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PowerPedia:Cold fusion, Don Borghi's Experiment, and hydrogen atom

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Don Borghi’s experiment shows a synthesis of a neutron from proton+electron at low energy.

In his experiment, a plasma of protons and electrons inside a vessel is submitted to an oscilatory electromagnetic field, and so, instead of forming an hydrogen atom, a neutron is formed.

Don Borghi’s experiment is the most elementary sort of cold fusion experiment. According to Quantum Mechanics it’s impossible such a synthesis at low energy.

On another way, why isn’t formed a hydrogen atom, instead of a neutron, in Don Borghi’s experiment ?

Quantum Ring Theory proposes the response for such a question. Here it’s given a short idea of how it happens, by taken in consideration the laws that rule the behavior of an electron within an electrosphere of a proton.



Contents

The cause of Bohr’s successes

As already explained in the Peswiki article PowerPedia:Successes of the Bohr atom, it makes no sense to consider as accidental the successes of Bohr hydrogen atom, because such hypothesis is impossible from the mathematical probability. And as consequence, something must be correct in Bohr’s model, but from the foundations of Quantum Mechanics we must consider Bohr theory as entirely wrong, otherwise the hydrogen model of QM cannot be entirely correct.

Therefore, to be acceptable, any new theory with the aim of replacing Quantum Mechanics must be able to give answer for a fundamental question: Why isn’t Bohr’s model entirelly wrong ?

Let us respond such question from the concepts of Quantum Ring Theory.

In the hydrogen atom of QRT an electron moves with helical trajectory (zitterbewegung) within the electrosphere of a proton.

The aether that constitutes the electrospheres of the proton and electron has dilation.

NOTE: in the book QRT, published in August 2006, it was originaly considered the hypothesis of aether’s contraction. At that time I did not discover yet the cause of such contraction.
Some months after the publication of the book, I discovered that instead of contraction actually there is a dilation, caused by two repulsive gravitons G(+) and G(-), which were missing in the structure of the aether proposed in the paper Aether of the book.
So, those ones that have the book will realize that, instead of contraction, as proposed originally in the book, here we speak about dilation of the aether.


In QRT it is shown that such dilation of the aether within the proton’s electrosphere has a gradient 1/R, where R is the distance between the proton and the point taken in consideration within the proton’s electrosphere.

As explained in the Peswiki’s article Gamow's paradox, the fermions like the proton and the electron produce a flux of gravitions “g?, that fulfils the aether around them, like several strings of gravitons.

Therefore the space within the proton’s electrosphere is not Euclidian. Due to the repulsive gravitons G, the distance between the strings depends on the distance of a considered point with regard to the proton. The Fig. 1 shows an electron that moves with radial direction, crossing the strings of gravitons, in the Euclidian’s space considered in the Bohr’s model (the distance “d? between the strings is constant).

The Fig. 2 shows the electron moving within a non-Euclidian space, where the distance “d? decreases when the electrons goes in the direction of the proton.

Image:AAAfig1-coldfusion-donBORGHI-hydrogen.gif

The electron moving with helical trajectory within such a non-Euclidian space has several properties, shown in the book QRT. For instance:

1- If the electron moves in a radial direction (with regard to the proton), if its speed is constant, then the radius of the helical trajectory increases when the electron moves away of the proton (and unlike, the radius decreases when the electron aproaches to the proton).

2- Due to such dilation of the aether, an electron that moves in radial direction experiences a force F(R) of repulsion, trying to expel it from the electrosphere of the proton. Such a force F(R) has the same value of the force F(a) of Coulombic attraction between the proton and electron. Therfore, when the electron moves in a radial direction, it is null the total force on it. And therefore, when moving in a radial direction, the electron always moves with constant speed within the proton’s electrosphere.


Such a property of the helical trajectory of changing its radius is called zoom-effect in Quantum Ring Theory. So, it happens as follows:

1- In the Euclidian space, the radius of the helical trajectory decreases with the growth of the electron’s speed. When the electron aproaches the speed of light the radius tends to zero (the electron becomes a boson when the helical trajectory becomes a Newtonian linear trajectory).

2- In the non-Euclidian space (electrosphere of proton) the radius of electron’s helical trajectory decreases when it aproaches with constant speed to the proton.


