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Directory:Hybrid Vehicles

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For article , see PowerPedia:Hybrid_car.
Hybrid Vehicles 
Are vehicles that run on a combination of fuels, usually petroleum and electricity. There are a number of different hybrid vehicle designs, including combined internal combustion and electric engines that operate in concert and separate internal combustion and electric engines that operate independently.

Contents

Overviews

  • Electric Vehicles >
    PopSci Archive Gallery: The Electric Car, 1916-Present - Starting with August of 1916, which was their first issue to cover a hybrid gasoline-electric automobile; then passing through 1920, when electric cars were preferred because of the high price of gas, dropping in interest as gas dropped in price; then through several iterations in between including a 1968 GM stirling engine hybrid and their 1990 EV1; ending with the rebirth in 2008; PopSci gives 17 snapshots through EV history. (Popular Science; July 23, 2010)

Featured at PESWiki

  • Featured: Electromagnetic > Motors / EVs >
    Ultra efficient and powerful Magnetronic Motor (Interview) - Because the design by Millennial Motors, Inc. eliminates more than 95% of the iron from their motor, they are able to capture nearly all of the collapsing electromagnetic fields into a capacitor to be used again in the next pulse. Their coils are ultra simple to wind, and are arranged in removable, modular nodes. (PESWiki; Oct. 15, 2008)
  • Hydristor to convert vehicles into green hybrids - This infinitely variable vane hydraulic pump/motor is basically a simplified automatic transmission with no gears, with regenerative storage capability. Aiming to retrofit existing vehicles, it is projected to double or even triple mileage, while drastically cutting emissions (to 1/4) and boosting performance.
Electrocharger
Electrocharger
  • Electrocharger is the world's first hybrid retrofit that allows you to convert your car into a hybrid electric vehicle. Takes the place of the alternator and contributes to acceleration.

Do It Yourself Plans and Kits

Types of Hybrids

  • World's Biggest EV Hauls 345 Tons' - Caterpillar's come out with a new line of electric-drive mining trucks called the AC Series, and some diesels that belch less pollution than the other ginormous vehicles the company builds. Depending upon your perspective, this...could be the most amazing engineering feat since the Manhattan Project. (Wired; Sept. 26, 2008)
  • Flywheel Energy Store Hybrid Light Railcars - Parry People Movers hybrid light railcars are equipped with a flywheel energy store to capture braking energy for use in acceleration. The railcars can be powered by an on board LPG-fueled automotive engine, diesel- or hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, or hydrogen fuel cells. (Green Car Congress; Jun. 24, 2007)

Plug-In Hybrids

See Directory:Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles -- PHEV (separate page) - Some hybrid owners are doing plug-in conversions by adding batteries or replacing them with larger capacity units. Add an inverter and a plug to make a plug-in hybrid. The control system can also be altered so that the gas engine kicks in at a higher speed.

Image:Plug-in_Car_Tech_95x95.jpg Image:Milner_ElectriCar_95x95.jpg Image:Toyota-Prius-PHEV 95x95.jpg Image:Plug-In_Partners_95x95.jpg Image:All_Cell_95x95.jpg

Diesel Electrics

  • Volkswagen’s Diesel-Hybrid L1 Concept Gets 170 MPG - Volkswagen will display an updated version of its 1-Liter concept this week at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. The diesel-hybrid car only weighs around 800 lbs gets an jaw-dropping 170 MPG. Available by 2013. (Gas 2.0; Sept 14, 2009)
  • Caterpillar Builds World’s First Hybrid Bulldozer - The D7E represents a mid-range dozer between Caterpillar’s popular D6 and D8 models, and commands a price premium of 20%, or $100,000, over a standard D7R. But that 20% can be recouped in as little as two years thanks to fuel savings of 10-30%. Plus, the electric-diesel drive system offers better power than its predecessor. (Gas 2.0; Sept. 18, 2009)

Internal Combustion / Electric

ICE runs recharger only (Series hybrid)

See Directory:Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles - Directory of hybrid electric vehicles and resources, in which an internal combustion or other engine runs a generator, which runs an electric motor to propel the vehicle.

