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OS:Water Fuel Cell

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Stanley Meyers electrolysis.  This project seeks to replicat what he accomlished before his untimely death.
Stanley Meyers electrolysis. This project seeks to replicat what he accomlished before his untimely death.

Water Fuel Cell Open Source Project

This is a publicly editable site. You are welcome to participate in its development.


Description
An open source project by the H2earth Institute is in process of replicating the water fuel cell technology of the late Stanley Meyer, who ran vehicles on water, and whose patents have just now become public domain.
Project Status 
The group has nearly completed a first fully functional prototype. Various contributing aspects have been characterized. A full set of instructions is in process of being composed that will hopefully enable others to not only replicate the effect, but to do so in a practical device.

Contents

Project

Key Sites

This PESWiki coverage is supplemental to other web pages; featuring:


WaterFuelCell.org

Main Site:


H2earth Institute

Project director:

Main Site:

Videos:

Blog:

Downloads:

Forums:

Souvenirs:

Overview Video


  • Overview Video: Water as Fuel (via ZPE) (3 min) -¬†While academia has been spurning the topic, hundreds, if not thousands of hobbyists and independent investigators worldwide are working on various electrolysis-like projects which put out more energy than was required to run the electrolysis unit. (PES Network Video; Aug. 31, 2007)

Interview

  • Download (13 mb; mp3) - On Aug. 27, 2007, Sterling D. Allan conducted a live interview with David Wenbert regarding his work with Water Fuel Cells, and his theory that the "over unity" being observed in various electrolysis set-ups is closely related to the reason for "over unity" being observed in some electromagnetic set-ups.

Special Waterfuel Acceleration Team

This report represents the ongoing work of a global Open Source collaboration of independent researchers, Associate Fellows of the H2earth Institute's International Research Fellowship Program. Through a teaming relationship with the Pure Energy Systems Network, the invitation to participate in this project is now extended to the broader FE/OU community. Various schematics, documents, images, video, and data will continuously be added to this report, until waterfuel technology becomes universally available.

Videos

http://www.nextenergynews.com/fuelcells/fuelcells1.html

Public Domain Waterfuel Technology

On June 27th, 2007, U.S. Patents 4,936,961 and 5,149,407 by the late Ohio inventor Stanley A. Meyer expired, and his technology for the Water Fuel Cell fell permanently into the public domain in the United States. As what many consider the most sophisticated approach to "Hydrogen-on-Demand" technology (running a vehicle or genset on water alone), the Water Fuel Cell ("WFC") may be the most practical free energy device to introduce on a widespread basis. While it is alone among waterfuel devices in being accompanied by a reasonable theoretical foundation as to why it works, it is also among the simplest and least expensive waterfuel systems to construct. For these and other reasons, on January 1st, 2007, a new nonprofit research & education foundation, the H2earth Institute was organized to explore waterfuel technology generally, and to re-launch the Meyer WFC in particular, once it became free of intellectual property rights issues, upon expiration of the patents.

Notably, the 5,149,407 "Design" patent, which issed more than two years after the 4,936,961 "Methods" patent, was deliberately truncated by Meyer so that it would expire coterminously with the primary one. Disclaiming the remaining term of a patent is an almost unheard of step for an inventor to take, and indicates the later patent to contain some critical improvements that Meyer wanted the world to have when his basic technology became public domain. Meyer, who died in 1998, was working on more involved and exotic implementations of the technology, involving water injecting spark plugs, which is embodied in other Meyer patents which remain in force until 2011. This project is not concerned with that architecture, but only with the body of Meyer's work which is now in the public domain.

In June of 2006, retired U.K. Research Engineer Dave Lawton released a report, compiled by PGFED Editor Patrick Kelly, detailing Lawton's success in constructing a working Meyer WFC, which has produced gas at 3x the Faradic equivalent rate for the power consumed. Lawton, who spent much of his career at Britain's Rutherford Labs (equiv. U.S. Lawrence Livermore) designing and constructing instrumentation for high energy particle physics research, is far from the average 'tinkerer'. Videos of his two WFC units, one with an alternator based circuit, and one employing solid state timing logic, were posted on YouTube, and have received over 50,000 hits. The cells operated at 12-13v/3-4a - averaging approximatley 57 watts of input power - producing gas aggressively in distilled water with no electrolyte. On February 23rd, 2007 (the 18th anniversary of Cold Fusion), the H2earth Institute initiated an International Research Fellowship Program to facilitate realtime collaboration between waterfuel researchers around the world, working to decypher the keys to building a functional WFC, based on these Lawton WFC replications.