Fig. 3 ilustrates how changes the pitch “h? of the helical trajectory when an electron leaves out a region AB with constant density of the aether, and enters in a region BC with decreasing gradient, and ahead it enters again in a region CD with constant gradient (but lower density than in the region AB)>

Image:AAAfig3-coldfusion-donBORGHI-hydrogen.gif

According to QRT, the atom emits photons when the electron moves along a radial direction (and not in circular orbit, as supposed in Bohr theory). The emission happens as consequence of resonance between the pitch of the electron’s helical trajectory and the distance “d? between the strings of gravitons, shown in the Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 shows what happens in the calculus made by Bohr, when we introduce the concept of electron’s helical trajectory.

Image:AAAfig4-coldfusion-donBORGHI-hydrogen.gif

The Fig. 5 shows what really happens within the hydrogen atom, and the cause ot the successes of Bohr model. There is a coincidence: the Coulombic force Fc used by Bohr has the same value of the force Fe of the aether on the electron (such force Fe of the aether that keeps the electron moving with helical trajectory).

Image:AAAfig5-coldfusion-donBORGHI-hydrogen.gif

The successes of the Bohr’s model is due to a serie of coincidences, in the instant when a photon is emitted by the atom:

1- The distance proton-electron (considered by Bohr) is equal to the distance between the electron and the center of its helical trajectory:

REM = RHT = RBOHR

2- The centripetal force considered by Bohr (which in his calculation he considered equal to the Coulombic force of attraction proton-electron) is equal to the force with which the aether keeps the electron moving about the center of its helical trajectory:

FC(ht) = FE = FC = FP

Therefore, the center of the potential in the instant when the atom emits a photon is not the proton, as Schrödinger wrongly has considered when he developed his famous equation. The center of the potential is actually the center of the helical trajectory, and such coincidence also explains the success of the Schrödinger theory.

Interestingly, Schrödinger developed his equation by considering a free electron (not submitted to any force). This makes no sense, because in his development the electron is within the proton's potential, and therefore attracted by the proton. Such paradox of Schrödinger's development is now understood thanks to the new hydrogen model proposed in Quantum Ring Theory, because now we know that within the hydrogen atom the electron behaves like if it should be free, since it is submitted to two forces:

1- its attraction with the proton,

2- and the force that tries to expell it from the proton's electrosphere, due to the repulsive gravity.

Therefore, because the resultant force on the electron is null, it moves with constant speed along the radial direction, and so the electron moves like it should be free, as considered by Schrödinger (its behavior is of a free electron moving with constant speed, in spite of it is actually moving within the proton's electrosphere).

And finally the paradox is understood, thanks to the new hydrogen model proposed in QRT


Other interesting paradox solved by QRT:

in the page 326 of their book( 1 ) Eisberg and Resnick write about the fundamental status in the hydrogen atom:

"But in the Bohr model, the orbital angular momentum for the status n=1 is L = h, while in the quantum mechanics is L = 0, because l=0 when n=1. There are several evidences, from the measuring of atomic spectra, that quantum mechanics prediction is correct. Such prediction is also according to techniques developed for the calculus of expected values for electron's total kinetic energy in its fundamental status and the kinetic energy associated to its radial motion. The two values are identical, implying that in this status the motion is purely radial. If Bohr model would be modified in order to permit the existence of status with null angular moment, the orbit for such status would be a radial oscillation where the electron would trespass directly through into the nucleus and the oscillation would have any direction in the space."

Now we understand why. Look at an electron in the fundamental status n=1, moving around a proton with helical trajectory, as shown in the figure bellow:

Image:AAAfig0-coldfusion-donBORGHI-hydrogen.gif

Well, the electron is not trespassing the proton. However, by considering the two passages of the electron shown in red color, it seems like if the electron should be trespassing the nucleus, if we do not consider the extension of time that aparts the two trajectories in red (it seems that the two red passages are the same trajectory, trespassing the proton). And pay attention that the motion has any direction in the space, as interpreting through a like-Bohr model from the concepts of the model of Quantum Mechanics.

Thereby, one more paradox is solved by Quantum Ring Theory, since it makes no sense to think in the electron trespassing the proton in the hydrogen atom.