Image:Symetron P-50 motor 95x95.jpg Image:Mahindra Scorpio SUV 95x95.jpg Image:USArmy hybrid tank 95x95.jpg Image:Hybrid_Hummer_95x95.jpg

ICE / Motor (Parallel hybrid)

  • Directory:Aptera - is now accepting orders for their lightweight three wheeled hybrid car made of composite materials. It is estimated to acheive 300 mpg fuel efficiency and a 95 mph top speed at a price of less than $30,000.
  • Reducing the cost of lithium ion batteries - Ricardo and QinetiQ will try to bring the cost of lithium ion batteries down so that they can be commercially viable without degrading performance. In 2006 they showed off their Efficient-C diesel hybrid Citroen Berlingo van but acknowledged that the hybrid's extra cost needed to be reduced by half to €2,000. (AutoblogGreen; Nov. 8, 2007)
  • 200 MPG Velozzi Micro-Turbine Electric Hybrid - The Velozzi derives its power from a lithium ion battery pack recharged by an on-board micro turbine, which uses any heavy fuel such as gasoline, ethanol, methanol, diesel or bio diesel. The company’s working model indicates great performance: 100–200 mpg; 0–60 MPH in 3 seconds; 200 MPH top speed. (SEMA; Apr. 25, 2007 )
  • TNO Hybrid Carlab - This Beetle finished 2nd in the 2005 Rallye Monte Carlo for Hybrid Vehicles using < 4 litres/100km (59 mpg US). A 150kW AC Propulsion electrical system powers the front wheels supplied by a generator set based on a VW 1.2 TDI 3-cylinder diesel engine and UQM generator. Peak power is supplied by a supercapacitor pack consisting of 3500F Nesscap cells.
  • The VentureOne Hybrid and EV: 100 MPH, 100 MPG - The VentureOne three-wheeler will be available as a hybrid with 300 mile range or as an all electric vehicle with 120 mile range. It seats two and is capable of 100 mph with 100 mpg fuel efficiency and can tilt almost 45º in turns. To be released in late 2008, priced in the $20,000 range. (TreeHugger; Feb. 16, 2007)
  • Remote Hybrid Helper Could Turn Any Car into a Hybrid - With its own batteries and electric motors, the semi truck trailer pusher would assist the trailer up the hill and then use massive battery packs to capture breaking energy generated going down the hill. (EcoGeek; Apr. 28, 2008)
  • RailPower Technologies - The Green Goat® hybrid locomotive can reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by 40% to 70%. The large diesel engine is replaced with a small genset, a battery pack and a computerized control module. The heavy batteries give the locomotive good traction and the genset runs only when the batteries need charging.
  • Solar Sailor - Hybrid marine power combines conventional engines with Solar Wing technology utilising solar & wind energy. Depending on weather conditions, these two sources are used simultaneously or singularly. Fuel consumption and emissions are reduced by nearly 50%.
  • Mitsubishi Fuso
    • Mitsubishi releases diesel hybrid truck in Japan - Mitsubishi Fuso has unveiled the most energy-efficient medium-duty truck in the world, the Canter Eco Hybrid. With its diesel-electric drivetrain, the Canter offers a Li-ion-powered electric motor that kicks into action during stop-and-go driving. (TreeHugger; July 6, 2006)

Fuel Cell / Electric

  • Microcab - An Urban, ultra light, city speed, 'short hop' taxi system with electric drive powered by a hydrogen fuel cell, pollution free and virtually silent in operation. The only emission is water vapour. Maximum speed 45kph (30mph). Range on full hydrogen tank approx. 160km (100miles).


Hydraulic

See Directory:Hydraulics

Flexible Fuel

  • Volvo Bi-Fuel S80 has a 5 cylinder 2.4 liter engine powered by compressed natural gas (CNG ) or biogas (methane) with gasoline as a back-up. Fuel cost is 20-60% less than gasoline and 20-40% less than diesel.
  • XcelPlus International - FlexTek conversion technology plugs into the wiring harness to enable a vehicle’s fuel system to burn ethanol (E85), gasoline, or any blend of the two fuels, and offers an optional E85 Engine Preparation Kit that protects it from corrosion.

