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Directory:Light Emitting Diodes

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Directory of technologies and resources relating to LEDs.

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have been around for years. The LED was first created by Oleg Vladimirovich in 1927 but had no practical use until 1962 when Nick Holonyak, Jr. created the visible red LED. He discovered that the wavelengths of GaAs could be converted from infrared to visible spectrum. Today, many people are familiar with the scrolling signs and clocks that use LED technology to provide information. Recent developments indicate that LEDs might someday replace light bulbs. This is desirable because LEDs may become much more efficient than light bulbs, which would save tremendous energy on the consumption end of the equation. Using electricity more efficiently will become especially important if oil runs low and we turn into a mainly electric-based economy for our transportation needs.

Unlike ordinary incandescent light bulbs, LEDs don't have a filament that will burn out, and they don't get especially hot. They are solid state (no moving parts), illuminated solely by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material, and they last just as long as a standard transistor (which is many times longer than a traditional light bulb).

Several products are beginning to emerge, but the cost factor is still much too great to see them emerge into the general landscape of energy appliances.

Contents

Overviews

  • Lighting > LED >
    Affordable, High-Performance LED Bulbs Finally Hitting the Market - Major lighting companies are working tirelessly towards becoming the first to own the LED market. In the next few months, 60-watt equivalent bulbs in the $30 - $40 price range will be hitting the shelves. In comparison, just two years ago, a 60-watt equivalent cost $90 and a 100-watt dimmable bulb went for $360. (EcoGeek; May 18, 2010)

Companies

  • Lighting > LEDs >
    The World's Greatest Light Bulb(?) - Switch Lighting claims to have solved the problems associated with compact fluorescent bulbs with their LED bulbs. Their 75-Watt bulb equivalent draws 16 Watts, lasts 20 times as long as an incandescent, and costs $20. (Slate; July 5, 2011)
  • Sharp introduces color changing LED light bulbs - Sharp Corporation has just announced an LED globe that includes a remote-controlled, adjustable-color function and a dimmer. But in this context, when you see the word "color" don't think rainbow, thing various shades of white, from warm white to daylight light. (GizMag; June 17, 2009)
  • Purple Mountain Lighting - Providing long lasting LED light fixtures that save energy and which do not produce harmful ultraviolet light rays.
  • Ctronic Lighting Inc. - We are the High Power LED manufacturer and offer wide range products from MR16 , PAR30/38 , Recessed Light , Street Light & Flood Light.

At Ctronic Lighting, we have close association with world’s third-largest server solution company which adapt expert technologies into High Power LED solutions including the drive, design structure, heat dissipation, thermal conductivity, optics, system integration and stability. We had total 59 patents pending and certified by UL, ETL, CE, FCC, TUV LVD and ISO 9001.For more information about our products give us a call at toll free : 1-800-805-1668 for further assistance.