Almost immediately, some deficiencies were uncovered in the documentation, representing a difference between the Lawton unit "as built" and the schematics that had been published on the web. Presently, over 50 Research Fellows of the H2earth Institute, from 15 countries, are seeking to uncover the keys to making a functional WFC, and several have demonstrated gas evolution at 0.2 Amps (12v) in distilled water with no electrolyte. This is impossible by the known principles of conventional electolysis, and strongly evidences a real, legitimate "Meyer Effect".

This platform on PESN is intended to publish the technical findings of the H2earth Institute with respect to the WFC, in a public format which allow the documentation to grow over time as the design is further refined and "Best Practices" in constructing replicating units become known and confirmed. In the descriptions below, Bulleted items constitute findings generally accepted by the Institute (as of June 27, 2007) as having been found to be indicative of success in WFC theory, design, construction, and operations.

Replications

Dave Lawton

Ravi Raju

  • Ravi's Stanley Meyer / Dave Lawton Replication Water Fuel Cell video#001] 47seconds, posted 15th August 2007
    • This video shows the innards of the WFC without water.
  • Ravi's Stanley Meyer / Dave Lawton Replication Water Fuel Cell video#002] 10seconds,
    • This video shows Freshly filled Tap Water. No other impurities added.
    • Ravi's Stanley Meyer / Dave Lawton Replication Water Fuel Cell video#003] 01min:37
    • This video is after the top is sealed and with an input of 0.5 Amps from the Frequency Generator. Produces really large bubbles (approx from 4mm to 10mm) not like the small ones we see in other videos including Stans setup....which shows a lot of small sized bubbles. You can see this in the video...this goes on from the start of the WFC till you stop after which traces of small bubbles keepleaving the top for about 20 to 30 secs....this is probably the capacitor (WFC) discharging. I have absolutely no idea why im getting large bubbles.
    • Ravi's Stanley Meyer / Dave Lawton Replication Water Fuel Cell video#004] 01min:32
    • Ravi's Stanley Meyer / Dave Lawton Replication Water Fuel Cell video#005] 18sec
    • Ravi's Stanley Meyer / Dave Lawton Replication Water Fuel Cell video#006] 11sec
    • Ravi's Stanley Meyer / Dave Lawton Replication Water Fuel Cell video#007] 01min46sec
      • This was the first and second generation after the leads were changed. The light in these videos is good. These videos are about 5 or 6 days old.
    • Ravi's Stanley Meyer / Dave Lawton Replication Water Fuel Cell video#008] 02min45sec
      • This was the first and second generation after the leads were changed. The light in these videos is good. These videos are about 5 or 6 days old.
    • Ravi's Stanley Meyer / Dave Lawton Replication Water Fuel Cell video#009] 02min39sec
      • I had made this video in the night so the light is not so good, but the volume of gas the WFC makes is very clear. The output also is higher. The collection was for 20 secs....1.31min to 1.51min of the video and the volume of gas collection was @ 160/165CC, even if you take the volume as 150CC with balance as steam and other losses....it amounts to 7.5CC/sec of HHO....thats about 0.45 lits/min (minimum)
    • Ravi's Stanley Meyer / Dave Lawton Replication Water Fuel Cell video#010] 03min09sec
      • I was asked for the voltage and the connections so I made this video and posted it a little before I got the call. I've switched off the left part of the circuit with the switch on the pin 3 of the 555 and you can see that the current draw increases over fourfold and you cant see any pulsing on the right LED. The left LED is connected before the switch on pin 3 as in [D14].
  • Tuning the Frequency of a Dave Lawton replication , not by Ravi RAju] 9min53sec - added 22th August 2007

