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Directory:Hydrogen Production

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Directory of hydrogen production technologies and resources.

Contents

Relevant Directories at PESWiki

Overviews

Algae Hydrogen
Algae Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen from Renewable Sources (PDF) - Review by Jacob Brouwer, Ph.D., Associate Director, National Fuel Cell Research Center. (Fuel Cell Catalyst, Vol.4, No.3; Spring, 2004)

Hydrogen Production Companies in Operation

  • Clean Patagonian Energy from Wind and Hydrogen- A laboratory situated in the southern Patagonia region of Argentina is producing hydrogen from wind energy to supply power to a village -- and prove that it is possible to replace the polluting fuels derived from petroleum. (Sustain Online; May 13, 2005)
  • Plans Unveiled for Large Hydrogen Energy Plant- Arrangement in Scotland will help increase the output of a North Sea oil operation while at the same time providing clean power from what will be the largest hydrogen energy power plant ever built. (Renewable Energy Access; June 7, 2005)

Research & Development

From Air

From Ethanol

  • Solar / Ethanol / Hydrogen > Production >
    Hydrogen generated from sunlight and ethanol - An international team of scientists has announced success in creating hydrogen at ambient temperature and pressure using a combination of sunlight and ethanol. The method is potentially cheaper, produces higher yields and, because no high temperatures or pressures are required, uses less energy than conventional methods. (GizMag; May 30, 2011)

From Algae

  • Solar Hydrogen / Algae >
    OriginOil Achieves Hydrogen Production Comparable To Photovoltaics - OriginOil intends the Hydrogen Harvester to be deployed as an additional system output in algae production settings, approaching an efficiency of 12 percent when exposed to the sun. An advantage is that algae stores up energy during the day and will continue to generate hydrogen throughout the night. (Biofuel Daily; November 11, 2010)
  • Algae could one day be major hydrogen fuel source - Scientists at U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are exploring ways to chemically manipulate algae for high production of hydrogen gas via photosynthesis. (PhysOrg; April 1, 2008)
  • Green Algae Can Produce Hydrogen - Scientists are pursuing means of capitalizing on the fact that algae emits hydrogen when deprived of sulfur. ('Renewable Energy Access; Oct. 6, 2005)

From Salt Water

  • Water >
    Salt Water System Could Generate Hydrogen - Researchers at the University of Salerno in Italy suggest that flowing salt water could generate an electromotive force, which in turn could generate an electric power output. At one electrode, water is split to oxygen and hydrogen gas. At the other electrode, chlorine gas is produced. (PhysOrg; March 18th, 2009)

From Silicon

  • Hydrogen > Production >
    Just Add Water: How Scientists Are Using Silicon to Produce Hydrogen On Demand - Super-small particles of silicon react with water to produce hydrogen almost instantaneously, according to University at Buffalo researchers. In a series of experiments, the scientists created spherical silicon particles about 10 nanometers in diameter. When combined with water, these particles reacted to form silicic acid and hydrogen. (Science Daily; January 22, 2013)

From Water Via Electrolysis

See Directory:Electrolysis - separate index page

From Water (not Electrolysis)

  • Water as Fuel / Hydrogen > Production >
    Japanese company lays claim to world's cheapest hydrogen production process - Japan’s FUKAI Environmental Research Institute has announced a new technology for obtaining hydrogen efficiently and inexpensively. Their process involves adding aluminum or magnesium to boiling “functional water,” a proprietary substance that can be produced from by running regular tap water through a natural mineral-containing "functional water generation unit.” (GizMag; October 18, 2010)
  • Solar Hydrogen / Hydrogen > Production / Storage >
    A Virus That Might Make Hydrogen - A team of scientists lead by material science professor Angela Belcher has genetically modified a virus that can exploit sunlight to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. If viable, the process could help solve the vexing problem of energy storage and the equally vexing problem of producing hydrogen in a reasonable and cost-effective way. (Green Tech Media; April 11, 2010)
  • Hydrogen > Production >
    Scientists discover inexpensive metal catalyst for generating hydrogen from water - A team of researchers with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley has discovered an inexpensive metal catalyst based on a molybdenum-oxo metal complex with the chemical name of (PY5Me2)Mo-oxo that can effectively and more inexpensively generate hydrogen gas from water. (NanoWerk; April 30, 2010)

