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Paul Lowrance research on the TEM – T-ray Energy Mover
Far Infrared Radiation (FIR) energy extraction methods at room temperature
- Basic introduction on the science of how all matter radiates electromagnetic waves in the far infrared region; e.g., 450+ watts per square meter -- aka T-rays (THz rays). Includes very basic experiment to verify this well known and understood science.
- Open Source
- The information on these pages is public domain under the GNU Free Documentation License. This information may be used by anyone to create and/or sell any new device as long as they allow anyone to freely duplicate, improve, and/or sell any such device as they wish.
- This Thermodynamics project was commenced publicly on July 26th 2006.
THIS PAGE IS LOCKED FROM EDITING. If you have a change to recommend, then please contact me. If you are doing research in this field then please add to the Research and Development Questions web page.
This page is linked from Foundation
* All matter radiates electromagnetic wave energy in the far infrared region regardless if it is light or complete darkness.
* A flat two sided surface, measuring one meter by one meter, made of good black body material (emissivity near 1.0) at room temperature (300 K) placed in complete darkness radiates over 900 watts (over 450 watts per side).
* An object if placed far in outer space appreciably away from the Sun and other objects will rapidly decrease in temperature. Reason being the object is radiating energy.
* It is possible to collect such radiation.
* Most of such radiation is in the far infrared range between 5 THz and 50 THz.
* Such THz radiation can be focused with lenses and mirrors. This is old technology.
* When you focus such room temperature radiation onto a smaller area of good black body material then the material will become hotter than room temperature.
* Such an object that is hotter than room temperature has potential energy due to a temperature difference between the object and room temperature. For example, a Sterling engine is capable of extracting such potential energy and converting it into electricity.
Consider the room that surrounds you, even the air. All this matter contains atoms that are vibrating. Even the electrons are traversing at incredible speeds to an average of within 1/200th the speed of light. Present science has proven that matter contains at least E = mc^2 energy. So the energy is there. It is simply a matter of extracting it.
It is a well-known fact all matter at room temperature radiates electromagnetic waves. At room temperature these waves are called T-rays and reside in the Far Infrared spectrum. "T" is short for THz. One THz is 1,000,000,000,000 oscillations per second. Consider one square foot of material that is a good absorber of T-rays such as water. This one square foot of water radiates about 450 watts of electromagnetic waves. The water does not need to be very thick. Five mills should be thick enough. One mill is 1/1000 of an inch.
So how do we collect these T-rays. One problem is that a good collector / absorber of T-rays is also a good radiator. Essentially, the collector would also be radiating about 450 watts per square foot. So the collector would be losing the same amount of energy that it collects. Therefore, the T-rays need to be focused into a smaller area. Once the T-rays are focused into a smaller area then the collector will become hotter. This means the collector is absorbing more T-rays than it's radiating. As the collector increases in temperature it will also begin to radiate more energy. Eventually an equilibrium is reached where the collector radiates the same amount of energy that it receives.
Lets say the collector, in a vacuum, reaches 590 K and room temperature is 295 K. As you know, it is very easy to collect energy from two surfaces that are at different temperatures. So how much energy can we collect from this temperature difference? Below is a simple math equation:
energy efficiency = (1 - Tc / Th) * 100%
Tc is the cold side and Th is the hot side, which gives us 50% efficiency. So our water will continue to emit about 450 watts all day, all week, all year non stop and our collector will remain over 590 K. To collect that energy we could use solid state such as "Power Chip" or even a Sterling engine. So the sterling engine will continually remove energy from the collector, which will tend to cool down the collector somewhat to say 500 K. Just to give you an idea how much less energy 500 K radiates than 590 K, 590 K will radiate about 87% more energy than 500 K. The amount of radiated energy is relative to T^4. If the temperature doubles then it radiates 16 times more energy. So in the end, we may only get 40% efficiency.
How to focus THz radiation
THz radiation is easily focused with special lenses and mirrors. A common THz lense is made of Picarin. Additionally most metals will reflect THz radiation.
Is this science fiction?
