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OS:H-Cat Calorimetry

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An open source project


Compiled by Sterling D. Allan
Pure Energy Systems News
March 24, 2014


As far as I can see, the testing of an H-Cat system by Justin Church and Neal Ward should be relatively easy. What we're trying to determine is energy in (electrolysis to create the HHO gas) versus energy out (heat emitted from the catalytic converter), both converted to joules for comparison. This can be done in a simple water bath.

From what I understand, there are two sources of energy out. One is standard catalysis of HHO back to H2O and heat -- nothing surprising there. If this is all that is going on, then the input should match the output, minus any losses inherent in the system, which will be substantial (probably in the range of 50% efficiency at best).

Given the copious amounts of heat observed to be generated (not quantified yet, just based on subjective assessment), and given the ingredients involved, some people are theorizing that something else may be going on as well, such as LENR (aka cold fusion), yielding as much as 10 times more heat out than the energy required to produce the HHO gas.

Think about the ingredients: You have high-energy hydrogen and oxygen in HHO (as demonstrated in thousands of experiments worldwide, including by myself); and in the catalytic converter, you can have nano-palladium, nano-platinum, and nano-nickel -- the ingredients commonly found in LENR systems. As I mentioned the other day, we've found a manufacturer, http://www.thunderboltperformance.com/, who is able and willing (not free) to embed these in pretty much any combination and ratio we want. (They can also embed the matrix around a heat exchanger.) Professor Yeong Kim suggested to also do “blank runs” without any nano-scale metal particles in the matrix of the H-cat.

The present page is to provide simple instructions about how to measure the caloric output of the catalytic converter.

Contents

Measurement Principles

Basically, what you're doing is submerging your air-tight catalytic converter in a water bath, then measuring a change in water temperature (keeping it ~5 ºC below the boiling point [which will vary depending on elevation...] to stay out of the phase change range) while also measuring the energy input to your HHO gas generator.

You want the catalytic converter set-up to be air tight because you don't want water entering the catalytic converter and blocking the matrix reaction sites. The amount of water that accumulates in the bottom of the catalytic converter set-up from HHO going back to H2O should be negligible during the short duration you'll be running the experiment to raise the temperature of the water. You should have an air-tight hose connected to the bottom to allow any gas to escape that makes it through the catalytic converter (will be minimal).

To make the input energy measurement easy, I propose that you get your HHO generator running at a certain setting, and take the voltage and amperage measurement, and leave it at that setting the whole time. When you're ready to start the experiment with the catalytic converter, then hook the HHO gas hose up to the catalytic converter (and be sure to note the time). In scientific experimentation, the idea is to have as few variables as possible. So having a constant gas input rate is important.

If you have access to a gas flow meter, it would be good to have that information, but it is not required to calculate the output heat production. There is a simple and cheap way to make a home-made meter, and you can buy meters inexpensively (~$23 USD).

I would like to do many separate tests, going from low flow rate to high flow rate. I'm guessing the output will be proportionate until the flashback point is reached.

Be sure to notate any backflashes that occur during the experimental run. It would be best to run the gas rate such that backflashes do not occur, unless you're wanting to document the upper end efficiency (or lack thereof).

Another principle is that you'll want to insulate your water bath the best you can, otherwise losses of heat to the surroundings will affect your accuracy because you don't know what those are. I plan on putting thick insulation around the water tub on all sides.

Just a 20 ºC (~40 ºF) change in water temperature from the catalytic converter should be plenty to calculate the energy output per gas input. You don't want to do much more than that because then you'll be working against the ambient temperature difference with the test chamber temperature. You certainly want to stay below the boiling point of water, since you start getting into the phase change point at which point large amounts of energy input are required to raise the temperature just a small amount.

Another principle is that you'll want to have your water sitting at ambient temperature long enough (e.g. overnight, unless you start with warm tap water) to have it equilibrate and at ambient temperature when you start your experiment.

Another principle is that different HHO generators heat up at a different rate. What you want to do is run the generator long enough to reach its stable operating temperature so the fluctuations in input volts and amps stabilize. If you're doing a lot of these kinds of tests, you might want to get an Intelligent TWM, which allows you to set a specific setting for volts and amps to hold it at that current and voltage so it will not fluctuate.

