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Directory:Fuel Efficiency Vehicles

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Directory of Fuel Efficient Vehicle technologies and resources.

Contents

Overview

Gas mileage is the ratio of the number of miles traveled to the number of gallons of gasoline burned. It is related to fuel efficiency and means the same as thermal efficiency or fuel economy. This is the efficiency of converting energy contained in a carrier fuel to kinetic energy or work. This fuel efficiency is rated in the output one gets for a unit amount of fuel input as "miles per gallon" for vehicle-miles. Transportation output can also be measured in terms of passenger-miles or ton-miles (of freight). While the thermal efficiency of petroleum engines has improved in recent decades, this does not necessarily translate into fuel economy of cars, as people in developed countries tend to buy bigger and heavier cars. Non-transportation applications, such as industry, benefit from increased fuel efficiency, especially fossil fuel power plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the Haber process.

Europe tends to measure fuel efficiency in liters/100km, and more recently, grams of CO2/km. This new method is a direct measure of the amount of carbon burned and corrects for the higher density of diesel vs. gasoline (while also reducing confusion over UK vs. US gallons). See http://www.vcacarfueldata.org.uk for the lowest CO2 vehicles sold in Great Britain (UK). As of Dec 2006, the leader is the Prius hybrid at 104g/km, although the WV Polo BlueMotion diesel (not available in US) is projected to barely edge it out for the lead for 2007. In real world tests, 1.8 / 1.9 litre Diesel engines tend to offer best economy, because they do not require heavy revving. Many high mileage engines fall short in real world testing.

Competitions

  • Challenge X: Crossover to Sustainable Mobility - For the second consecutive year, Mississippi State University wins General Motors (GM) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Challenge X student engineering competition. The goal is to produce a vehicle that has improved fuel economy and lower emissions, all while maintaining driver comfort and vehicle performance. The next challenge will be the EcoCar. MediaSeed Video(Press Release; May 23, 2008)
  • Automotive X PRIZE - The Automotive X PRIZE (AXP) announced a list of teams competing to build and bring to market 100 MPG or higher fuel economy vehicles that people want to buy. Those that qualify will race their vehicles in rigorous crosscountry stages that combine speed, distance, urban driving and overall performance.


Bicycles

  • RevoPower Reinvents the Wheel - Patented RevoPower wheel replaces regular bicycle wheel, to provide relatively quiet, powered riding with approximate economy of 200 mpg, going up to 20 mph, with low emissions.

Compressed Air

  • MDI Air Car - The MDI Air Car uses compressed air to push its engine’s pistons, can hit 68 mph, has a range of 125 miles, and can be refuelled in a few minutes with custom air compressors at a cost of around $2. Tata Motors of India is planning to produce these zero-emissions cars in 2008.
  • Engineair Pty Ltd is developing a rotary compressed air motor. With a minimum of moving parts it is highly efficient. Prototypes have been installed in test vehicles, and there are plans to license the technology to car builders.
  • Air propelled train - Aeromovel is a train that is driven by compressed air and which has no on-board motor. It uses a sail-like propulsion device on what looks like traditional train tracks. Stationary electrical blowers, located close to the passenger stations produce the necessary pressurized air. (AutoblogGreen; Jan. 7, 2008)
  • Air Car Factories working on compressed-air vehicles - Air Car Factories is working with the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya to have a air car prototype ready in the next few months. Their goal is to develop and manufacture a vehicle driven by a compressed air engine with a marketable level of performance. (AutoblogGreen; Feb. 27, 2008)
  • Energine - Korean company that delivers fully-assembled cars running on a hybrid compressed air and electric engine. These cars are more precisely named pneumatic-hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).
  • K'Airmobiles - a set of projects relating to "VPA" (Vehicles with Pneumatic Assistance) and "VPP" (Vehicles with Pneumatic Propulsion), aiming to escape the constraints from thermodynamics.
  • Air powered perpetual car engine - A 15-year-old student in Uzbekistan claims to have invented a car that can perpetually run on compressed air. The air enters the engine from special high pressure tanks that automatically refuel themselves as the car moves. The car was driven for several hundred meters, though the speed is very slow. (Ecofriend; Jan. 15, 2008)