  • Foshan Satardust Lighting Co. Ltd - Stardust Lighting is a leading manufacturer of LED lighting and emerging as leading-edge revolutionary LEDs lighting solutions and specializes in developing the most advanced LEDs products in the South China.
  • Gaia Lights - Constructed from durable quality plastics/glass/stainless steel and featuring quality proven technology, competitive range of reliable solar lighting products. Simple strong designs suit all styles of garden and give up to a maximum of 10 hours mood enhancing light when fully charged.
  • $79-Dollar LED Light Bulb - The 7-watt EcoLED white bulb replaces a 75-watt regular bulb. It is said to last 50,000 hours and saves you nearly $350 in electricity over its life while reducing CO2 emissions by nearly 7,000 pounds compared to regular light bulbs. (Better Life Goods; 2007)
  • Cyberlux - Cyberlux’s lighting systems are less expensive than conventional bulbs or tubes by 200% in total cost of ownership. They consume 92% less energy than incandescent bulbs and 30% less than fluorescent. Cyberlux is developing Hybrid Organic/Inorganic white-light LEDs that would both cost substantially less to manufacture and provide more light than conventional LEDs.
  • Carmanah Technologies Corporation - Solar-powered LED lighting and illumination products can significantly reduce on-grid energy use and operate reliably year round with little or no maintenance. Products available for airfield markers, obstructions, marine navigation, railways, hazard marking, roadway signals, bus stops and shelters.
  • The LED Light Inc LEDs in 120/240vac Bulbs
  • Eternaleds Inc Sells a wide range of LED Light Bulbs with real-world comparison photos for all products.
  • superbrightleds - LED 12 volt car bulbs, household Edison base bulbs, utility lights, flashlights
  • Lighting Science Group - Optimized Digital Lighting technology is efficient - up to 80% less energy and lasting up to 50 times longer than incandescent bulbs. LED light bulbs, LED candles.
  • Sundance Solar Products - 120 Volt AC LED Replacement Household Light Bulbs
  • Brodwax LED Lighting - LED light fixtures, retrofit light bulb replacements
  • Canada LEDs - Lamps, strip lighting, flashlights, strip lighting, ceiling lights
  • LEDtronics - Mission Statement: To Replace Energy Wasting Lighting With World Class Environmentally Responsible LED bulbs and Products.
  • EarthLED - EarthLED offers the most varied selection of direct replacement LED Light Bulbs in the industry.
  • BlueStar Lighting - Utah company is producing an incandescent-replacement bulb that will cost around $50.00. With energy savings, the ROI is around five years. (Deseret News; May 4, 2008)
  • IntenCity Lighting - The IntenCity LED Streetlight replaces 100 watt High Pressure Sodium luminaires for half the energy. It is maintenance free, has a long life and reduces light trespass and glare.
  • Lighting Science Group - Energy efficiency. Environmental responsibility. Economic value. That's the Lighting Science EcoAdvantage. They provide the quality of light that improves people's lives … and making a meaningful impact on our environment and our future.
  • Lamina Ceramics LED light sources of various sizes, colors and strengths.
  • Marktech Optoelelctronics - LEDs & LED Drivers.
  • SELED - a new product line of warm color leds that can be used for indoor and outdoor lighting.
  • TIR Systems - Lexel™ is the first fully integrated and seamless LED-based light source technology. It has been designed for easy integration and is equivalent to lamp+ballast+socket. It provides controllable illumination, precise light output and color, and dramatic savings, with the potential to use up to 80% less energy than conventional light sources.
  • C. Crane Company for LED Light Bulbs
  • Ablamp Ltd - LED Floodlight bulb saves money and energy. Replace your energy-sapping incandescent floodlights with the. PAR30 Spotlight Bulb Long Life: 100,000Hours Easy Installation Using Existing Socket,low cost maintenance, power saving No flickering effect,Ideal replacement for halogen lamps.
  • SuperBulbs - Unlike other LED bulbs that have very dim light (like a night light, or fun light, or party light) or have a beam output (like a flashlight) or have unpleasing colors (like bluish tinge), SuperBulbs™ have light like a traditional bulb. They fill the room with a pleasant, naturally dispersed light.
  • Go Green LED Bulbs Go Green LED Bulbs provides a wide variety of LED bulbs to save energy and cut down electricity bills. From appliance bulbs, to general purpose lights, to security flood light bulbs Go Green LED Bulbs provides the most advanced LED bulb technology for your entire house.
  • Greenshine New Energy LLC Greenshine New Energy LLC. Specializes in developing and manufacturing customized solar outdoor lighting with energy-saving LED lighting fixtures.

Cost Comparison

This cost comparison is for informational purposes only. It is intended to demonstrate how LED lights could save money and be practical in real world applications. It will be modified as the actual costs of traditional lighting vs. LED lighting is further refined.

Let's say a traditional 60 Watt light bulb costs $1 and requires replacement every 9 months (the cost of the new bulbs will rise over time). But, an equivalent 60 Watt LED costs $12 and requires replacement every 10 years (realistic from what I've read). That means you'd have to buy 13 light bulbs in that period at a cost of $13. So, just on the equipment costs you'd save $1 with LEDs. Then factor in a LED 60 Watt light that uses 1/6th the electricity (not yet available, but possible in the future as the recent RIT announcement demonstrates) and you're talking about real savings.