Human-Powered

Solar

  • Solar Vehicles >
    Solar Hybrids Soak Up the Sun - Johanson and the guys at Solar Electrical Vehicles will slap a solar panel on just about anything, and they've developed a DIY kit for the Toyota Prius that he says provides up to 20 miles of range and boosts fuel economy up to 29 percent. The company is testing its first solar energy system exclusively for hybrids in four "PV Prius" prototypes and a "PV Highlander." Video (Wired; Dec. 16, 2008)

Steam

  • Steam Hybrid Engine - Clean Power Technologies - This project is to develop a vehicle with a steam hybrid engine. This technology can save up to 40% of the waste heat. This translates into a realistic improvement in fuel efficiency by up to 40%, combined with a correspondent one-third reduction in emissions. (CPT; Aug. 20, 2008)

Stirling

  • Revolutionary auto already on the road - The prototype vehicle, a zippy two-seat hatchback designed with more than a passing resemblance to the Volkswagen Beetle, can go about 60 miles on a single charge of its lithium battery and with practically zero emissions. "It's the world's first Stirling hybrid electric car, said Dean Kamen at DEKA. (Slashdot) (Union Leader; Nov. 9, 2008)

Resources

  • Flywheel Hybrid System Passes Crash Test - Flybrid Systems has demonstrated that its high-speed spinning flywheel system can survive a crash test. Compared to electrical-battery hybrids, the mechanical kinetic energy recovery system provides a more compact, efficient, lighter and environmentally-friendly solution. Flybrid uses a smaller and lighter flywheel than previous models. (Green Car Congress; Oct. 28, 2007)
  • PowerPedia:Hybrid Adapter - A hybrid adapter, or HYBRAD, is a device which turns any passenger class vehicle into a multi-fuel / hybrid vehicle. One example is a hybrid adapter that simply plugs into the back of your vehicle and pushes it. Hybrid adapters run simultaneously, or in parallel, with your existing drivetrain.
  • Integral Powertrain - SuperGen i-Hybrid delivers the performance and economy of high power full hybrid systems with a less complex system requiring significantly less electrical storage and power. Bringing together engine downsizing through pressure-charging, stop-start for city driving, torque assist and regenerative braking, in a single integrated unit, allows outstanding fuel economy improvement with low investment.
  • Electromagnetic > Variable Torque Motors - Axial field weakening yields higher efficiency over the rpm range, creating a "built-in" transmission that mechanically enables an operating range up to 10x the motor base speed for electric vehicles. VTM offers hybrid retrofit packages installed on the drive shaft of rear wheel drive vehicles using Maxwell BoostCap™ ultracapacitors for energy storage.
  • Clean Power Technologies - Developing novel power trains for hybrid vehicles using exhaust heat stored in a liquid energy reservoir, offering a potential fuel saving of up to 50%. The energy reservoir provides periods of totally non-polluting power in a closed vapour cycle in urban areas. Unlike a battery, it has a high power availability without fuel consumption for charging.
  • F1 tech for road cars - Xtrac will exploit Torotrak’s full-toroidal traction drive to develop highly efficient CVTs for use in the new kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) proposed for F1 motor racing. The system holds promise for use in road cars, storing kinetic energy in a flywheel, boosting fuel economy without complex electrical-battery hybrid architectures. (Gizmag; Jun. 6, 2007)
  • Freightliner diesel electric hybrid - A medium-duty walk-in van with diesel-electric hybrid technology from Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp. was developed along with Eaton and Detroit Diesel. It shows a 50 percent improvement in fuel economy and a significant reduction in emissions. (AutoblogGreen; January 13, 2007)
  • Van Cor Transmission - Symbiotic Drive runs both the gas engine and an electric motor at the same time in varied proportions to produce continuously variable output, an energy efficient process called “torque amplification". The two power sources are combined through a planetary system in which the electric motor can become an output generator when the gas engine is idling or when the vehicle is decelerating.
  • HyKinesys - PowerBeam hybrid systems increase vehicular fuel efficiency by 100%, improve vehicle performance and reduce the cost of hybridizing vehicles. They are applicable to any road vehicle with any type of power train, whether gasoline, diesel, electric or fuel cell.
  • Hybrid Technologies - A development stage technology company that is focusing its resources and efforts on the development and marketing of electric powered vehicles.
  • Enova - Electric Hybrid drive systems for light and heavy duty vehicles.
    • IC Corporation Works with Enova Systems to Supply First Hybrid School Buses That Can Attain Up To 40 Percent Increase in Fuel Efficiency - New York, California, Texas, Florida, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Arkansas, Iowa and Washington will be the first states in the nation to receive hybrid school buses. Through its Plug-In Hybrid Electric School Bus Project, Advanced Energy, a Raleigh, N.C.-based nonprofit corporation, initiated a buyer's consortium of school districts, state energy agencies and student transportation providers. IC Corporation, the nation's largest school bus manufacturer, won the bid and will provide up to 19 hybrid school buses to those 11 states. (IC Corporation; July 27, 2006)
    • Enova will Utilize Post Transmission Parallel Hybrid Drive Systems - The Electric Drive System is integrated behind the Transmission and is designed to be installed as a "drop in," into an OEM production line, or retrofitted into existing vehicles. It is a non-invasive system that requires few modifications to the vehicle. Fuel economy improvement is from 30% to 55% for a Charge Sustaining System (no overnight plug-in), and 70-100% for Charge Depleting Systems (requires overnight plug-in). (Enova Systems; September 11, 2006)
  • 21ponies.com sells a video that shows how to transform a regular car into a hybrid vehicle.
  • mixedpower.com
  • Hybrid Cars at eartheasy.com
  • Coastal Electronic Technologies - Home of Custom Prius Accessories! The Electric Only Mode kit allows you to activate the electric feature of your Prius and drive for short distances without the engine running.
  • The EV Wheel is a 5th wheel add-on. mIMA is a manually integrated motor assist.
  • EV Pusher is a trailer with a diesel engine that pushes an electric vehicle on longer trips
  • Solar Electrical Vehicles - SEV was created to develop a true solar charging system for Hybrid Electric Vehicles that provides increased electric driving range and improved fuel economy.
  • Solatec - Rooftop-mounted, flexible Solar Photovoltaic Panel Kit for Toyota Prius Hybrid
  • Lapp Renewables - The Photovoltaic Hybrid Car Project
  • 75 MPG Hybrid Electric Car - Article at Mother Earth News - the car is driven by an electric motor . . . but that powerplant's "juice" is generated with the help of an ordinary, fuel-stingy lawn-mower engine!
  • Pumpago.com - America dependent on domestic fuel - New activist site considers how America can reduce gasoline prices, gain independence from OPEC, create a new energy industry based on the gassification of coal. Considers the costs and benefits of biodiesel, ethanol, hydrogen, and hybrid cars.

