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Plasma shines brightly inside EMC2 Fusion's WB-7 device, which was built to  validate earlier experiments in inertial electrostatic confinement fusion.Source: EMC2 Fusion Development Corp.
Plasma shines brightly inside EMC2 Fusion's WB-7 device, which was built to validate earlier experiments in inertial electrostatic confinement fusion.
Source: EMC2 Fusion Development Corp.
See also News:Nuclear

Directory of fusion technologies and resources.



  • Nuclear > Fusion > Overviews / Cold >
    Fusion's ups and downs - There's more than one way to do fusion energy research: Some approaches rely on applying well-accepted physics, at a cost of billions of dollars, on a timeline that could stretch out for decades. Other approaches follow unconventional paths that could get to the goal much more quickly, for much less money. (MSNBC; March 23, 2010)
  • Fusion > A brief history of fusion research - The first clues to how stars function were revealed in Einstein’s equation E = mc2, which predicted that a tiny amount of mass could, in principle, be converted into a tremendous amount of energy. Tracking the progress through tokamak and ITER. ( (Thanks Tedd)
  • ZPE / Cold Fusion / Fusion / Ocean Power >
    5 big alt-energy letdowns: Ideas that sounded good but... - As the call for a clean-energy savior—to wash away our fossil-fuel sins—grows louder, the number of questionable candidates swells. Should we be looking to photovoltaic or fusion? Turbines or tides? The five "duds" include Zero-point energy; cold fusion, passive collection, hot fusion, sea movement. (Scientific American; Mar 18, 2009) [Let 'em know what YOU think.]
  • Featured / Best Exotic FE: Nuclear > Fusion > Focus Fusion >
    Fission Tragedy Could be Averted - The communications industry pumps 25% of their revenue back into research. The result? Slim iPhones and androids and many amazing communications wonders. Meanwhile, we starve energy research for funds with just 0.3% of the energy budget going to R&D, and wring our hands over oil spills and meltdowns. (PESN and BeforeItsNews; March 15, 2011)


Top 100:

  • Inertial-Electrodynamic Fusion Device - Received the 2006 Technology of the Year Award by the International Academy of Sciences - Dr. Bussard and his team at Energy/Matter Conversion Corporation, after close to 20 years of hard work, have developed a revolutionary radiation-free fusion process that takes boron-11 and fuses a proton to it, producing, in its excited state, a carbon-12 atom. This excited carbon-12 atom decays to beryllium-8 and helium-4. It was developed under a DOD contract and has recently been made public. (PESWiki; Jan. 2, 2006)

Top 100:

  • Colliding Plasma Toroid Clean-Energy Breakthrough - Toroid plasma technology by EPS remains stable without magnetic confinement, by using low-level background gas pressure; could provide non-polluting electricity and heat for homes, as well as motive power for vehicles and aircraft, at a fraction of the cost of conventional energy generation. (PESN; March 8, 2006)

Cold Fusion

Aneutronic Fusion

  • Featured: Nuclear > Fusion >
    Directory:Aneutronic Fusion - "Possibly the cleanest form of energy, which, if successful, could replace nuclear fission and fossil fuels with energy that does not pollute the air, add to greenhouse warming, or make radioactive waste." (PESWiki; March 24, 2014)