It sounds too good to be true. Yet it is very simple science. NASA knows very well just how much energy matter radiates. Place a half way decent black body radiator in the shade of outer space and it quickly cools. One might think, "but what good does placing a piece of material in outer space do me?" Anyone can verify this on Earth by following the below example:
How to verify this basic science:
1. Take the following device far away from any city at night on a clear night, no clouds, above the smog layer. This means you will need to go to a high mountain. We need to get away from smog, clouds, and any large object that is above the device.
2. Place a good T-ray black body radiator material that has low heat capacity in a good vacuum. The purpose of the vacuum is to signficantly reduce thermal conductivity leakage. I recommend the material be at least 2 feet by feet wide. It does not have be thick. One millimeter thickness should be enough. Make sure the vacuum container does not absorb any appreciable T-rays.
3. Place an IR heater near the material, but outside the vacuum, while measuring the materials temperature with an IR Temperature Gun. The IR Temperature Gun is also outside the vacuum. We want to re-heat the material back to room temperature because the materials temperature will decrease when we create the vacuum by removing the air.
4. Turn off the IR heater and move it far away from the device when the material reaches room temperature and stand back about 20 feet.
5. Watch the materials temperature decrease by watching the IR Temperature gun.
Note, the purpose of the vacuum is to signficantly reduce thermal conductivity leakage.
Example image of the device:
Example of IR Temperature gun, which measures the temperature:
Example of IR Temperature heaters, which radiates IR:
What will happen is that the material will radiate T-rays into outer space. The top side of the material will radiate X watts and the bottom side of the material will also radiate X watts. This is total of 2X watts being radiated from the material. The earth also radiates T-rays. So the bottom part of the material will absorb X Watts. So the material absorbs X watts, but radiates 2X watts, which is why the material will cool down.
It is true that the Earth is also cooling down as the ground, trees, etc. are radiating into outer space. This in itself is proof that the device will work. The difference being that the Earth also needs to lower the temperature of the atmosphere and the device does not. Additionally, the device should be made of a better FIR black body radiator than Earth. You should use material for the black body radiator that has low heat capacity. Water is a good FIR black body radiator, but has high heat capacity and is therefore not a good choice. The goal is find material that radiates a lot of FIR and does not hold a lot of energy (heat capacity). Such a material will quickly drop in temperature faster than Earth so that you can easily see the effect.
To maximize the effect you will want to go to the top of the highest mountain in the area. Even though there might be another mounter that is far away, it is still a large object and could radiate enough T-rays on top of the device. Also there cannot be any trees or rocks that is above the device. It is no problem if the tree is above the device and far away, say 100 yards or more. Although if there is a forest of trees then just to be safe you should make sure the device is above the forest.
You can use an IR Temperature Gun to watch the black body material temperature decrease from room temperature.
- Make sure you have a good vacuum. The purpose of the vacuum is to help eliminate thermal conductivity. There will still be thermal conductivity. Even the best vacuum sealed windows are only R30 rated. Do not expect a perfect vacuum.
- When you remove the air from the container, there will be a decrease in temperature. Do not confuse this with a temperature drop from thermal radiation. This is why you will need to heat the material that is inside the vacuum with IR (Infrared Radiation) to room temperature. Once the material reaches room temperature then you will remove the IR heater and you can then watch the materials temperature decrease as it radiates energy into space.
- Make sure the vacuum container itself does not absorb any appreciable T-rays.
- Make sure there is no appreciable ground/earth or any object in line of sight of the top part of the material. This includes any object such as trees, rocks, mountains, smog. Remember, you really want to get high and away from Earth. A nearby mountain that is above the material will radiate T-rays on to the material.
- Make sure you are on top of the smog layer. This means you need to go to a tall mountain.
- Make sure you stand at least 20 feet away from the device after you move the IR heater away. Your body radiates a great deal of T-rays.