Measurement Protocol Steps

Memo: When taking measurements, often a meter reading will fluctuate up and down. You should record the high and the low, then take the mean as the reading. The extent of fluctuation between the high and low can be significant in some cases.

PART I -- RELAXED SET-UP

  1. In your lab notes, record the important details of the set-up: The HHO generator name/model, catalytic converter source/model, names of people helping with the test, date.
  2. Select a basin that will allow you to submerge your air-tight catalytic converter apparatus so that the forming water does not collect in the substrate during the relatively short-duration test.
  3. Figure out what the "target temperature" of the water is going to be (e.g. ambient plus 20º C or 40 ºF).
  4. Accurately measure the amount of water you put in the basin. Record (with time stamp).
    • TIP: You save yourself some conversion steps in the math if you measure in liters rather than gallons.
    • TIP: If you are using tap water, you could use warm water that is approximately room temperature (run across bottom of wrist for comfort level, or better yet, a thermometer) to speed up time for the water bath temperature to reach ambient temperature.
  5. Have a thermometer that is measuring ambient (room/surroundings) temperature. Record the ambient temperature (with time stamp).
  6. Let the water equilibrate to ambient temperature (e.g. overnight)
  7. Set the basin on insulation (preferably solid foam).
  8. Submerge the catalytic converter in the basin (being sure the submerged components are air-tight) in such a way that the water that will be created from catalysis drips somewhere that doesn't impede the substrate, and that any gas that exits is able to go somewhere and not build pressure.
  9. Put insulation around the remainder of the basin: sides, top, edges. (Make sure you leave a place to access your thermometer.)
  10. (Not optimal) If the water temperature was more than 2 degrees different from ambient temperature, allow some time (e.g. 15 minutes / 2 degrees) for the catalytic converter apparatus to equilibrate in temperature to the water temperature.
  11. Make sure the HHO generator reservoir is at an adequate level.
  12. With the hose disconnected from the catalytic converter, make sure there are no ignition sources in vicinity of the HHO gas hose outlet.
  13. (Preferred) Make sure the water temperature is within 2 degrees of ambient temperature.
  14. Take a photograph/video of the set-up from at least four perspectives: front, back, high, low. You might have a piece of paper with the date and time on it as well to include with the photo.

PART II -- MEDIUM ALERT: HHO WARMUP

  1. Turn on the HHO generator to a setting you want to test. Measure and record (with time stamp) the volts and amps at that setting.
  2. Record the ambient temperature (with time stamp).
  3. Record the water temperature (with time stamp).
  4. (Optional) Measure and record (with time stamp) the flow rate of the gas.
  5. Run the generator long enough (e.g. 15 - 40 minutes) to reach its stable operating temperature so the fluctuations in input volts and amps stabilize (~same reading 5 minutes apart).

PART III -- HIGH ALERT: TEST BEGINS

  1. Note time, to the second, and hook up the HHO tube to the Catalytic converter. Make sure you record this time.
  2. Tighten the connection so it doesn't leak.

PART IV -- MEDIUM ALERT: PERIODIC MEASUREMENTS

  1. Be sure to notate any backflashes that occur during the test, recording the time.
  2. Record water temperature readings every 5 minutes (noting to the second) for half an hour until you get enough readings to chart a line to extrapolate approximately when you will be reaching the "target temperature".
  3. Each time you record a temperature reading, take a look also at the volts and amps reading, and write "same" or ditto in that column, noting when any changes take place.
  4. Record water temperature readings every 15-30 minute until you reach your "target temperature". If your temperature is rising rapidly, you should take the readings more frequently. If it is rising slowly, you can take the readings less frequently.
  5. Record the ambient temperature again (with time stamp).

PART V -- HIGH ALERT: TEST ENDS

  1. When the temperature reaches the "target temperature" +/- 1 ºC, note time and water temperature, to the second. This is "End Temp".
  2. As soon as you can, within a few seconds, turn off the HHO generator. Note in your log the time, to the second, you turned the HHO generator off. This is "End Test".
    • Note: the urgency of turning off the HHO generator is only important if you are running the cool-down testing that follows.

Note: it is far more important that you note the exact temperature and time of the "End Temp" than that you reach the "target temperature" exactly. Reaching the exact "target temperature" is not important, as it is arbitrarily decided.