Note: Currently LED lights use about half the energy that is used in traditional incandescent lighting. That's not even as efficient as compact fluorescent lighting, which is why LEDs have been slow to be adopted into the marketplace. The exception is for colored lighting, where incandescent lights must be fitted with color filters which waste most of the light. Single color LED's emit only the desired light, so they can be 5 times as efficient as filtered incandescent lighting. LED's are quickly taking over the colored light market, like traffic lights, automotive tail lights, etc.

But, if white LEDs can be made to be six times as efficient in electricity use as traditional incandescent lighting (as RIT's recent announcement indicates), then they'll surpass fluorescent lighting efficiencies and will obviously be far less costly to operate than traditional incandescent lighting.

Let's say the light bulb in question uses $100 worth of electricity over ten years. The LED would only use only $16 worth of electricity over that same ten year period. $84 in savings over ten years or $8.40 per year.

Now multiply that by all the lights in your house and you can see why some are predicting the end of the light bulb era and the beginning of the LED lighting era. A 1,200 sq. ft. house (a typical 2 bedroom house) might have twenty (20) 60-watt light bulbs in use. Now we're talking about saving $168.00 per year in electric lighting costs. Higher end homeowners, say people who have 2,400+ sq. ft. house (a typical 4-5 bedroom house) would save $336.00 per year in electric lighting costs. That's significant savings for a homeowner. A business that uses far more electricity would see even more dramatic savings in their electric bill, and wouldn't have to employ people to constantly change lights either.

Do It Yourself

  • DIY Solar Lantern - A step-by-step walkthrough on creating a Solar Lantern using LEDs and a solar cell. (Unplugged Living; May 1, 2008)

Videos

(2.58 MinutesEarthLED EvoLux Challenge - How to Replace a 100 Watt Light
Comparison of the breakthrough EarthLED EvoLux with 100 Watt Incandescent and 13 Watt CFL in a variety of tests. (You Tube April 12, 2008)
_ _ _ _

(1.43 MinutesGreenpix Concept
Video demonstrating the Greenpix video wall in Bejing for the Olympics. (You Tube March 17, 2008)

In The News

  • Philips Lighting rides analog-to-digital wave - Philips is pushing hard into solid-state lighting, having spent about $4 billion acquiring LED (light-emitting diode) lighting companies over the past two years, recognizing that LED lighting is far more efficient than alternatives - five times more than incandescent and halogen lights and at least as efficient as fluorescents - and they last longer than others. (CNet News; Feb. 5, 2009)
  • What Is The State Of Solid State LED Lighting? - Researchers at Purdue University have found one method of significantly reducing the cost of a white LED by eliminating the expensive layer of sapphire. Instead, they used silicon as the substrate (the material the diode is printed on) and zirconium nitride as the reflector. (Scientific Blogging; Dec. 29, 2008)
  • GREENPIX Zero Energy Media Wall Lights up Beijing - Skyscraper wall has the world’s largest color LED display, and has a self sustaining energy life-cycle. Harvesting sunlight collected during the day via photovoltaic solar cells, the wall uses stored solar energy to light up the LED’s for a spectacular nighttime show. (Inhabitat; May 19, 2008)
  • 13W LED Bulb Replaces 100W Incandescent - a 13W CFL, and can apparently last as long as 50,000 hours. The price point is still high, coming out at a whopping US$109, but for those early adopters who just hate changing light bulbs, this might be worth a try. (TreeHugger; April 22, 2008)
  • Lighting Science Group launches portfolio of LED replacement lamps - Lighting Science Group (OTC BB: LSCG) (LSG), a leading developer and manufacturer of intelligent and energy-efficient light emitting diode (LED) lighting solutions, has launched the industry’s widest line of replacement LED lamps for both commercial and residential lighting applications. (LEDs Magazine; April 9, 2008)
  • New antireflection coatings for solar cells and LEDs - Researchers have developed a new type of nanostructured coating that can virtually eliminate reflections of a wide range of wavelengths to 10 times less than current coatings. It would increase solar cell light absorption by a few percentage points and a 40 percent improvement could be seen in LEDs. (MIT Technology Review; Mar. 06, 2007)
  • 9W LED Bulb Replaces 70W Incandescent - 9 watt LED bulb outputs 308 lumens using 150 warm white LEDs, replacing a 70 watt incandescent bulb. There's also a frosted version that outputs about 594 lumens. The bulbs cost between $60-$70 each, and you can find them at X-Treme Geek and Cyberguys. (TreeHugger; Feb. 8, 2007)
  • October 20, 2005 Take an LED that produces intense, blue light. Coat it with a thin layer of special microscopic beads called quantum dots. And you have what could become the successor to the venerable light bulb. The resulting hybrid LED gives off a warm white light with a slightly yellow cast, similar to that of the incandescent lamp.
Quantum dots that produce white light could be the light bulb’s successor - LEDs
  • April 14, 2005 - LED lamps were unthinkable until the technology cleared a major hurdle just a dozen years ago (being able to deliver white light). Since then, LEDs have evolved quickly and are being adapted for many uses, including pool illumination and reading lights. Development of LEDs is brisk, and the Department of Energy has estimated that LED lighting could cut national energy consumption for lighting by 29 percent by 2025. The total savings on U.S. household electric bills until then would be $125 billion. Current white LEDs will last up to 50,000 hours, about 50 times as long as a 60-watt bulb. That's almost six years if they're on constantly. LED Evolution Could Replace Light Bulbs
  • April 12, 2005 – Lamina Ceramics, Inc. today announced the launch of a new, advanced multi-color line of super bright, high output light engines driven by light emitting diodes (LEDs). Smaller than a U.S. nickel and about as bright as a 20-watt light bulb, each BL-4000 light engine is a disk-like array containing 4-6 individual LEDs, de-pending upon color. Progress toward making LEDs as bright as incandescent bulbs was hindered because of heat build-up within their electronic circuits. Heat build-up reduces LED light output, shortens lifespan and eventually causes the devices to fail. Lamina Ceramics has solved this problem with a proprietary packaging technology which allows multiple LEDs to be densely clustered to achieve exceptionally high levels of light in very small footprints. Lamina Ceramics Launches Super-Bright LED Light Engines