Hot Fusion

  • Inertial-Electrodynamic Fusion Device - Dr. Bussard and his team at Energy/Matter Conversion Corporation, after close to 20 years of hard work, have developed a revolutionary radiation-free fusion process that takes boron-11 and fuses a proton to it, producing, in its excited state, a carbon-12 atom. This excited carbon-12 atom decays to beryllium-8 and helium-4. It was developed under a DOD contract and has recently been made public.
  • Electron Power Systems™ (EPS) - Toroid plasma technology that remains stable without magnetic confinement, by using background gas pressure for confinement instead, could provide clean, non-polluting energy technology at one-tenth the cost of present energy generation.
  • Focus Fusion - Lawrenceville Plasma Physics is currently researching and developing the Plasma Focus Device for hydrogen-boron nuclear fusion. Focus Fusion is projected to be a safe, clean, easy, reliable energy solution that could provide electricity at a few tenths of a cent per kilowatt-hour.
  • Giant Laser Reactor Unveiled in California - The $3.5-billion-dollar National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will focus 192 laser beams on a hydrogen pellet the size of a bead, heating it to incredible temperatures in an attempt to recreate the power of the sun, in an event that could light the entire country for a split second. (Fox News; May 29, 2009) [Like trying to harness a hurricane?]
  • Fusion Power in the Next Five Years? - General Fusion hopes to create small fusion reactors that cost around $50 million a piece and generate roughly 100 megawatts allowing for roughly 4 cent / kwh electricity. Magnetized Target Fusion uses lithium as a fuel, which is heated and mixed with intensely pressurized plasma. The only byproduct is helium and other harmless gasses. (PESWiki; Feb. 12, 2008)
  • Mining the Moon - Future fusion reactors could use helium-3 gathered from the moon. The Fusion Technology Institute has built a small test plant using inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC). He3-He3 fusion is non-radioactive and the protons it produces can be contained using magnetic and electric fields — making direct electricity generation possible. (MIT Technology Review; Aug. 23, 2007)
  • Startup Chases Nuclear Fusion - Tri Alpha Energy is developing “hot", or plasma, fusion, in which atomic nuclei are fused, releasing huge amounts of energy. The company is working with fusion reactions that produce fewer neutrons and less radiation, with a different method for containing and controlling reactions. They estimate it will take less than 15 years to get to the power generation stage. (Red Herring; Jun. 14, 2007)

Research and Development

  • Nuclear > Fusion >
    Taylor Wilson: Yup, I built a nuclear fusion reactor - Taylor Wilson believes nuclear fusion is a solution to our future energy needs, and that kids can change the world. When he was 14, he built a working fusion reactor in his parents' garage. Now 17, he takes the TED stage at short notice to tell (the short version of) his story. (TED; March, 2012)
  • A Workable Fusion Starship? - Friedwardt Winterberg's innovative propulsion concept now weds magnetic mirror technologies with fusion. The interplanetary vehicle has an exhaust velocity of 100 km/s, while the launcher vehicle gets 10 km/s. (Centauri Dream; Jan. 23, 2009)

  • UCLA researchers use Scotch tape to produce X-rays - X-rays were not produced continuously, but were emitted in nanosecond bursts containing about 1 million X-ray photons apiece, the equivalent of about a tenth of a milliwatt of energy. If the constituents of the adhesive were deuterated (hydrogen atoms replaced with deuterium) it might yield fusion neutrons, although there would be no net energy increase. (Video (LA Times; Oct. 25, 2008)

Focus Fusion

  • Focus Fusion poses competition to Tokamak - Purports to be a far more feasible and profoundly less expensive approach to hot fusion, in contrast to what the international project (ITER) in France is pursuing. Lawrenceville Plasma Physics is currently researching and developing the Plasma Focus Device for hydrogen-boron nuclear fusion. (PESN; Nov. 2, 2005)
  • - nuclear fusion sans radiation - Group is currently researching and developing the Plasma Focus Device for hydrogen-boron nuclear fusion, as an alternative method to the coventional Tokamak fusion design.


  • Laser vision fuels energy future - Researchers from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in Oxfordshire, working with partners from 14 countries, propose using lasers (project HIPER: High Power Laser Energy Research) to recreate the physical reactions at the heart of the Sun. (BBC News; June 6, 2007)

Christopher Strevens, London

  • Featured: Nuclear > Fusion >
    Christopher Strevens Nuclear Reactor - We've finally created a feature page about this London inventor, who has had a life-long fascination with nuclear processes and devices, who four years ago claimed to have developed a reactor that "creates helium from hydrogen. It also captures the power given off during the reaction as electrical power." (PESWiki; August 26, 2013)

General Fusion

  • Nuclear > Fusion >
    The Audacity of General Fusion - After months of scouring nuclear literature, British Columbia inventor, Doug Richardson came across a technology called magnetized target fusion that had been abandoned in the 1970s. But more had been learned since about handling plasma, and electronic systems for controlling the experiment had advanced. Coming to the conclusion he could make net gain happen this time by changing the ratio of pressure and duration, he incorporated General Fusion in 2002. (BC Business Online; February 7, 2011)

