept of cold fusion, or low-energy nuclear reaction, has been mentioned, referring to a hypothesized reaction between hydrogen and nickel, producing copper. "Many physicists are skeptical," because fusion of nuclei requires very high temperatures, "according to current knowledge," and because "fusion should produce very high levels of gamma radiation."

Rossi states that the device probably works not due to "cold fusion", but due to weak interactions between nuclei, without actual fusion happening.<ref name="zyga" /><ref name="not fusion NET" />

As Ny Teknik reports, Peter Ekström, lecturer at the Department of Nuclear Physics at Lund University in Sweden, concluded in May 2011, "I am convinced that the whole story is one big scam, and that it will be revealed in less than one year."<ref name=ekstrom>Kall Fusion på italienska (Cold fusion - Italian style), Peter Ekström, Italian/English</ref><ref name=Nyteknik_April_tests></ref> He cites the unlikelihood of a chemical reaction being strong enough to overcome the Coulomb barrier, the lack of gamma rays, the lack of explanation for the origin of the extra energy, the lack of the expected radioactivity after fusing a proton with 58Ni, the unexplained occurrence of 11% iron in the spent fuel, the 10% copper in the spent fuel strangely having the same isotopic ratios as natural copper, and the lack of any unstable copper isotope in the spent fuel as if the reactor only produced stable isotopes.<ref name=ekstrom /> He later added in New Energy Times that the steam velocity in a videotaped test appears to be way too low for the reported energy production, and that some liquid water might be exiting the system via the drainage tube.<ref>Template:Citation</ref>

More cautious, Kjell Aleklett, physics professor at Uppsala University in Sweden, summarized in his blog: "What shall we do as scientists? Shall we say madness as many do today, or should we try to understand what is happening? I myself have nothing against to reveal a scam, or join in and verify something that no one could imagine. Both extremes belong to that which makes life as a researcher incredibly interesting." According to Aleklett, in a sample of spent fuel provided by the inventor, the percentage of copper was too high for any known reaction of nickel, and the copper had the same isotopic ratio as natural copper.<ref name=aleklett>Kjell Aleklett, "Rossi energy catalyst – a big hoax or new physics?" (blog). (2011-04-11). Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref><ref name=Nyteknik_April_tests></ref>

On April 23, 2011, EV World published an audio interview<ref>The Future of Energy: Part 1 Podcast approved Transcript</ref> with Dennis M. Bushnell, Chief Scientist at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Bushnell described several emerging energy technologies, but he identified LENR as "the most interesting and promising at this point". He continued: "... in January of this year Rossi, backed by Focardi, who had been working on this for many years, and in fact doing some of the best work worldwide, came out and did a demonstration first in January, they re-did it in February, they re-did it in March, where for days they had one of these cells, a small cell, producing in the 10 to 15 kilowatts range, which is far more than enough heat to boil water for tea. And so they say that this is weak interaction, this is not fusion. So I think we're almost over the We don’t understand it problem. I think we're almost over the This doesn't produce anything useful problem. And so I think this will go forward fairly rapidly now. And if it does, this is capable of, by itself, completely changing geo-economics, geo-politics and of solving climate and energy." Bushnell also said that they (Langley) were investigating and applying the Widom-Larsen theory<ref>Simplified Widom-Larsen theory.</ref><ref>Widom-Larsen theory: Against.</ref> to an experiment.<ref>, Robert Moses, March 28, 2011 speaking at AIAA</ref> NASA researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have offered to validate Rossi's device, if Rossi pays for the tests.<ref name="zyga" />

According to PhysOrg, the demonstrations held from January to April 2011 had several flaws that make them lose credibility and Rossi has refused to perform several tests that could clarify dark points.<ref name="zyga">Controversial energy-generating system lacking credibility (w/ video),, Lisa Zyga, 11 August 2011</ref>

On October 7th, 2011, Italian scientific journalist Maurizio Melis<ref>"Maurizio Melis is scientific journalist" (Italian: "Maurizio Melis è giornalista scientifico")</ref> of Il Sole 24 Ore, who witnessed the demonstration in Bologna of the previous day, wrote: "in the coming weeks Rossi aims to activate a 1MW plant, which is now almost ready, and we had the opportunity to inspect it during the demonstration of yesterday. If the plant starts up then it will be very difficult to affirm that it is a hoax. Instead, we will be suddenly projected into a new energetic era." <ref>Fusione fredda: nuovo esperimento, "Rossi punta ad attivare nelle prossime settimane un impianto da 1 MW, che è ormai quasi completo e che ieri abbiamo avuto l’opportunità di visionare durante la dimostrazione. Se l’apparato funzionerà, sarà molto difficile sostenere che si tratta di un trucco, mentre ci troveremmo improvvisamente proiettati, dal punto di vista energetico, in una nuova era."
TRANSLATION: "In the coming weeks Rossi aims to activate a 1MW plant, which is now almost ready, and we had the opportunity to inspect it during the demonstration of yesterday. If the plant starts up then it will be very difficult to affirm that it is a hoax. Instead, we will be suddenly projected into a new energetic era."</ref>


An application in 2008 to patent the device internationally had received an unfavorable preliminary report on patentability at the World Intellectual Property Organization<ref name="wipo.preliminary">International Preliminary Report on Patentability. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref> from the European Patent Office, noting that the description of the device was based on "general statements and speculations" and citing "numerous deficiencies in both the description and in the evidence provided to support its feasibility" as well as incompatibilities with current scientific theories.<ref>Template:Citation</ref> The patent application was published on October 15, 2009.<ref name="wipopatent"/>