So, the new hydrogen atom proposed in Quantum Ring Theory brings the compatibilization between the Bohr theory and the Schrödinger Equation. By this way, the new hydrogen atom proposed in QRT is able to explain all the phenomena produced by the hydrogen atom (the phenomena that require a corpuscular model as that discovered by Bohr, and also those phenomena that require a undulatory model, as discovered by Schrödinger). The absurd Bohr’s principle of complemetarity finally can be discarded.



From the hydrogen atom proposed in QRT, we actually realize that Schrödinger, without to know, discovered the equation of the electron with helical trajectory moving in the electrosphere of a proton



As any serious physicist may realize, the successes of Bohr is the stronger support for the hypothesis of the helical trajectory, because the helical trajectory is the only theoretical way capable to explain his successes. And as a theory cannot be acceptable if it is unable to explain the Bohr’s successes, then we conclude that any theory to be acceptable must be developed by considering the helical trajectory.

The fields Sn(e) and Sp(e) of electron and Sn(p) and Sp(p) of proton

Consider the model of electron as shown in the Fig. 1 in the Peswiki article Gamow's paradox

Image:AAAfig1-GAMOWparadox.gif

The electron’s secondary field Sn(e) actually is not a field of the electron. Instead of to belong to the electron, it actually belongs to the aether that compose the whole Universe involving the electron. In another words, the secondary field Sn(e) is a disturbance of the Universe that surrounds the electron’s principal field Sp(e). Therefore the secondary field Sn(e) is not something that belongs to the electron and is dragged by the electron’s motion along its displacement in Universe. The field Sn(e) is a disturbance of the aether that is transmitted along the electron’s motion, like waves of the water when a ship crosses the surface of a sea. The field Sn(e) belongs to the aether that fulfils the Universe, and it is the intermediary way of interaction between the electron’s principal field Sp(e) and the rest of the Universe.

As said, the electron’s secondary field Sn(e) and the proton’s secondary field Sn(p) are responsible for the Coulombic attraction between them.

As the secondary field Sn(e) belongs to the aether of the Universe, of course it has no spin. Unlike, the principal field Sp(e) has a spin, and just such spin induces that disturbance of the aether, which takes the form of the secondary field Sn(e). That is, the secondary field Sn(e) is induced by the principal field Sp(e).

The principal field Sp(e) is constituted by a flux of gravitons g, and therefore its spin does not produce any additional magnetic field that could contribute to increase the magnetic field of the electron. But the fluxes of gravitons agglutinate the massless electric particles of the aether around them, and so the field Sp(e) has electric properties too.

At the first glance, it seems that the rotation of electric particles due to the spin of Sp(e) would have to produce an additinal magnetic field, with magnitude very larger than that of the electron. Nevertheless such a conclusion would be correct if the space within the field Sp(e) would be Euclidian. However the space within the field Sp(e) is non-Euclidian, and let us analyse what happens, by looking at the Fig. 6:


Image:AAAfig6-coldfusion-donBORGHI-hydrogen.gif

1- There is a flux of gravitons g of the aether (shown as the blue string).

2- Consider a massless electric particle “e? shown in green color, captured around the blue string.

3- Another electric particle “e? is captured by the blue string within the body-ring of the electron, shown in yellow color.

4- Due to the spin of the field Sp(e), the “green? particle produces a magnetic field pointed by the arrow with pink color. While the yellow particle produces a magnetic field pointed by the arrow with red color.

5- So, the two magnetic fields have contrary directions.

6- The Fig. 6 shows that the green particle has a orbit with radius R, while the yellow particle has a orbit with radius r.

7- If the aether within the electrosphere should be Euclidian, the magnetic field shown as pink would be very stronger, because its radius of orbit about the electron’s body is R >> r.

8- But as the space is non-Euclidian within the electron’s electrosphere, and the density of the aether varies proportional to 1/R, then the total magnetic field produced by the two electric particles green and yellow is null, and therefore the field Sp(e) does not produce any additional magnetic field, although it has a spin.


Of course such property of the field Sp(e) is valid along the time when the field Sp(e) keeps its symmetry (when the electron moves in radial direction with regard to the proton).