PART VI -- MEDIUM ALERT: "COOL-OFF CURVE"

(The purpose of these measurements is to 1) catch any residual reactions that might be taking place after the gas flow is turned off, 2) document the effectiveness of your insulation.)
As you take these measurements, endeavor to keep the insulation in place as best you can.

  1. Measure and record (with time stamp) the water temperature every ~15-30 seconds for at least five minutes. (If the highest of these temperature readings is higher than the temperature reading at "End Test", then that temperature should become "End Temp".)
  2. Measure and record (with time stamp) the water temperature every ~30-60 seconds for at least ten minutes.
  3. Measure and record (with time stamp) the water temperature every ~5 minutes for at least half an hour.
  4. Measure and record (with time stamp) the water temperature every ~30 minutes for the next 4-5 hours.
  5. Record the ambient temperature again (with time stamp).

PART VII -- RELAXED: MATH

  1. (Optional) Accurately measure and record (with time stamp) the amount of water that is left in the basin. It should be the same as at the beginning, minus a tiny amount of evaporation.
  2. Tabulate your results, do the math.

Measurement Formulas

"Watt input" will be in the form of kW-h (=3.6 million joules). To calculate it, take amps x volts = watts for each segment of time that the output was constant (+/- 0.5%), then multiply that by the duration of that segment in hours (e.g. 0.36 h) to get W-h. Then add all the segments together to get the total W-h and divide by 1000 to get kW-h.

To convert "Watt input" to joules, use the formula 1 kW-h = 3600000 joules.

Convert "heat output" to joules.

Here are some important formulas with which you can do your math:

  • Joules = 1 watt-second
  • (1 joule = a current of 1 watt for 1 second)
  • 1 kW-h (kilowatt-hour) = 60 seconds x 60 minutes x 1000 [kilo] = 3600000 joules
  • HEAT is measured in Joules or calories (cal).
  • 1 cal = 4.18 joules (1 dietary Calorie = 1000 calories!)
  • A calorie is metric and is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of liquid water (1 ml, 1 cc) by 1 °C.
  • Water weighs 1 kilogram per liter so a US gallon (about 3.78 liters) would weigh 3780 grams. (1 US gallon = 3.78541178 liters)
  • Three significantly different sizes are in use presently: the imperial gallon (≈ 4.546 L) which is used in the United Kingdom, Canada, and some Caribbean countries; the US gallon (≈ 3.79 L), which is used in the US and some Latin American and Caribbean countries; and the least-used US dry gallon (≈ 4.40 L). [Hence, you save yourself some conversion steps if you measure the original volume of water in liters rather than gallons.]
  • Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C) conversion:
    C = 5/9 (F-32)
    F = 9/5 (C+32)


Sample math

Let's say (I'm making these numbers up) that in your output test results, your water increased from 72 ºF (22.2 ºC) to 107 ºF (41.7 ºC) in 180 minutes. And let's say that your water volume was 10.01 US gallons (37.89 liters).

That's a change in temperature of 19.50 ºC.

To get calories, we take 19.5 ºC x 37.89 liters x 1000 ml/liters = 739000 calories (rounding to the third digit for significant figures [level of accuracy]).

To get joules, we multiply this by 4.18 joules/calorie = 3090000 joules.

This is the (hypothetical in this case) measured power output: 3090000 joules.

Time is not a factor in the calorie calculation. It is purely a measure of the energy increase, however fast or slowly it took place. It is a factor in the power input calculation, though.

Let's say (I'm making these numbers up) that in your input test results, the HHO generator was running at 225 Watts for 80 minutes, then moved to 230 Watts for the last 100 minutes of the 180 minutes total test run time.

The power consumption calculation will be (225 Watts x 80 minutes) + (230 Watts x 100 minutes) = 23000 W-minutes

To convert that to kW-h, take 23000 W-m x h/60m x kW / 1000 W = 0.38 kW-h

To convert to Joules, multiply 0.38 kW-h x 3600000 joules/kW-h = 1380000 joules.

This is the (hypothetical in this case) measured power input: 1380000 joules.

The hypothetical efficiency would be 3090000 joules output / 1380000 joules input = 224%.