Overunity

  • Lighting > LEDs >
    LED's efficiency exceeds 100% - For the first time, researchers have demonstrated that an LED can emit more optical power than the electrical power it consumes. Although scientifically intriguing, the results won’t immediately result in ultra-efficient commercial LEDs since the demonstration works only for LEDs with very low input power that produce very small amounts of light. (PhysOrg; March 5, 2012)

Research & Development

  • Great bright hope to end battle of the light bulbs - Cambridge University researchers have developed cheap, light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs that produce brilliant light but use very little electricity. They will cost £2 and last up to 60 years and are 12 times more efficient than conventional tungsten bulbs and three times more efficient than the unpopular fluorescent low-energy versions. (Slashdot) (Mail Online; Jan. 29, 2009)
  • Advance brings low-cost, bright LED lighting closer to reality - LED lights now on the market are prohibitively expensive, in part because they are created on a substrate, or first layer, of sapphire. The Purdue researchers have solved this problem by developing a technique to create LEDs on low-cost, metal-coated silicon wafers, said Mark H. Oliver, a graduate student in materials engineering who is working with Timothy D. Sands. (Purdue University; July 17, 2008)
  • micro LED - William Henry has developed a 15-micron LED that operates on nanoamps of power at the Tyndall National Institute in Cork, Ireland. (C|Net News; Feb 27, 2008)
  • Martin Schubert develops polarized LED - The invention could advance the effort to combine the power and environmental soundness of LEDs with the beauty and clarity of LCDs and replace Compact Fluorescents. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute"; Feb. 28, 2008)
  • May 3, 2005 A Cambridge University scientist is making a material that he and others believe could help to cut emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by 15 per cent -- by making low-voltage, longer-lasting and more efficient light bulbs (LEDs). UK scientist's bright idea to fight global warming - LEDs

Applications

  • Wind > VAWT / Lighting > LEDs >
    Dean Kamen files patent application for an inflatable, illuminated wind turbine - In addition to generating energy for general use, the turbine would also be able to power a set of LEDs adorning the turbine itself, which could be used to display advertising or other information using a persistence of vision effect. The application even suggests that multiple turbines could be linked together and synchronized to form one large billboard. (Engadget; September 17, 2011)

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