Aaron Murakami

Aaron Murakami Replicates Stanley Meyer's Water Fuel Cell - Using a plastic pasta jar with stainless steel concentric tubes filled with tap water from his kitchen sink, and no added electrolytes, with an input power of 36 watts (12 volts at 3 amps) pulsed, Aaron produces enormous amount of "Brown's Gas" Stanely Meyer style. (YouTube; Aug. 10, 2007)

I updated the video clip with a few more tidbits of info about what I did: http://www.esmhome.org/library/stan-meyer/wfc.wmv

video on conditioning the tubes...I have 7 tubes setup and in this vid I am putting LESS THAN 10 watts into it. You can see the inner tubes are being coated with the white powder coating. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXRMVZWrgSk

Video on the Bifilar chokes - info taken from tech brief: http://www.youtube.com/v/ozpRNpM6FqM

WFC White Powder Coating on Cathodes - no conductivity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rx2uEsbTt8Y


- - - -

Crux_wfc

Water Fuel Cell Parameters

Physical Cell Construction

The WFC consists of some number of independent sets of concentric tubular electrodes, where the gap between the Outer Tube and the Inner Tube of each set is no larger than 1.5mm.

  • While corrosion is not apparent in a mature operating WFC, it can occur during the cell's initial burn-in phase. Consequently, tubes of the 316L stainless steel alloy are preferred.
  • While welded tubes are less expensive, and can be used for the inner electrode, the outer tube should be extruded, to avoid any inner weld bead which might provide a conductive path to short out the interelectrode gap between them.
  • A thorough cleaning, to include an overnight soak in HaOH (lye) solution has been shown to enhance performance, most likely by dissolving any machine oils picked up on the tube surfaces in shipping (or carbon weld residues).
  • An initial high amperage "burn-in" of 100 hours has appeared to enhance performance as well; this is believed to result from hydrogen loading of the cathode's metal lattice, which changes its electrolytic properties. (See Cold Fusion).
  • In procuring tubes, one generally selects the outer diameters of 3/4" and 1", and adjusts the inner diameter of the outer tubes for the desired interelectrode gap. While a smaller gap is preferable, water flow issues impose practical limitations on this. Some cell designs with forced water flow seek to overcome this limitation.
  • It is believed that there may be acoustic resonance factors participating in the Meyer Effect, as well as electrical. Consequently, tubes are lightly mounted and allowed to vibrate, provided the inner and outer tubes are separated by spacers composed of a high voltage insulative material, such as teflon. When gas production peaks, a characteristic ringing of the tubes is audible; it is not known if this is a cause or effect of the process. (See Theoretical Considerations).
  • A WFC is not grounded, and the cell container itself should be insulated from any conductive path leading to ground.
  • Cell operating characteristics will change with the level of water in the cell; hence, an auto-fill system should maintain the water level on a constant basis as closely as possible.
  • The incremental current draw for each additional tube set in the Cell is less than that which came before, with new tube sets producing an equivalent amount of gas to those previously in the system, consequently, larger arrays are preferable and more efficient.

Pulsar Circuit

The Meyer Waveform
The Meyer Waveform

The frequency generator for the unit will accept straight DC input at 12v/10a, and, produce a variable pulsed output of between 2Khz and 100Khz, in gated pulse trains of 4 to 10 pulses per train, with a variable gate width, enabling a duty cycle which can be throttled down from 90% to 10% during cell operation.

  • Contrary to popular misconceptions, the waveform is not a simple sawtooth wave. It is a ramp of individual square wave pulses, step charging the water capacitor. (See Theoretical Considerations). Each pulse train builds to the point of catastrophic dielectric breakdown, but is interrupted before current can actually flow through the cell.
  • There is no "magic frequency". The optimal frequency in any given circumstance is a function of the specific configuration and dimensions of the cell being used, the water composition and temperature, and other factors. A complete cell will sense its point of resonance, and vary the frequency in realtime to maintain that condition.
  • A relationship is known to exist between the length of the tubes and the frequencies used, which appears to observe the equations for Acoustic Resonance in metal tubes, used in the design of musical instruments, such as organ pipes.
  • While 555 timer MOSFETs have been used successfully, there are indications both from Meyer himself and from the work of independent researchers, that more primitive pulse forming circuits may in fact be better suited to the requirements of the system.
  • The circuit has been found to reach high voltage levels - in excess of 35,000v - in pulses with a duration of under 75 nanoseconds. Initial observations missed this, but faster instrumentation confirmed that multi-kilovolt levels were being achieved by Lawton, and that this is in keeping with Meyer's lectures and writings about his work.
  • The 555 MOSFETs can easily be blown by these high voltage spikes, and may give no outward indication of doing so (no 'snap, crackle, or pop', no discoloration or smoke), where the failure is only detectable if the right pin is being actively monitored. This can lead to researchers finding a 'false negative' result in their experiments. Protecting the timer with a 10v Zener diode is advised; a simple 10a fuse is insufficient.

