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Directory:Sully Direct Current

In process of discovering new ways to do electrolysis, inventor John Timothy Sullivan claims to have derived a new current type: not DC, not AC but SDC -- Sully Direct Current. Critics say it is not new and it is not a third type of current.

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Efficiency

On June 12, 2006, John T. Sullivan wrote by email:

"I will be publishing efficiencies soon."

How it Works

Source http://www.sullydc.com/drawing.html - (THIS LINK FAILS)

Close switch SW1 and SW2 On/Off 180 degrees out of phase with SW3 and SW4 continuously.

The result is a revering multi-directional current that flows in parallel or in series through electrodes from Left to Right and then Right to Left, without reversing the supply polarity. A multi-directional current will result between at least two electrodes. "Sully Direct Current" (SDC) is described as electrical current that flows for an Interval of time in one direction and then in the opposite direction; that is, one or more current paths flowing in alternately reversed directions through or around a circuit. The supply voltage polarities (+) and (-) of electrodes remain constant, same as a DC battery. The polarities within the anode and cathode are alternating, reversing to change current directions. The Voltage is measured in Sully Volts®. The current is measured in Sully Direct Current (SDC). Power is measured in SullyWatts®. John T. Sullivan, Inventor (Patent Pending [as of the time of the creation of the illustration]) (All rights reserved, 2006).

- - - -

On June 21, 2006, User:ArchAngel wrote:

Lets use figure 12 from the patent for discussion to avoid confusion:

QUOTE
From the Patent:
The multi-directional electric currents have the effect of accelerating processes that rely on interaction between a current and the medium that carries the current, and of eliminating asymmetries that can lead to scaling or premature wear in batteries and other electrolytic systems. The medium that carries the multi-dimensional currents may be an electrolyte, gas, gel, semiconductor, or any other medium capable of carrying current between two electrodes, and having at least two dimensions so as to enable variation in the current direction.
...................................
If the voltages applied to the electrodes are DC voltages, then the multi-directional currents have characteristics of DC currents, and if the voltages applied to the electrodes are two or three phase AC voltages, then the multi-directional currents have characteristics of AC currents. However, unlike conventional DC and AC currents, the currents generated by the method and apparatus of the invention move or rotate. If the electrodes are one-dimensional wires, then the currents rotate in two-directions. If the electrodes themselves move, or extend over two or three-dimensions, for example a plane or a curved plane, then the currents will move in three-dimensions.

______________________

END QUOTE

SDC requires at least one extra PHYSICAL dimension in the current path which is the fluid electrolyte[Water + Electrolyte]. Through wires you can only have AC or DC in their various forms. SDC has characteristics that are found in both AC and DC that would seem to be mutally exclusive, and they are in a single dimensional circuit.

In figure 12 you see two wires. One is connected to the two positive terminals, and the other to the two negative terminals. The four switches are alternated 180 degrees out of phase. In the first half of the cycle current flows from one pole through the wire, then through the coil to all points where conductor is touching the fluid medium, then across the medium to the other wire, and on to the opposing pole. At no time are there any more than two poles with a switch closed. In the second half of the cycle the current path is the same except that its coming from the opposite end of the wire.

Think of the coil as having two single dimensional connections, and one multi-dimensional connection. Through the connection between the two power supply poles you have AC current without changing polarity. Through the connection between the poles and the medium you have DC current[in single dimensional terms. Actually its SDC].

Through the coil the direction of the current flow changes, but polarity never changes. Through the medium the current flow between anode and cathode never reverses, but its physical direction through the medium does change. It sort of sways back and forth without reversing direction. In absolute terms using one dimensional measurments you have continuous DC current flow between anode and cathode. It has all the properties of DC, but since the current flow though the medium is changing directions the current takes on the magnetic properties of AC current.

You only need to change the direction, not reverse directions.

This new dimension also carries the time component which you could not see in single dimensional continuous DC current.

It is DC with properties normally associated with AC.

And it is AC with properties normally associated with DC.

The effect cannot be reproduced with AC or DC. The properties are mutually exclusive in those systems. The new physical dimensions in the circuit allows the current to possess additional electrical properties.

X Bridge DC Compared to X Bridge SDC

On June 17, 2006, John T. Sullivan said:

Replace the SDC drawing with this new one I think it should clear things up.

Coiled electrode

Illustrates what is going on in the circuit more clearly.

Critique: This is an H-Bridge, not an X-Bridge

Received by email June 19, 2006.

Dear Mr. Sullivan

First, what you have labelled as an "X" bridge in figures 1 and 2 is in fact an "H" bridge. I remind you again that an "H" bridge and an "X" bridge are distinct circuit configurations. An "X" bridge would have one path between switches 1 and 2, and a separate path between switches 3 and 4. Ie two resistors or two coils.

Your figures 3-6 are all nonfunctional as drawn.

Figure 3:

Specify any parameters for the magnetics that you like.