Other considerations

Bear in mind that we don't know how much heat is being lost to the surroundings. The insulation is far from a perfect containment barrier. The "cool-off curve" will give you somewhat of a measure of the rate of loss to the surroundings. Those with more calorimetry skills may be able to estimate these losses based on those numbers, giving you a closer value of true energy output from the catalytic converter.

When you graph the temperature versus time, it should be linear, if the rate of reaction in the catalytic converter is consistent; but the growing temperature difference between the test chamber and ambient will work against the increasing temperature, so in reality, the line will begin to bend away from straight. Any significant departure from that bent straight line is most likely an indication of measurement error, whether time or temperature.

In the News

  • Featured: News > This Week in Free Energy™ >
    This Week in Free Energy™: May 4, 2014 - Interview: Solar Hydrogen Trends 577 x overunity • YMNEE Resume • H-Cat: output gas goes to zero; flashback creates suction in exhaust; theoretical explanation from Purdue professor; Heat-Loss Accounting Improves the Efficiency Number in First H-Cat Experiment • Mike Waters: Breakthrough Energy and the Basic Physics of Global Recovery • Morocco Achieves QEG Resonance (FreeEnergyNews)
  • Featured: Nuclear > HHO / LENR > H-Cat > Calorimetry > Sterling's > Second Test >
    H-Cat flashback creates suction in exhaust - We waited for the main catalytic reaction to commence, signified by the cessation of bubbling of gasses from the exhaust through water; then we submerged the catalytic converter in the water bath. We kept getting flashbacks, and noticed that the balloon we fastened to the exhaust was collapsing, not expanding during flashback. (PESN; May 1, 2014)
  • Featured: Nuclear > HHO / LENR > H-Cat > Calorimetry >
    H-Cat output gas goes to zero - In measuring the gas after the catalytic converter, we discovered that at first the rate is nearly the same as the incoming gas, then it drops to zero and goes to vacuum as some kind of reaction commences. We also tested the flammability of the exiting gas, and it does not ignite. (PESN; April 30, 2014)
  • Featured: News > This Week in Free Energy™ >
    This Week in Free Energy™: April 26, 2014 - Solar Hydrogen Trends interview • H-Cat amp meter vindication • Aesop Institute's (Solar) Air-Powered Engine • Akula's Resonace Research • Updates: YMNEE; OzzoG • Chukanov's "Great Quantum Dragon" • Cano's QMoGen • Crunk Demonstrates HHO + Natural Gas Set-up • Greer's $100,000 STAR Award • Keshe announces Messiahship • Photoswitches • Velvet Gloves with GPI • Infowars updates (FreeEnergyNews)
  • Featured: Nuclear > HHO / LENR > H-Cat > Calorimetry > First Results >
    H-Cat amp meter vindication - Comparing the Fluke meter to a DC clamp-on meter and an analogue meter, I show that the Fluke does indeed measure DC current accurately once calibrated, even though the display says: "AC"; and that its readout is slightly higher than the DC clamp-on meter, which pushes our efficiency even higher, to 79%, well above the 64% max that classical science predicts for electrolysis and catalysis. [See correction; and second story.] (PESN; April 26, 2014)
  • (The hyperlink is missing because this points to the present page)
    Featured: Featured: Nuclear > HHO / LENR > H-Cat >
    H-Cat Calorimetry Protocol - The testing of an H-Cat system should be relatively easy: energy in (electrolysis to create the HHO gas) versus energy out (heat emitted from the catalytic converter), both converted to joules for comparison. This can be done in a simple water bath. (PESWiki; March 24, 2014)

Credits

  • Special thanks to Justin Church for open sourcing this concept
  • Thanks to Alan Smith of the UK for providing the basic math
  • Thanks to the manufacturer, http://www.thunderboltperformance.com, for supplying us with our first non-insulated catalytic converter to test.
  • Thanks to Frank Crowther for helping with our first build.
  • Thanks to George Wiseman for talking through various relevant facets of HHO.
  • Thanks to the many others who contributed to the brain trust.

Contact

http://pureenergysystems.com/about/personnel/SterlingDAllan/#Contact

See also

H-CAT

HHO FOOTER

LENR FOOTER:

LEADING LENR COMPANIES:

RELATED:

- Other Open Source Projects
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- PES Network Inc.

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