See also:

Resonant Charging Chokes

Two Inductor Coils, placed on either side of the WFC electrically, amplify and reflect impulses through the Cell, and establish an electrical resonance between them. It is believed that the high voltage potential exchanged between them - which can translate instantaneously - is able to interrupt the flow of current before it crosses the Cell, thus conserving amperage and reducing net energy input requirements.

  • There is a relationship between the size of the RCCs in number of turns, and the length of the tubes in the Cell.
  • It is believed that a detail which Meyer left out of some patents to protect his design may have been the use of bifilar wire in the RCC coils.
  • The optimal coil core material is believed to be an engineering resin emulsion of River Hematite, an iron oxide compound widely found in nature, which various researchers (Lindeman, et al) have found to have superior properties with respect to magentization/demagetization for use in such devices. (See Theoretical Considerations).

Voltage Intensifier Circuit

The Missing Piece: The VIC transformer coils were bifilar
The Missing Piece: The VIC transformer coils were bifilar

The Voltage Intensifier Circuit is a bifilar pancake coil transformer which provides distributed capacitance and inductance to the tube sets in the Cell. Its function is to manage the transfer of potential through the Cell, while inhibiting the passage of current by the circuit.

  • In the WFC, Current performs no work, and is considered counter-productive, and a waste of energy.
  • A perfect WFC would pass no current whatsoever, merely switching massless potential (Voltage) between the electrodes.
  • The challenge is to trigger the sudden catastrophic dielectric breakdown within the Cell, between electrodes, while inhbiting the passage of current between them. When this occurs, all current required to effect the breakdown must be pulled from solution.
  • Meyer left a subtle element out of the patents, to protect his technology; the fact that the VIC coil is wound of bifilar wire, as found in many Tesla devices.

Electron Extraction Circuit

Lamp powered entirely by the Free Electron Current drawn from solution by the EEC
Lamp powered entirely by the Free Electron Current drawn from solution by the EEC

The Meyer Effect is occasioned by the establishment and maintenance of an electron deficit in the water. As the Cell operates, a free electron current develops as two electrons are liberated per water molecule, through first, the ionization and then, the dissocation of each molecule. For this reason, the WFC is a "true" Water Fuel Cell, generating electric power as it operates, the fact that it is also producing fuel gas, notwithstanding. Removing these free electrons is necessary to prevent ionized species from dropping back down to equilibrium, and preventing Hydrogen and Oxygen from recombining back into water before the gases are released from solution. To remove the free electron current from solution, the EEC is incorporated into the Cell, but it is a separate circuit from the rest of the system.

  • The Cell must not be grounded (either intentionally or by inadvertant conductive ground path), or its potential will entrain unwanted electrons from ground, as the EEC operates.
  • The free electron current drawn from solution is substantial and has the ability to perform useful work. Bright incandescent bulbs and muffin fans providing practical cooling have been powered from EEC outputs in WFC experiments. Since this current is necessarily directly proportional to the number of water molecules processed by the Cell, the greater the current which can be extracted, the more combustible gas is produced.
  • That the water carries a strong electrostatic charge is evidenced by visable changes in surface tension, meniscus, froth, and other factors.

Theoretical Considerations

The Meyer Effect has been established through circumstances which expressly exclude the operation of normal electrolysis. The water is not conductive, and no electrolyte is added to increase conductivity. The amperage used is insufficient to produce the gas volumes observed, and, when the effect is evident, there is a relationship between the net voltage (and frequency) reaching the cell, rather than its amperage.