There is at all times zero potential across the primary of "R1". It is always connected to "+" through some impedance between zero and infinity. "R1" is depicted as a perfect transformer. In circuit theory only flux linkages connect the primary and secondary of an ideal transformer. Flux linkages require AC current in one or the other coil. AC current requires some AC potential across one or the other winding. No such AC potential is shown.

Consequently, there is zero DC and zero AC current across either primary or secondary and zero flux linkage between the two. As drawn this circuit does precisely nothing. If you wish to add more circuit elements to represent something else then you need to do so.

Figure 4:

Same situation as Figure 3 with the switches reversed.

Figure 5:

Same as Figure 3, but with two transformers that do nothing.

Figure 6:

Same as figure 5 with a new transformer that never sees any current, AC or DC.

As drawn, your schematic figs 3-6 inclusive are completely non- fucntional. They are also not representative of the figure on your web site. If you wish to draw a schematic that is representative of what is on your web-site, then I will happily annotate same and demonstrate that it is EXACTLY the "X" bridge / three-way lamp switch scheme I have described, no more and no less. The coils that you have inserted do not alter this indisputable fact. They do however refute your claims of DC potential as shown in the drawing on your web site.

Penny Gruber <pennies_everywhere {at} hushmail.com>

Patents

• US 7,041,203; Apparatus and method for generating and using multi-direction DC and AC electrical currents; John Timothy Sullivan; May 9, 2006.
Abstract
Multi-directional currents are generated in a medium by cyclically reversing the direction of a conventional current applied to at least one of at least two electrodes so that an electromotive force (EMF) pulse travels from side of the electrode to the other, changing the direction of current in the medium. The multi-directional currents may be used to accelerate electrolytic processes such as generation of hydrogen by water electrolysis, to sterilize water for drinking, to supply charging current to a battery or capacitor, including a capacitive thrust module, in a way that extends the life and/or improves the performance of the battery or capacitor, to increase the range of an electromagnetic projectile launcher, and to increase the light output of a cold cathode light tube, to name just a few of the potential applications for the multi-directional currents.
• US 6,890,410; Apparatus for converting a fluid into at least two gasses through electrolysis; John Timothy Sullivan; May 10, 2005.
Abstract
An electrolysis conversion system for converting liquid to gas, such as water into hydrogen and oxygen, includes a housing in which are housed encapsulated and non-encapsulated electrodes in any one of side-by-side, rolled or folded relationship. The electrodes are immersed in an electrolyte, water or the like and are appropriately electrically connected to positive and negative sides of an energy source. The encapsulation material of the encapsulated electrodes can be substantially conductive or non-conductive to either ion flow or electron flow and either substantially non-porous or porous to gas bubbles with the option of utilizing spacers to prevent arcing and thereby generate hydrogen and oxygen from the water/electrolyte. The encapsulating media is either a folded flexible sheet heat sealed along three edges, two sheets heat sealed along four edges, a tube heat sealed along opposite axial edges or a coating dip-coated, electro-deposited, silk screen coated or similarly applied to the electrode which is preferably porous and can either be rigid or relatively bendable/flexible.

In the News

• The Third Electrical Current - A US Patent has been awarded for the Sully DC current, which is not AC nor DC. Discovered in as part of new a electrolysis technique. (PESN; June 12, 2006)

Europe Interested; U.S. Silent

On June 12, 2006, John T. Sullivan said the following in an email:

"I was told by academia that they would not acknowledge the new electrical current until I gave a 45 minute lecture and submitted a white paper for peer review. My response was, 'I don't remember Edison requiring a permission slip for the light bulb.' I've been invited to give a lecture in September, I'm considering it. For now the Patent office will do. The European press is covering it and the US press will not return calls."

Critics

Phenomena is not new

On June 12, 2006, Cristina Quesnel, electonics professor at Petropolis Catholic University has this to say about the third current.

"The third current is not new because it is already used in microwave technology. Any device has direct and reverse current at the same time because the frequency is very high. When the frequency is high the wavelengh is very short and the device permits reverse current because the wavelength is shorter than the device. The antenna is very small. That is why we need to match the antenna with the circuit because if not, then the reverse current will burn the power supply."

Rebuttal:
On June 12, 2006, John Sullivan provided the following response:

"Back to the drawing board Professor. This is not a microwave reduction in (F). No aentena required."

Evolution of the Theory

• The Evolution of "Sully DC" claims - The "Sully DC" claims are evolving, and now incorporating ideas and concepts I and others used here on BAUT to try to explain what was going on as their own, and more reason why this is some new and wonderous thing. (Bad Austronomy; June 21, 2006)

Looks like hype

New Energy Congress Advisor, Ken Rauen gave the following assessment on June 12, 2006.

"I looked at this months ago and thought it was only hype. The 'inventor' wants to make a name for himself. No use or new display of Nature is given."

Classic X Bridge

The following comment was receved by email on June 13, 2006.