Now let’s see what happens when an electron is captured by a proton.

Suppose a free electron attracted by the proton. Their Coulombic attraction is due to the interaction of the secondary fields Sn(e) of electron and Sn(p) of proton.

When their distance is about 10-11m (the Bohr’s radius), the principal fields Sp(e) and Sp(p) begin to have interaction.

From the properties of the particles of the aether (we will see them ahead), the repulsive gravitons G are captured by the strings of gravitons “g? of the two principal fields Sp(e) and Sp(p) As one graviton G has repulsion with another graviton G, the big concentration of gravitons G about a string of gravitons “g? is responsible for the growth of the distance “d? between the strings (the distance “d? shown in the Fig. 2). This causes the dilation of the aether within the proton’s and electron’s electrosphere.

So, when the electron penetrates the electrosphere of proton and the fields Sp(e) and Sp(p) overlap, there appears a force F(R) of repulsion proton-electron. Such force is equal to the Coulombic force F(a) of attraction proton-electron, Therefore, when the electron moves along a radial direction within the proton’s electrosphere, it’s null the resultant of forces on the electron. Then it moves with constant speed within the electrosphere (in radial directin).

As the electron obtained a kinetic energy when along its motion toward the proton (earlier the overlap of the fields Sp(e) and Sp(p) ), it means that the electron moves (along radial direction) only due to the kinetic energy stored along its motion toward the proton (earlier the overlap of fields Sp(e) and Sp(p) ).

But when the electron’s body arrives near to the proton’s body, the electron cannot continue to move in radial direction, and it is forced to girate about the proton along the fundamental orbit n=1. So, the symmetry of the field Sp(e) is broken because its interaction with the proton’s field Sp(p) at short distances distorts the field Sp(e). Well, the distortion of the field Sp(e) is responsible for the appearance of a very strong additional magnetic field (because the magnetic field of particle green in Fig. 6 is not cancelled by the field of the particle yellow anymore). And then in the fundamental status the electron is attracted by a very strong force.

As consequence of such an additional magnetic field of Sp(e), when the atom absorbs energy and the electron jumps between n=1 to another orbit, it will peform several consecutive jumpingness (named BIG JUMPING in Quantum Ring Theory), because the electron has stored a very big kinetic energy before its jumpingness, as we will explain ahead.

The laws of photons emission by the atom are shown in detail in the paper Mechanism of Selection Rule, which begins in the page 62 of the book QRT, and where it is shown the laws that rule the mechanism of BIG JUMPING.

Corroboration by Dehmelt experiment

As the electron performs a big jumping, one could say: “In such a case, the electron would always jump from consecutive levels. It could not jump, for instance, from n=1 to n=4?.

However, the electron stored two sort of energy when it was in the orbit n=1:

1- Kinetic energy KT due to its translation motion about the proton

2- Kinetic energy KS due to the spin of the field Sp(e)


Sometimes when the atom emits a photon, the electron wastes its energy KT , and sometimes it wastes its energy KS

When it wastes a big portion of its energy KT, as it has yet a big energy KS then it has a big attraction with the proton, because its spin gyrates faster. So, the electron cannot perform a large jumpingness. When it wastes a big portion of its energy KS , and as it has yet a big energy KT , it is able to peform a large jumpingness, because its attraction with the proton is small (the angular speed of spin decreased), and the kinetic energy of translation is big.

Such mechanism responds why the electron can jump from n=1 to n=3, or from n=4 to n=2, etc.

The details of the laws that rule the jumpiness are shown in the mentioned paper Mechanism of Selection Rule.

As one realizes, in the atom model of Quantum Ring Theory the electron peruses the space between two orbits. Such property of the atom model of QRT is according to the results of Dehmelt experiment. In 1989 he awarded the Nobel Prize, because he developed a technology able to detect the electron’s trajectory within the electrosphere. His experiment has shown that the electron peruses the space between two orbits, a result that disproves the Quantum Mechanics (according to QM the electron does not peruse the space between two orbits).


Of course the theorists rejected the Dehmelt experiment, as they do always when any experiment disproves QM, as they did with Borghi’s experiment, with cold fusion, etc.