  • All polarity in the Cell is in one direction, at least per tube set, and never crosses the centerline. The objective is to produce the maximum possible unidirectional electrodynamic stress on water molecules within the interelectrode gap, and not allow their reorientation or return to equilibrium.
  • This polarization affects the quantum state of the water molecule, as does photonic (light) input, but to a much greater degree, extending and elongating the electronsphere of the outer valence electrons.
  • Meyer correctly anticipated the work of Scragg, Mills and Santilli, with respect to photokinetic effects, fractional quantum states and magnecular bonding in Hydrogen, and these are all directly relevant to the operation of the WFC.
  • Pulsed potential impacts on the polarized, aligned water molecule not only extend its electronsphere, raising its quantum state, but also affect the photoelectron yield of the water, in effect rendering it more susceptible to photodissociation than it is in a normal ground state. With photon emission occuring from Oxygen upon liberation, the quantum efficiency of photolysis becomes greater than one, with each dissociated water molecule triggering the dissociation of others. The peak absorption point of this photosensitivity is believed to be in the Infrared, around 900nm, which does not correspond with that of normal water, which is in the UV portion of the spectrum.
  • Electrical resonance occurs with in the circuit between the RCC coils and VIC transformer, and also within the Cell, between the tubular electrodes, while there also appears to be an acoustic resonance at work. There may be a phase relationship between these three resonant phenomena.
    • The acoustic factors could be as simple as vibrating gas bubbles loose from the electrode surface faster, thereby exposing more effective surface area per unit time. Whatever else applies, this is probably also happening.
    • Another possibility strongly indicated by the dynamics of the process is that a standing acoustic wave arises between the electrodes, inhbiting ion transport and delaying dielectric breakdown until higher potentials are reached.
    • Other researchers (Keely, et al) have reported phonodissociation of water at various acoustic frequencies, as low as 42.8 Khz; other harmonics may also be possible and at work in this system.
  • Indications are that the VIC and RCC coils in the circuit behave in the same relationship as coils in the Bearden Motionless Electromagnetic Generator, and that currentless potential is switched in an analogous manner, with the water serving as the 'degenerate semiconductor'. The voltage potential is pulsed at rates inside the relaxation time of the water, and similar effects are observed.
  • References in Meyer literature and patents to a self-tuning mechanism may related to physical properties in nature, rather than (or in addition to) a phase-locked loop within the circuit itself. The similarity of the output waveform of other FE/OU devices, i.e. Newman, and the input waveform of the WFC is not coincidental. (See Below)

Image:NEM-WFC.jpg

Harmonics

  • Stanley Meyer Harmonics - Mark Cooper writes: "It came to me the other day. I was reading a book which has nothing to do with technology and I had an epiphany. Stan's device and Bob Boyce's device are the same in operation. They both use harmonics."

Zero Point Energy?

Theoretic comparison of Gray, Meyer and Puharich

  • Article:Free_Electric_Energy_in_Theory_and_Practice - This article contains an in depth explanation of where and how these three inventors got their power, as well as an electric model of a WFC and a description of the different resonant modes possible in WFC's. So, lots of detailled theoretic information about how to build these kinds of systems in principle, even though this is a work in progress.

For More Information

The H2earth Institute continues its work to refine this understanding and translate it into reliable plans which will be available at no cost to the general public as the earliest possible opportunity. If you are an active waterfuel researcher working on the WFC or any other hardware configuration (Boyce, Blue, Hasebe, Han, etc.), you are invited to participate in the Institute's International Research Fellowship Program.

Discussion Lists

Related Projects

  • Closed-Loop Water Fuel Cell - Moray B. King proposes a design that could take advantage of the purported electrolysis overunity systems. His scheme would be a self-running system with a mechanism of extracting the excess energy for practical use.

Related Sites

The Australian website http://waterfuelcell.org is NOT owned or operated by the H2earth Institute or any of its affiliated organizations. However, it contains much valuable information.

Contact

David L. Wenbert, project director
http://www.ryze.com/go/h2earth
H2earth Institute
Washington DC
phone: (pending)
email: H2earth@gmail.com
Skype: dave.wenbert


See also

HYDROGEN, GENERAL

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND STORAGE

HYDROGEN APPLICATIONS

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