Patent 7,041,203 is premised on a number of misconseptions. Current flow changes in response to EMF, voltage.

Sullivan claims that "current is applied to" one or more electrodes. EMF (voltage) may be applied between electrodes and cause currents to flow through the path formed. The path can include the vacuum of space. This is the miracle articulated by Maxwell's famous equations.

Sullivan's switching apparatus does not create a new type of current. Sullivan's circuit is readily reduced to a variation on a classic circuit known as an "X" bridge. "X" bridges are commonly used in power electronics applications, such as solenoid drivers.

In its simplest form, an "X" bridge consists of four switches arranged with two on the left and two on the right. The upper switches connect to +, and the lower switches connect to -. This is identically, SW1/SW3 on the left and SW4/SW2 on the right of the Sullivan drawing published. In an "X" bridge application, one load is placed between the upper left and lower right switch, and another load is placed between the lower left and upper right switch. The load in Sullivan's case is merely the water that he is disassociating.

Redraw Sullivan's schematic with the water in each cell represented as the resistor that it is and it becomes obvious that Sullivan's contraption is nothing more than a classic "X" bridge. You can buy "X" bridge circuits off the shelf. All that Sullivan has done is to replace what is nominally a first coil from upper left to lower right, and a second from lower left to upper right with a set of parallel resistors from top to bottom. The patent examiner got snowed.

Reduce the drawing to just one cell to start. What you see is that during the first phase voltage is applied from SW1 to SW2 and current flows through the wires and water to complete the circuit + from SW1 to - at SW2. During the second phase the path is from SW4 to SW3. ( All following positive current convention.) This is a simple and ordinary AC circuit. Adding the extra cells just creates more circuit branches. It does not change the basic operation.

While it may be useful to employ AC current in electrolysis, (for example to prevent cathodic erosion) that is the full extent of what Sullivan is doing. It is neither new, nor unique. Sullivan has not invented a new form of electricity.

REBUTTAL:

On June 13, 2006, John T. Sullivan responded:

I wish I had more time to respond to the critics, but my short stay is too valuable to waste. I think the smart Engineers at the Patent office knows what an bridge circuit is and is not. "If more time was spent building new Idea's than tearing them apart we would all be better off". The H bridge reverses the polarity of the anode and cathode electrodes to change current direction by swapping the (+) and (-) electrodes . I'm changing the polarity within the Anode and Cathode without swapping the physical Anode and Cathode to get a change in current direction, that's the differences. Where you've missed the point, I have a polarity reversal within the electrode without turning an anode into a cathode or vise versa, that is new art. The Anode remains an Anode and the Cathode remains a Cathode. Using a DC power supply the current measured between two or more cells is AC, the Voltage measured between at the Anode and Cathode is DC. This is now known as (SDC) Sully Direct Current. The current between cells can be stepped up or down using a transformer.
On June 13, 2006, New Energy Congress member, Greg Watson replies:
In your patent claims you clearly state there is a change in current direction in the medium, the electrolyte, between the cathode and anode. That doesn't happen."

Rebuttal to Greg Watson:

The current does change direction, but it does not reverse direction. You must consider the extra physical dimensions of the fluid medium. Please read the patent more closely. The destination of the ions changes as the cycle advances so the current will sort of wave back and forth and/or spin. Multi-dimensional current allows electrical properties that are mutually exclusive with AC and DC. While the strange behavior of current through a multi-dimensional path is known the concept of controling it and using it in this method is unique to me. I would like to see similar examples if there are any.

Complex Variant of Simple, Existing Theory

On June 13, 2006, New Energy Congress member, Robert Indech, PhD PE, responded to the above Classic X Bridge comment and rebuttal as follows:

I have no doubt that the measurements that John Sullivan has made on his cell indicate a time variation of potential corresponding to a periodic reversal. Application of the external voltage will produce electrolytic dissociation, somewhat irrelevant of the characteristics of the electrodes themselves in the solution, as long as this external voltage as referenced to the electrodes exceeds the difference in work functions of the electrodes if they are of differing material. If the electrodes are indeed chemically dissimilar, then removal of the external voltage will still give rise to a measured potential in the configuration shown, as one has essentially 3 electrolytic cells wired together. Further, time changing the appliciation of the external voltage will modify this measured potential, causing each electrolytic cell to act as both a battery at one time(depending on the instantaneous potential applied across its electrodes) and a capacitor at a different time (depending upon the chemical potential of the electrolytic fluid and the physical configuration of the cell). The results are not unpredictable, but they are complex, particularly if one switches the external potential source so that the individual electrodes see a potential modified by a previous load.

The metered measurements of current and potential can certainly be analyzed by existing simple theory, modified by predictable electrochemistry.

My major question is: why? The device is not over-unity and has no value as either a pure battery or electrolytic capacitor.

Contact

John T. Sullivan
Marriottsville, Maryland, USA
email: jsinvent@aol.com