Trends

  • Americans Want More Fuel-Efficient Cars, US Hybrids Up 48% - Total US hybrid sales jumped 48.6% in August from last August, buoyed up by Cash for Clunkers. Americans did the patriotic thing with their clunker money, buying more American, and buying more hybrid cars. Ford was the big winner, making a big dent in Toyota’s hybrid sales. (Gas 2.0; September 8, 2009)

See also Directory:Trends

In the News

Commenced Apr. 17, 2010

  • Fuel Efficiency > Hybrid Vehicles > Aptera >
    Aptera Unveils 200-mpg 2E Prototype - On Wednesday, Aptera unveiled a design-intent prototype of the Aptera 2E. The all-electric vehicle—which was hours away from being shipped to Detroit to compete for the Automotive X Prize—wears a number of outwardly visible alterations from the earlier Typ-1 e prototype that will make it more suitable for daily use. (Popular Mechanics; ‎Apr 15, 2010‎)

Directories

  • Hybrid Cars - A visual directory of hybrid vehicle websites. (EnergyPlanet.info)
  • http://www.thehybridcars.net - Aims to become a guide to the available hybrid cars, technology and benefits of the cars, and how to get them, including renting a hybrid car.
  • Plug-In.com - Documents and discusses the accelerating announcements of new hybrid vehicles and plug-in car technologies.
  • Chevy Blog - Chevy Volt Prices - And the uncertainty of whether the vehicle will be available in 2010.

Comments

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See Also

ELECTRIC VEHICLES FOOTER

FUEL EFFICIENCY

FUEL EFFICIENCY

FUEL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

ELECTRIC VEHICLES

VEHICLE HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS

AWARDS

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