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- See also Directory:Earth Batteries
A simple homemade cell is the earth battery. Almost any liquid or moist object that has enough ions to be electrically conductive can serve as the electrolyte for a cell. As a novelty or science demonstration, it is possible to insert two electrodes into a lemon, potato, glass of soft drink, etc. and generate small amounts of electricity. As of 2005, "two-potato clocks" are widely available in hobby and toy stores; they consist of a pair of cells, each consisting of a potato (lemon, etc.) with two electrodes inserted into it, wired in series to form a battery with enough voltage to power a digital clock. Homemade cells of the "potato clock" kind are of no real practical use, because they produce far less current—and cost far more per unit of energy generated—than commercial cells, due to the need for frequent replacement of the fruit or vegetable.
Earth batteries, though, consist of conductive plates from different locations in the electropotential series, buried in the ground so that the soil acts as the electrolyte in a voltaic cell. As such, the device acts as a rechargeable battery. Operating only as electrolytic devices, the devices were not continuously reliable owing to drought condition. These devices were used by early experimenters as energy sources for telegraphy. However, in the process of installing long telegraph wires, engineers discovered that there were electrical potential differences between most pairs of telegraph stations, resulting from natural electrical currents (called telluric currents) flowing through the ground. Some early experimenters did recognise that these currents were, in fact, partly responsible for extending the earth batteries' high outputs and long lifetimes. Later, experimenters would utilize these currents alone and, in these systems, the plates became polarized.
It had been long known that continuous electric currents flowed through the solid and liquid portions of the Earth and the collection of current from an electrically conductive medium in the absence of electrochemical changes (and in the absence of a thermoelectric junction) was established by Lord Kelvin. Lord Kelvin's "sea battery" was not a chemical battery. Lord Kelvin observed that such variables as placement of the electrodes in the magnetic field and the direction of mediums's flow affected the current output of his device. Such variables do not affect battery operation. These metal plates were immersed in a flowing medium and created a magneto-hydrodynamic generator. In the various experiments, metal plates were symmetrically perpendicular to the direction of the medium's flow and were carefully placed with respect to a magnetic field which differentially deflected electrons from the flowing stream. The electrodes can be assymmetrically oriented with respect to the source of energy, though.
To obtain the natural electricity, experimenters would thrust two metal plates into the ground at a certain distance from each other in the direction of a magnetic meridian, or astronomical meridian. The stronger currents flow from south to north. This phenomenon possesses a considerable uniformity of current strength and voltage. As the Earth currents flow from south to north, electrodes are positioned, beginning in the south and ending in the north, to increase the voltage at as large a distance as possible. In many early implementations, the cost was prohibitive because of an overreliance on extreme spacing between electrodes.
It has been found that all the common metals behave relatively similarly. The two spaced electrodes, having a load in an external circuit connected between them, are disposed in an electrical medium, and energy is imparted to the medium in such manner that "free electrons" in the medium are excited. The free electrons then flow into one electrode to a greater degree than in the other electrode, thereby causing electric current to flow in the external circuit through the load. The current flows from that plate whose position in the electropotential series is near the negative end (such as palladium). The current produced is highest when the two metals are most widely separated from each other in the electropotential series and that the material nearer the positive end is to the north, while that at the negative end is towards the south. The plates, one copper and another iron or carbon, are connected above ground by means of a wire with as little resistance as possible. In such an arrangement, the electrodes are not appreciably chemically corroded, even when they are in earth saturated with water, and are connected together by a wire for a long time.
It had been found that to strengthen the current, it was most advantageous to drive the northerly electropositive electrode deeper into the medium than the southerly electrode. The greatest currents and voltages were obtained when the difference in depth was such that a line joining the two electrodes was in the direction of the magnetic dip, or magnetic inclination. When the previous methods were combined, the current was tapped and utilized in any well-known manner. In some cases, a pair of plates with differing electrical properties, and with suitable protective coatings, were buried below the ground. A protective or other coating covered each entire plate. A copper plate could be coated with powered coke, a processed carbonaceous material. To a zinc plate, a layer of felt could be applied. To use the natural electricity, earth batteries fed electromagnets, the load, that were part of a motor mechanism.
In 1898 Nathan Stubblefield received a U.S. Patent 600457 (G.patent; PDF) for a cell made of cloth-insulated copper wire and iron wire wound in a coil, which was to be buried in damp earth: this electrolytic coil is referred to as an "earth battery". One of the earliest examples of an earth battery was built by Alexander Bain in 1841 in order to drive a prime mover. Bain buried plates of zinc and copper in the ground about one meter apart and used the resulting voltage, of about one volt, to operate a clock. Carl Friedrich Gauss, who had researched the Earth's magnetic field, and Karl A. von Steinheil, who built one of the first electric clocks and developed the idea of an "Earth return" or "ground return", had previously investigated such devices. Lord Kelvin developed a "sea battery" in the latter end of the 1800s.
Daniel Drawbaugh received U.S. Patent 211322 (G.patent; PDF) for an Earth battery for electric clocks (with several improvements in the art of Earth batteries). Another early patent was obtained by Emil Jahr (U.S. Patent 690151 (G.patent; PDF) Method of utilizing electrical Earth currents). In 1875, James C. Bryan received US160152 for his Earth Battery. In 1885, George Dieckmann, received U.S. Patent 329724 (G.patent; PDF) for his Electric Earth battery. In 1898, Nathan Stubblefield received U.S. Patent 600457 (G.patent; PDF) for his electrolytic coil battery, which was a combination of an earth battery and a solenoid.
The Earth battery, in general, generated power early on for telegraph transmissions and formed part of a tuned circuit that amplified the signalling voltage over long distances. [Alleged:] In the mid 1800's, more than half of the telegraph in the U.S. and Europe ran off the power of earth batteries, and were capable of sending messages up to 300 - 400 miles. 
External articles and references
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- Wikipedia contributors, Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.
- Earth Batteries - John Bedini's compilation
- Nathan Stubblefield on PESWiki - Earth Batteries and Wireless-Earth-based-sound transmission using earth's magnetic current as the transmission device.
- American patents
- W. P. Piggot, "U.S. Patent 050314 (G.patent; PDF) Telegraph cable".
- Bryan, James C., "U.S. Patent 160152 (G.patent; PDF) Earth Battery". February 23, 1875.
- W. D. Snow, "U.S. Patent 155209 (G.patent; PDF) Earth-batteries for generating electricity".
- J. Cerpaux, "U.S. Patent 182802 (G.patent; PDF) Electric piles".
- Daniel Drawbaugh, "U.S. Patent 211322 (G.patent; PDF) Earth battery for electric clocks".
- Dieckmann, George F., "U.S. Patent 329724 (G.patent; PDF) Electric Earth Battery". November 3, 1885.
- M. Emme, "U.S. Patent 495582 (G.patent; PDF) Ground generator of electricity".
- Stubblefield, Nathan, "U.S. Patent 600457 (G.patent; PDF) Electric battery". May 8, 1898.
- Jahr, Emil, "U.S. Patent 690151 (G.patent; PDF) Method of utilizing electrical earth currents".
- M. Emme, "U.S. Patent 728381 (G.patent; PDF) Storage Battery".
- William T. Clark, "U.S. Patent 4153757 (G.patent; PDF) Method and apparatus for generating electricity".
- Ryeczek, "U.S. Patent 4457988 (G.patent; PDF) Earth battery". July 3, 1984.