- Make sure the IR Temperature Gun is not too close to the material. This could be difficult. Your IR Temp Gun will specify the sensing angle. You want the gun to only sense the black body material, but you want the gun to be appreciably away from the material. That's why your black body should be appreciably larger than the IR Temp gun. What you do not want is for the IR Temp Gun to block any appreciable T-rays. Also, the IR Temp Gun will be lightly hotter than room temperature, meaning it will radiate even more T-rays on to the black body material.
- Make sure the vacuum pressure stabilizes and does not fluctuate.
- Make sure your black body material has low heat capacity. Water for example is a good black body material (radiates a lot of FIR), but requires a large release of energy to lower the temperature. Therefore water is not a good choice of material for this experiment.
For even better results you could place T-ray reflecting material below the black body radiating material so as to help reflect even more T-rays into outer space.
Note that Earth radiates T-rays. This is why the dark side of Earth cools down. If it were not for this simple fact then Earth would eventually heat up like a hot coal. The above device operates the same way as Earth does. The intention is to radiate more heat from the device than it receives, thereby making the material cold. This in itself is a source of free energy.
Materials in Reference
THz radiation is very easy to focus. Materials such as Picarin are commonly used as THz lenses.
THz radiation can also be reflected from materials such as metal.
THz imaging and Spectroscopy:
The above is based on hardcore well-accepted and proven science.
Power Chip: http://www.powerchips.gi
Stirling engines: http://www.freeenergynews.com/Directory/StirlingEngine/
This page continues to Details
Q & A
On July 28, 2006, New Energy Congress member, Ken Rauen said:,
- "[This concept] is flawed, despite its claim of being based upon thoroughly accepted science. The flaw is in concentrating ambient radiation. How do you concentrate something that is randomly emitted?"
First I will address Ken's quote, "The flaw is in concentrating ambient radiation." Ambient radiation is electromagnetic radiation caused by vibrating charges in matter at room temperature. Such radiation is in the FIR (Far Infrared Radiation) range, which are T-rays (THz rays). It is well know that such radiation is easily focused using lenses and/or mirrors. One common THz lense material is Picarin. See the references above on Picarin THz lenses. Similarly THz radiation is reflected by metals. Therefore ambient radiation can be concentrated.
Second, I will address Ken's quote, "How do you concentrate something that is randomly emitted?" Radiation coming from the Sun is also random; i.e., it is not coherent radiation. Yet, solar panels collect energy from Sun radiation. All matter radiates T-rays at room temperature. As previously stated, a good black body radiator such as water emits about 450 watts per square yard. This 450 watts is continues never ending stream of energy. It is caused by countless charged particles. So we are not talking about a few bursts of energy per second. We are talking about a lot of photons. How many photons? Lets take a look at the energy equation for a single photon:
E = hf
where E is energy in joules, h is Planck's constant, and f is frequency. So the energy in a single 20 THz photon is:
6.6E-034 * 20E+12 = 1.32E-020 J
which is 1.32E-020 watts in one second
If our one square foot panel emits 450 watts at room temperature then we have the following photons per second:
450 W / 1.32E-020 W = 3.4E+022 photons
So 450 watts from one square foot of material emits 3.4E+022 photons per second. That means we will have a continuous stream of energy.
We collect that energy by focusing the T-rays into a smaller area, which means the material must become hotter to reach thermal equilibrium. There are numerous methods of collecting energy from a surface that is hotter than room temperature. This is a method of collecting energy 24 hours per day, 365 days per year non-stop.
Every cubic inch of space on Earth contains T-rays and *any* given time. The odds of there not being a T-ray is far greater than I can calculate; i.e., it is safe to say there will always many T-rays in every cubic inch of space. So then what part of T-rays are random. T-rays, along with Sun light is not coherent radiation. Meaning the electromagnetic waves are not in sync. A laser beam is coherent radiation. As stated, coherent radiation is not a requirement to absorb and collect energy. Solar panels are a prime example of this.
Is this science fiction? Please scroll upwards to the section titled, "Is this science fiction."
Ken Rauen's response:
I apologize for missing some useful information. I was confused about randomness of the EM radiation and its ability to be concentrated. You are right that lenses can be used.
See Discussion page