The aether’s structure and the repulsive graviton G

In the paper “Aether? of the book QRT it’s proposed the structure of the aether. In the paper it is shown that from such structure we explain the formation of electromagnetic fields produced by the loadstones and electric currents.

Massless electromagnetic particles of the aether:

It is named e(+) and e(-) the electric particles of ether, and m(+) and m(-) the magnetic particles. Around each particle e(+) there is a micro-field of a lot of particles m(+) . Around each particle e(-) there is a micro-field of a lot of particles m(-) .

The particles m(+) and m(-) are dragged by the particles e(+) and e(-), as follows:

• A particle m(+) has repulsion with other particle m(+)

• A particle m(-) has repulsion with other particle m(-)

• A particle m(+) has attraction with a particle m(-)


There are two particles of magnetic permeability:

1- Particle p(+): there is not attraction or repulsion between two particles p(+). The particles p(+) have attraction with the magnetic particles m(+). The intrinsic spin of the electric particles e(+), as a vortex, has the property of sucking the particles p(+). For the p(+) has attraction with m(+), it is performed a magnetic micro-field M(+) around each particle e(+).

2- Particle p(-): there is not attraction or repulsion between two particles p(-). The particles p(-) have attraction with the magnetic particles m(-). The intrinsic spin of the electric particles e(-), as a vortex, has the property of sucking the particles p(-). Because p(-) has attraction with m(-), it is performed a magnetic micro-field M(-) around each particle e(-).

3- Finally, a particle p(+) does not have attraction or repulsion with a particle p(-).


The gravitational particles are the gravitons g(+) and g(-). Their motion perform a flux named n(o). The flux n(o) constitutes those strings in the electron’s fields Sn(e) and Sp(e), and proton’s fields Sn(p) and Sp(p) as shown in the Fig. 2. Within the nuclei such flux n(o) becomes very stronger.

The flux n(o) has a peculiar dynamic property: under the action due to the motion of the particles g performing the flux n(o) , the particles e(+) and e(-) suffer two different effects:

1- particles e(+) are pushed toward the direction of the flux n(o).

2- particles e(-) are pushed toward the contrary direction of the flux n(o).


Properties of the repulsive gravitons G(+) and G(-):

1- The particles G(+) e G(-) repel one each other

2- Two particles G(+) repel one each other 3- Two particles G(-) repel one each other

4- The particles G(+) attract the particles g(+), so that’s why their gravitational nature

5- The particles G(-) attract the particles g(-), so that’s why their gravitational nature

6- The particles G(+) do not interact with the particles g(-)

7- The particles G(-) do not interact with the particles g(+)


How the electron must be captured in Don Borghi’s Experiment

In normal conditions, when the electron is captured by a proton they perform an hydrogen atom.

For the formation of the neutron, the body ring of the electron must penetrate within the principal field Sp(p) of the proton.


Image:AAAfig7-coldfusion-donBORGHI-hydrogen.gif

The Fig. 7 indicates that into the hydrogen atom the electron’s body-ring always peruses the space along the yellow arrow (with two heads), which is the radial direction regarding the body-ring of proton.

In order to form the neutron, the electron must penetrate into the proton’s field Sp(p) through the way pointed by the green arrow. Therefore Don Borghi’s experiment must be able to supply to the free electron conditions to approach to the proton by taken that green way pointed out in the Fig. 7.

As into the plasma there are collisions between protons and electrons, there is a small porcentage of electrons that have collision with protons along the direction of the green arrow shown in Fig. 7. They form neutrons.

Note that hydrogen atoms are also formed in Don Borghi’s experiment. However, as these hydrogen atoms absorb a big energy from the oscillatory electromagnetic field used in the experiment (the absorption occurs by resonance between proton’s field Sp(p) and the external electromagnetic field), such energy is captured by the electron, and it jumps with big energy and it gets freedom again.

In the case of the neutron’s formation, after being captured by the proton, the electron loses its helical trajectory, becoming a boson, liberating its zitterbewegung energy. As the energy captured by the proton from the external electromagnetic field applied in Don Borghi experiment is due to the resonance of the proton’s field Sp(p), then when the electron penetrates via the green way shown in Fig. 7 the electron is not able to capture energy from the proton’s field Sp(p), because the electron’s field Sp(e) is not in a radial position regarding to proton’s field Sp(e). That’s why the electron is not immediatelly expelled from the proton’s body-ring, and they form the neutron.