Via Bacteria

  • Hydrogen > Production / Microorganisms >
    Hydrogen Gas Production Doubled with New Super Bacterium - Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have studied a newly discovered bacterium, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, that produces twice as much hydrogen gas as the bacteria currently used. Its three advantages may be enough to make biological hydrogen gas production viable. (Alt Energy; May 4, 2010)

Via Crystals

  • Piezoelectric / Hydrogen > Hydrogen Production >
    Crystals + sound + water = clean hydrogen fuel - A new material raises the prospect of extracting hydrogen from water using noise pollution – from major roads, for example. A team at the University of Wisconsin-Madison made crystals of zinc oxide that, when immersed in water, absorb vibrations and develop areas of strong negative and positive charge that results in ripping apart nearby water molecules. (New Scientist; March 16, 2010) (Inhabitat)

From Urine

  • Waste to Energy > Sewage > Urine / Hydrogen > Production >
    Pee power could fuel hydrogen cars - Ohio University’s Gerardine Botte has invented a way to create hydrogen fuel from urine. Ammonia and urea, two compounds found in urine, are also a source for hydrogen. Placing an electrode in the wastewater and applying a current creates hydrogen gas. (Huffington Post; March 15, 2011)

From Other Methods

  • How to Produce Hydrogen From an Aluminum Soda Can and Water - Here’s how you can produce hydrogen to power cars, homes, or even toys. Hydrogen is the cleanest energy carrier in the universe, and is also easily obtainable from recycled soda cans and water that you can find virtually anywhere. (The Green Optimistic; Jun. 21, 2012)
  • Hydrogen Produced from Aluminum and Water - Scientists at Pennsylvania State University and Virginia Commonwealth University are producing hydrogen by exposing clusters of aluminum atoms to water. Unlike most hydrogen production processes, this method can be used at room temperature and doesn't require the application of heat or electricity to work. (The Future of Things; Feb. 2, 2009)
  • Cheap Hydrogen from Scraps - Now, with the help of an unassuming stainless-steel brush, microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) have taken another step forward. The steel brush can be used to replace the expensive platinum normally employed in the electrolysis cell's cathode, slashing costs by more than 80 percent. (MIT Technology Review; Feb 23, 2009)
  • Scientists Find New Way To Produce Hydrogen - Scientists at Penn State University and the Virginia Commonwealth University have discovered a way to produce hydrogen by exposing selected clusters of aluminum atoms to water. The geometries of these aluminum clusters, rather than solely their electronic properties, govern the proximity of the clusters' exposed active sites. (PhysOrg; Jan. 22, 2009)
  • A Better Way to Make Hydrogen from Biofuels - Umit Ozkan, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Ohio State University, along with doctoral students Hua Song and Lingzhi Zhang have created a new catalyst (cerium oxide - a common ingredient in ceramics - and calcium, covered with even smaller particles of cobalt) that makes hydrogen from ethanol with 90 percent yield, at 660 degrees Fahrenheit (around 350 degrees Celsius). (NewsWise; Aug. 20, 2008)
  • It's a gas: Human waste being turned into car fuel - The Orange County Sanitation District is about to begin converting human waste into hydrogen fuel in a first-of-its-kind attempt to turn sewage into a salable product. (OC Register; Aug. 14, 2008)
  • Hydrogen Fuel from food waste: bacteria provide power - Researchers have combined the efforts of two kinds of bacteria to produce hydrogen in a bioreactor (biohydrogen), with the product from one providing food for the other. According to an article in the August issue of Microbiology Today Life's a gas - and it's Hydrogen (PDF), this technology has an added bonus: leftover enzymes can be used to scavenge precious metals from spent automotive catalysts to help make fuel cells that convert hydrogen into energy. (PhysOrg; July 17, 2008)
  • Hydrogen generation without the carbon footprint - Grimes' process splits water into its two components, hydrogen and oxygen, and collects the products separately using commonly available titanium and copper. Grimes and his team produce hydrogen from solar energy, using two different groups of nanotubes in a photoelectrochemical diode. They report in the July issue of "Nano Letters" that using incident sunlight, "such photocorrosion-stable diodes generate a photocurrent of approximately 0.25 milliampere per centimeter square, at a photoconversion efficiency of 0.30 percent." (PhysOrg; July 15, 2008)