Far East

  • Discharge test on Chinese "artificial sun" pending - Around August 15th, 2006, the first plasma discharge test on China's experimental advanced superconducting Tokamak (EAST) will be conducted. If successful, it will mean that the world's first nuclear fusion device of its kind is completed and will be able to go into actual operation. (People's Daily; July 24, 2006)
  • "Artificial sun" to generate infinite clean energy - Technicians are installing the full superconducting experimental Tokamak fusion device in Hefei, capital city of east China's Anhui Province on Feb 4, 2006. Most parts of the device have been installed and experiments will start soon. The full superconducting experimental Tokamak fusion device, nicknamed "artificial sun", can generate infinite, clean nuclear-fusion-based energy. It will be built in March or April in Hefei. (Xinhua; February 06, 2006)
  • China to Build World's First "Artificial Sun" - EAST (experimental advanced superconducting Tokamak) to be constructed this Spring by the Institute of Plasma Physics will cost only 1/15th - 1/20th the cost of similar devices being developed in the other parts of the world. Could generate infinite, clean nuclear-fusion-based energy. (Slashdot; Jan. 22, 2006)

Sandia's Z-Machine

  • Fusion >
    Incredible scenes inside a fusion plant - The Z Machine at Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico could be the answer to the world's energy shortage, a device that once sparked with a relatively small electrical input can produce 290 terawatts of power. (Daily Mail; UK; Jan. 16 2010)


[Academia publishes an over unity finding.]

ITER (Tokamak)

  • Nuclear > Fusion >
    Nuclear Reactor Aims for Self-Sustaining Fusion - A Italian-Russian team proposes a reactor called Ignitor, which would be a miniature ITER-like tokomak reactor that uses powerful magnetic fields to produce fusion by squeezing superheated plasma of hydrogen isotopes. "Ignitor will give us a quick look at how burning plasma behaves, and that could inform how we proceed with ITER and other reactors." (MIT Technology Review; May 25, 2010)
  • Better Control for Fusion Power - Physicists at MIT have addressed one of the many technological challenges involved in harnessing nuclear fusion as a viable energy source. They've demonstrated that pulses of radio frequency waves can be used to propel and heat plasma inside a reactor. (Technology Review; Dec. 10, 2008)
  • Nuclear fusion: A necessary investment (?) - On 21 November ministers from Europe, Japan, the People's Republic of China, India, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America meet in Paris to sign an agreement to construct an international experiment on the scale of a fusion power plant. (BBC; Nov. 17, 2006)
  • Five Facts about ITER Nuclear Fusion Project - International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor $10 billion Euro project objectives, proponents and opponents, participants, construction plans, site information. (Reuters; June 29, 2005)
  • International Fusion Research - Ian H. Hutchinson, the head of MIT's Nuclear Science Department, explains why the United States should support the ITER endeavor announced for implementation in France. (MIT Technology Review; August 2005)
  • Environmentalists Angry over French Nuclear Project - Greenpeace called the project a ridiculous waste of money, saying it would be years before any such results are found, if at all. (Reuters; June 29, 2005)
  • Unofficial ITER fan club - Unofficial ITER fan club is a community of people interested in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and its benefits to science, technology, industry and all humankind.
  • G8 Decision on Fusion would Herald Nuclear Future - G8 leaders may choose a site for the world's first fusion test reactor by ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). (Reuters; June 23, 2005)
  • Nuclear Fusion Project Bid Up in The Air - Japan backing out, turning to France to construct the 10 billion euro ($12.87 billion) experimental reactor that would operate at more than 100 million degrees Celsius to produce 500 MW of power. Due to start in 2015, it would run for around 20 years. Project Web site: (Reuters; May 5, 2005)
  • Fusion from ANU - A brief look at ANU's H1 Major National Research Facility, which plays prominently in France's ITER. The H1 experiment, which confines the hot plasma in flexible magnetic fields, is designed to provide a test bed for fundamental plasma research. (PhysOrg; June 30. 2005)