Fig. 8 shows the neutron with its principal field, and the Fig. 9 shows the principal fields surrounded by the secondary field.

Image:AAAfig8-coldfusion-donBORGHI-hydrogen.gif

As the neutron’s secondary field is a perfect overlap of the electron’s field Sn(e) and proton’s field Sn(p), and those two fields have contrary charge, then the neutron has a neutral field.

Image:AAAfig9-coldfusion-donBORGHI-hydrogen.gif

Obviously the Fig. 9 is only schematic, because the secondary field Sn(e) is thousands times larger in diameter than the principal field Sp(e), and there is no way to show it in a drawing.


But there is no overlap between the principal fields of proton and electron, as shown in Fig. 7. Then we have to expect that the neutron would have an internal charge. Indeed, the experiments have shown that there is an internal charge within the neutron.

Fig. 10 shows the distribution of charge of the neutron with regard to the proton. The two curves (of proton and neutron) fit exactly to what we expect from the neutron model proposed in Quantum Ring Theory, as we infer from the distance of the electron-proton within the neutron’s structure, shown in the paper Anomalous Mass of the Neutron (paper No. 8 in the book QRT).

Image:AAAfig10-coldfusion-donBORGHI-hydrogen.gif


There is not Coulombic repulsion between two neutrons. But when they perfurate each other their secondary field, and they approach in a very short distance, there is Coulombic repulsion between their principal field. That’s why a dineutron 0n2 is never formed in Nature.

From Quantum Mechanics there is no way to explain why the dineutron does not exist in Nature. Indeed, as there is no Coulombic repulsion between them, when two neutrons approach to a distance of 2mf (10-15m) they interact through the strong force. And so they would never to separate anymore. Heisenberg proposed an explanation by proposing the concept of isospin. But such a concept is purely mathematical. And a pure mathematical concept cannot produce a force of repulsion cabable to win the force of attraction by the strong force that tie two neutrons together. Only a force of repulsion can win a force of attraction, and to separate two neutrons. And Heisenberg’s concept of isospin cannot produce a force of repulsion. It only describes de fact that the dineutron cannot exist, but it does not explain “why?. Heisenberg’s solution is unsatisfactory.


When the electron is captured by the proton and they form the neutron, the electron’s zitterbewegung energy is converted to kinetic energy of translation motion about the proton (the electron moves with relativistic speed 0,92.c about the proton, as it’s calculated in the paper Anomalous Mass of the Neutron: http://www.geocities.com/ciencia2mil/NEUTRONmodel.html ).

In Quantum Ring Theory is prroposed that the strong force has gravitational origin, and it’s explained why the leptons have no interaction by the strong force, although its nature is gravitational.

It seems the strong force appears when two particles have interaction through relativistic speeds. Faster is their relative speed, stronger is their interaction.

Possibly electron’s relativistic speed about the proton causes their interaction through the strong force.

However there would be the need of a force 1.000 times stronger than the strong force, in order to keep the electron tied to the proton. Such conclusion is inferred from Heisenberg’s uncertainty, a relation that takes in consideration the Planck’s constant.

Well, Planck’s constant has been measured from the interaction between photons, and it happens in an Euclidian space.

But the space in Fig. 8 is non-Euclidian, because there is presence of the repulsive graviton G. Note that in the Fig. 8 there is overlap of the gravitons G of the electron’s principal field, and the gravitons G of the proton’s principal field. So the concentration of gravitons G is twice in the neutron.

It’s reasonable to suppose that such big concentration of repulsive gravitons G can change the Planck’s constant within the neutron’s structure. From the support of such hypothesis the neutron with structure n=p+e is theoretically viable.

References

1- R. Eisberg, R. Resnick , Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, and Nuclei, and Particles, Wiley and Sons, 1974 2- W. Guglinski, Quantum Ring Theory- foundations for cold fusion, Bauu Press, 2006

See also

The Successor of Quantum Mechanics

PowerPedia:Don Borghi's experiment

PowerPedia:Successes of the Bohr atom

Gamow's paradox

Antigravity within the photon

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