However, on 6 April 2011 an application was approved by the Italian Patent and Trademark Office, which issued a patent for the invention, valid only in Italy.<ref>The patent granted 6 April, 2011, by the Ufficio Italiano Brevetti e Marchi. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref><ref name=Apr_2011_patent>Rossi, Andrea. "Method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions" Template:Patent 2009-10-15</ref><ref name=nyse_april_patent>Template:Sv icon Ny Teknik: Patent granted for the energy catalyzer. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref> International, European, and U.S. patent applications are still pending.<ref name=Apr_2011_patent /><ref name=nyse_april_patent />

Commercial plans


In February 2011, Rossi announced an agreement with the newly formed Greek company Defkalion Green Technologies as his first client.<ref>"Defkalion Green Technologies".</ref><ref>«Πράσινη» επένδυση-μαμούθ στην Ξάνθη. Επιβεβαίωση από Ξυνίδη . 12 March 2011. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref> According to Rossi, the agreement called for delivery of a 1MW heating plant, consisting of 300 reactors of 4 kW <ref name=NyTeknikEcat/> connected in series and parallel. The plant which would supply heating for Defkalion's own purposes only, was intended to be inaugurated in October 2011.<ref name=lewan20110202 /> Rossi stated that he would not be paid by Defkalion until the installation was delivered and working.<ref>Lewan, Mats, "This is how Rossi is financing his E-cat". {{{publisher}}}, March 10, 2011 (Accessed: {{{accessdate}}})</ref> Defkalion’s spokesman Symeon Tsalikoglou confirmed the agreement, which gave exclusive rights for Defkalion to manufacture and sell the Energy Catalyzer throughout Greece.<ref name=Nyteknik_Defkalion /><ref>O εκπρόσωπος της επένδυσης Defcalion μιλά στο 16 March 2011. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref>

In August 2011 Rossi announced that he had cancelled his contract with Defkalion, stating that none of E-Cat's technology had been transferred to them.<ref name="breaks nyteknik">"E-cat: Rossi breaks with Greek Defkalion".</ref><ref>"Andrea Rossi's E-Cataclysm?".</ref><ref>"Andrea Rossi and EFA srl. announce that they have terminated the agreement with Praxen/Defkalion Green Technologies for the production of e-cats, Bologna-Roma (Italy)"., Rossi's press release</ref><ref>"Comments made by Rossi on his blog, regarding the cancellation".</ref><ref>"Statement from Defkalion Green Technologies". confirmation via email from Defkalion to Ny Teknik</ref> Rossi said that "the issue [that caused the cancellation] is just financial, not personal, nor technological, nor scientific", and that he wouldn't comment further because he was preparing a lawsuit against Defkalion.<ref name="breaks nyteknik"/> A board member of Defkalion likewise indicated that the reasons for the cancellation were entirely financial.<ref>Comment by Prof Christos Stremmenos on the breach between Andrea Rossi and Defkalion. Sent to Daniele Passerini on August 8, 2011 in Italian Professor Christos Stremmenos, board member of Deflakion</ref> Rossi later confirmed this, specifying that Defkalion was unable to fulfil its contractual obligations in due time.


In May 2011, According to Ny Teknik, <ref name=lewan20110516>Template:Sv icon"Ny Teknik: Energy catalyzer gets U.S. partner".</ref> Rossi reached an agreement, for an undisclosed sum, with AmpEnergo,<ref>AmpEnergo. AmpEnergo. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref> an Ohio company,<ref>Ampenergo Certificate of Organization Secretary of State of Ohio, 20 April 2009, (via</ref> to receive royalties on sales of licenses and products built on the Energy Catalyzer in the Americas.<ref>E-Cat Commercialization in the Americas (Press Release) 27 June 2011. AmpEnergo. Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref> Three of the founders of AmpEnergo knew Rossi since 1996, through Leonardo Technologies, Inc.,<ref>Leonardo Technologies, Inc., (company website) Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref><ref name=lewan20110516 /> which Rossi co-founded, selling his interest in the late 1990s, and which has been working on a series of U.S. government construction engineering contracts.<ref>"Leonardo Technologies, Inc." accessed 19 October 2011</ref> Robert Gentile, former Assistant Secretary of Energy for Fossil Energy at the U.S. Department of Energy<ref>Lynn Garner DOE's fossil energy boss asked to leave by Watkins. (Robert H. Gentile, James Watkins), The Oil Daily, April 30, 1991. (via, Retrieved on 2011-07-10).</ref><ref>Gerhard Peters, John T. Woolley Nomination of Robert H. Gentile To Be an Assistant Secretary of Energy, January 24, 1990, The American Presidency Project, (1944-02-05). Retrieved on 2011-07-10.</ref> was one of four AmpEnergo founders.<ref name=lewan20110516 /> The design used for the 1 MW plant, originally intended to be inaugurated in October 2011 in the USA, consists of 52 reactors of 27 kW in a standard shipping container.<ref>Mats Lewan Here’s Rossi’s one megawatt plant Ny Teknik 14 september 2011</ref> In early October, Rossi stated that, due to contractual difficulties, the container had not been shipped to the U.S.<ref name=lewan20111007 />.

Undisclosed customer

A further, as yet undisclosed, customer was present for the inaugural activation of the 1MW plant, which took place in Bologna on October 28, 2011.<ref name=autogenerated1 /> The demonstration was performed under the control of this unidentified customer<ref name=autogenerated1 /> who could acquire the plant, "provided that the power consumption to heat output ratio can be verified by the customer."<ref>Here are the analyses of the latest E-cat test - NyTeknik</ref>



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