Lockheed Martin Compact Nuclear Fusion Reactor

  • Featured: Nuclear > Fusion >
    Lockheed Martin Compact Nuclear Fusion Reactor - Allegedly, the first commercial reactors capable of producing 100 MW would be small enough to fit on the back of a 16-wheeler, and could be ready for use in a decade, after producing their first prototype in five years from now. (PESWiki; October 18, 2014)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  • Lasers / Nuclear > Fusion >
    Worlds Largest Laser Takes First Steps Toward Nuclear Fusion - When all of its 192 laser beams are operational later this year, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will focus about two million joules of ultraviolet laser energy on a tiny target in the center of its target chamber, generating unprecedented temperatures (100 million degrees) and pressures (100 billion times Earth's atmosphere) in the target materials... (GizMag; May 10, 2010)
  • Nuclear > Fusion >
    Can world's largest laser zap Earth's energy woes? - Years behind and far over budget, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory hopes this summer to achieve a fusion instance, creating "star power" in a jar for a trillionth of a second. With "proper funding" (billions more) it might be 20 years before they achieve a commercial version that is continuous and reliable. (CNN; April 28, 2010)


(8.54 Minutes) Kstar (1 of 2)
clip 1 of the KSTAR assembly process (Korean Tokamak Advanced Reactor) due for completion in August 2007. The Kstar will be one of the first Tokamaks in the world to feature superconducting magnets, achieving a toroidal field strength of 3.5 teslas (in comparision, the earths magnetic field is 30-60 microtesla, 0.00003-0.00006 T, a sun spot about 0.15 T). Results from the Kstar will contribute to the international ITER effort. (YouTube Aug. 9, 2007 )
_ _ _ _

(6.55 Minutes) KSTAR (2 of 2)
Clip 2 of the Kstar assembly process. (YouTube Aug. 9, 2007 )
_ _ _ _

(2.22 Minutes) From Concept Design to Construction
KSTAR (YouTube Aug. 24, 2007 )

Other Fusion

  • Nuclear > Fusion >
    Levitating Magnet: MIT’s New Approach to Nuclear Fusion - University of Columbia researchers, along with their colleagues from MIT, have some results in reproducing the Earth’s magnetic fields for developing nuclear power plants based on nuclear fusion – the ultimate dream of scientists that uses the same principle that the Sun operates on, by using a levitating magnet. (The Green Optimistic; Feb. 1, 2010)
  • Europe plans new type of fusion facility - Laser physicists in Europe propose a £500m facility to study a new approach to laser fusion. Facility could be operational in about ten years. (Slashdot; Sept. 5, 2005)
  • Improved Controls for Advanced Tokamak Fusion Reactor - Researchers at UCSD and San Diego-based General Atomics have reported an improved control method for a type of nuclear fusion technology that confines a cloud of ionized hydrogen in a doughnut-shaped machine called a tokamak. (NewsWise; July 6, 2005)
  • Lightning Fusion And Other Hot News - Neutron levels far above normal background levels exist during lightning strikes. While only a small percentage of rainwater contains atoms of deuterium, the lightning still provides enough energy to create fusion events. The NIF has possible plans for a hybrid fusion approach that uses not only deuterium and tritium, but uranium and plutonium as well in what amounts to a miniaturized version of how thermonuclear weapons achieve fusion. (Slashdot; Sept. 24, 2005)
  • Teen creates nuclear fusion at home - After more than two years and 1,000 hours of research, and a little help from his dad, Thiago Olson, 17 has created what he calls "the Fusor." lists him as the 18th amateur in the world to create nuclear fusion (Detroit Free Press; Nov. 19, 2006)
  • From Farmville to Fusion - Call him Springfield's resident genius. Andrew Grzankowski, a graduate of West Springfield High School, spent his summer vacation building a fusion reactor at Longwood University in Farmville. (Fusor; Nov. 10, 2007)
  • Noblefuse Plasma Messiah and his Electromagnetic Fusion - Solomon Azar has built a proof of concept demonstration device involving a Tesla coil and underwater plasma that allegedly gives off gamma radiation, a sign of nuclear combination. He also professes that he is the Messiah. (PESWiki; Mar. 23, 2008)

Fusion for Peace


  • Is Nuclear Power Safe? - The Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power plant in Japan discharged approximately 350 gallons of radioactive water into the sea Wednesday after an earthquake shook the Japanese town, 160 miles northwest of Tokyo. 355-page report reviews global nuclear power outlook and opportunities. (Energy Business Reports; July 18, 2007)