  • Hydrogen Fuel from Formic Acid - Using formic acid to make hydrogen has some drawbacks. If you use all the hydrogen in a kilogram of methanol, you get 4.19 kilowatt-hours of energy, while the hydrogen in a kilogram of formic acid gives 1.45 kilowatt-hours. Tekion, based in Burnaby, Canada, is working with Germany-based chemical giant BASF, the largest producer of formic acid, to commercialize a fuel cell that uses formic acid directly. (MIT Technology Review; May 15, 2008)
  • Hydrogen from Biomass at High Yields - Researchers have developed a method using multiple enzymes as a catalyst for the direct, low-cost production of hydrogen from biomass, at a yield higher than fermentation, based on earlier work by Y.H. P. Zhang. The energy conversion efficiency from the sugar-hydrogen-fuel cell system is 3x higher than a sugar-ethanol-internal combustion engine. (Green Car Congress; May 23, 2007)
  • Purdue Process Generates Hydrogen from Aluminum Alloy - Water added to aluminum mixed with Gallium can produce hydrogen on demand. As a catalyst, the Gallium is not consumed. The oxidized aluminum can be recycled. The process is close to being cost competitive with petrol. (PESN; May 17, 2007)
  • Slow Moving Water, Inc - Company presents a floating barge with turbines around the perimeter to harness the energy of the water flowing by. Rather than try to enter the electricity utility business, they produce electricity by-products, such as hydrogen and distilled water.
  • Organic Hydrogen Synthesis Technique - The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology has developed a new technique to synthesize organic hydrogen for fuel cells using supercritical CO2 and supported rhodium as catalyst. (JapanCorp; Sept. 21, 2004)
  • New Catalysts May Create More, Cheaper Hydrogen- A new class of catalysts created at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory may help scientists and engineers overcome some of the hurdles that have inhibited the production of hydrogen for use in fuel cells. (NewsWise; Aug. 21, 2007)
  • H2Gen- Onsite hydrogen generation from natural gas and water using two chemical reactions eliminates transportation expenses and reduces utility costs, which are 4X to 6X LESS than electrolysis. Lowest release of climate change gases from any hydrogen generator reliant on a hydrocarbon source, and the least expensive on-site system on a cost per output basis.
  • Blood Protein Used to Split Water- Scientists have combined two molecules that occur naturally in blood to engineer a molecular complex that uses solar energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen, providing an alternative to electrolysis. (Imperial College; London; Dec. 1, 2006) (See Slashdot discussion)
  • Norway is Hydrogen Haven- Sitting atop one of the world's most active volcano fields, the Nordic nation has more readily available, renewable energy resources than any other place on Earth. And by tapping into those hydro and geothermal sources, Iceland hopes to become the world's first hydrogen economy. (AOL; June 16, 2006)
  • Sweet success for pioneering hydrogen energy project- Bioscientists at the University of Birmingham have demonstrated a bacteria that give off hydrogen gas as they consume high-sugar waste produced by the confectionery industry. (Innovations Report; May 24, 2006)
  • Hydrogen from Biomass- Virent Energy Systems of Wisconsin has developed a novel aqueous phase reforming process for squeezing hydrogen out of biomass, which could mean a cheaper and easier way to make hydrogen for fuel cells. (MIT Technology Review; May 12, 2006)
  • Ammonia Cracker for Fuel Cell Hydrogen Supply- ZAP and Apollo Energy's proprietary method produces H-on-demand from onboard ammonia. Touted as inexpensive, zero-emission power source to jump-start the hydrogen economy. (PESN; May 24, 2005)
  • Scientists develop new inexpensive technology to produce hydrogen- By mimicking a protein found in nature and putting it to work, a group of scientists in Montana and New York is looking at producing alternative fuel using inexpensive sources and a unique chemical reaction. The invention is aimed at producing hydrogen as a fuel using inexpensive ingredients, although the inventors say more development is needed. (PhysOrg; Feb. 9, 2006)

From Oil

  • The Truth About Steam-Hydrocarbon Reformers- Michael Johnston says, "The reformer technology has been around for many years now and has just never been developed as an on-board fuel producer." (H2O Power; May 12, 2005)

Toys

  • World’s Tiniest Fuel Cell Vehicle - The Hydrocar is a pint-sized vehicle that is powered entirely by a hydrogen fuel cell. It would make an excellent office racer or a fun educational vehicle for children. (Inhabitat; Aug. 19, 2008)

Directories

See also

HYDROGEN, GENERAL

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND STORAGE

HYDROGEN APPLICATIONS

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