In the News

See also News:Nuclear

  • Featured: Nuclear > Fusion > Electron Power Systems >
    Clean Energy Fusion Crowdfunding Campaign - Could inventor Clint Seward's Electron Power Systems home laboratory kick Tokamak's butt? He claims a fusion process using controlled ball lightning via a toroid plasma process he has developed, that could create a home power system that would be 80% cheaper than conventional grid power. (NewEnergyFunding; May 18, 2013)
  • Best FE: Nuclear > Fusion > Focus Fusion >
    Focus Fusion: 2012 End-of-Year Report - LPP published our achievement of two out of the three conditions needed to produce net energy: a record-high temperature and the required confinement time of the hot plasma. If $1.5 million is raised in January, we expect to achieve proof of scientific feasibility (more energy out than in) in 2013, but only with such timely funding. (Lawrenceville Plasma Physics; January 19, 2013)
  • Nuclear > Fusion > Sandia >
    Sandia simulation suggests sunny skies for fusion reactors - A new simulation study carried out at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, suggests that magnetized inertial fusion (MIF) experiments could be retrofitted to existing pulsed-power facilities to obtain fusion break-even (still haven't achieved OU after 6 decades). [Apparently, these guys did not get the memo on Cold Fusion success.] (GizMag; April 2, 2012)
  • Top 100 / Best FE: Nuclear > Fusion > Focus Fusion >
    FoFu-1’s fusion yield consistency improves six-fold - FF-1 has taken a long step toward demonstrating the level of repeatable firing needed for a fusion generator. On November 2, FF-1 fired five shots in a row, under the same conditions, with fusion yield varying by only plus or minus 2.6% from an average of 0.9x1011 neutrons. (Lawrenceville Plasma Physics; November 29, 2011)
  • Featured / Top 100 / Best FE: Nuclear > Fusion > Focus Fusion >
    Focus Fusion could power civilization cheaply and cleanly - Lawrenceville Plasma Physics LLC has announced that they have indisputable evidence that they have achieved 1 billion degrees via plasma confinement. With another year of experimentation followed by three years of development, they could be ready to bring to market a 5 MW plant (output of the largest wind turbines) that only costs $300,000. (PESN; January 12, 2011)
  • Top 100: Nuclear > Fusion > Focus Fusion >
    New Calibration Confirms FF-1’s High Fusion Yields – "Tests in early June have confirmed that Focus-Fusion-1 is producing higher fusion yields than have been achieved with any other dense plasma focus (DPF) at the same peak current." With this data, they say they "have traveled a bit less than half way to our goal of demonstrating scientific feasibility which would involve a yield of 10,000 to 100,000 joules," expecting to achieve that landmark by year end. (Lawrenceville Plasma Physics; June 9, 2010)
  • Top 100: Nuclear > Fusion > Focus Fusion >
    A Great Month for Focus Fusion - Brief report of their latest R&D results, and an invited presentation on the process to an audience of physicists and engineers at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the nation's largest fusion lab. Additional evidence shows that "the predicted angular momentum effect is working." (Lawrenceville Plasma Physics; Apr. 2, 2010)
  • Top 100 / Featured: Nuclear > Fusion > Focus Fusion >
    Focus Fusion 1 successful test announced - After seven years of theoretical work and raising money, five months of design, five months of construction and assembly, and a week of testing, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics now has a functioning dense plasma focus, Focus-Fusion-1. Eric Lerner receives energy research award. (PESN; Oct. 28, 2009) (Comment)
  • Nuclear > Plasma >
    Plasma power: Turning fusion into a renewable energy source - A team of researchers from UC San Diego, MIT and UC Berkeley have received a 5-year, $7 million research grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to perform fundamental and experimental research in the field of boundary plasma science for fusion applications. (PhysOrg; September 14, 2009)
  • Elsevier launches High Energy Density Physics - World-leading scientific and medical publisher, announces the introduction of a new journal, to publish results on the physics of matter and radiation under extreme conditions such as when stars explode or hot nuclear fusion processes occur. (Feb. 5, 2006)


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