Concept cars

West Philadelphia High School, "Hybrid Attack"
West Philadelphia High School, "Hybrid Attack"
  • Kids Build Soybean Fueled Sports Car - High school kids (including drop-outs) design car that can go from zero to 60 in four seconds and get more than 50 miles to the gallon on soy bean oil. (PESN; Feb. 28)
  • 2005 Tour de Sol skirts 100 mpg - Over 60 hybrid, electric and biofuel vehicles from throughout the U.S. and Canada demonstrated that we have the technology today to power our transportation system with zero-oil consumption and zero climate-change emissions.
  • 'Fishy' 70-mpg diesel concept car unveiled - DaimlerChrysler project was shaped by a tropical fish. Combined city/highway driving delivers about 70 mpg, DaimlerChrysler said, while highway driving at 55 mph gets around 84 mpg.
  • Ford's P2000 Diata - A revolutionary family car prototype that gets 63 miles to the gallon, equipped with a, 1.2-liter DIATA (Direct Injection, Aluminum Through-bolt Assembly) compression-ignition direct-injection engine.
    • Ford Unveils Hybrid Electric Car - The P2000 DIATA hybrid uses exotic, light-weight materials. The tiny DIATA engine boasts an impressive 40% thermal energy efficiency, making it 35% more efficient than a conventional gasoline engine. Like a diesel engine, the DIATA uses high heat from compression to ignite the fuel rather than a spark plug.
  • N-Motion the Perpetual Motion Vehicle Co. - Claims to be trying to fund the prototype of a new car that doesn't require any fuel, based on the forward momentum of the vehicle. Selling memberships for $200 that entitle the member to vote on the style of car.

Diesels

  • The 65 mpg Ford the U.S. Can't Have - Ford's 2009 Fiesta ECOnetic goes on sale in November, but the company will sell the little fuel sipper only in Europe. "We know it's an awesome vehicle," says Ford America President Mark Fields. "But there are business reasons why we can't sell it in the U.S." (BusinessWeek; Sept 4, 2008)
  • Crucible BMW Biodiesel Motorcycle - Introducing Die Moto, a custom-built performance diesel motorcycle capable of running on diesel, biodiesel, or straight vegetable oil (SVO) fuels. Designed and fabricated at The Crucible by a team of environmentally conscious vehicle enthusiasts, engineers and artisans, the Die Moto is out to prove the viability of alternative fuel technology in performance vehicles. (The New Cafe (Racer) Society; July 14, 2008)

TDI (Turbo Direct Injection) Diesels produced by VW and Audi, notably the 1.9 TDI, showed that high performance, high torque, and 50 mpg (imperial UK gallons) combined mileage, were all possible in a single engine. The 1.9 TDI revolutionised the diesel market. Since their introduction in 1989, numerous other manufacturers have followed suit. Small car TDIs like the VW Lupo (discontinued) achieved up to 80 mpg (US gallons), a record for production passenger cars. In recent years, TDIs were only sold in 45 states in the US because the excessive sulfur content in US diesel made it hard to meet emissions standards in the 5 CARB states.

New EPA standards required sulfur content to be reduced from 500 parts per million to only 15 ppm by October 2006, but diesel emission standards also got stricter at the same time. VW is not selling any 2007 or 2008 Passat, Golf, Jetta, or Beetle TDI models in the US, but they will have a new clean Jetta TDI in summer 2008 (as a 2009 model). Other manufacturers are also reintroducing 50 state legal diesel passenger cars to the US using the cleaner common rail diesel technology. Mercedes just introduced the E320 Bluetec in 2007, and Honda, Jeep, Audi, and BMW are also coming out out with clean diesels for the US market in the next couple of years.

High mpg diesels account for ~half of new car sales in Europe. Even more amazing, and unknown to many Americans, companies such as Ford and GM are selling high mpg diesels abroad, but not in America itself. TDI technology has been in mass production in Europe since 1990 but has yet to make it to the USA in any real sales volume, due in large part to the emissions issues.

(note: Most MPG numbers below are in UK gallons...US gallon MPGs are 17% lower)

  • TDIclub Website dedicated to TDI motor technology
  • Regulations? Bring it on! - While other carmakers have been complaining bitterly about new regulations, Peugeot is reminding people that their 308 HDi 90 emits only 120g/km of CO2 and achieves 61.9mpg (U.S.), which is far better than any similarly-sized car in the US market. The 308 is a C-class hatchback similar in size to a Ford Focus equipped with a 90hp 1.6L turbodiesel. (AutoblogGreen; Dec. 22, 2007)
  • Audi A3 TDIe crosses Australia at 71.3 mpg! - An Audi A3 TDIe powered by a 1.9L four cylinder diesel engine covered the 3,543 km distance from Darwin to Adelaide Australia with an average mileage of 71.3 mpg (US) with peaks as high as 90.4 mpg. The special "e" series A3 is tuned for maximum efficiency and goes on sale Down Under later this year. (AutoblogGreen; Nov. 1, 2007)
  • 52 mpg for next Honda Accord - Honda's next Accord will use a new clean diesel engine based on the current 2.2 i-CTDi, enabling Honda to sell diesels in the US. A European-market Accord fitted with a sophisticated version of the 2.2 diesel, and capable of 62.8 mpg UK (52 mpg US), was recently shown at a diesel technology convention in California. (Autocar; Jun. 6, 2007)
  • 50 mpg from a medium sized SUV - Adventurer averaged 4.67 litres/100km (50.4 mpg) on a 1400km trip across Australia, in a 1.9 tonne, medium-sized AWD SUV which can seat seven. The Hyundai Santa Fe CRDi Turbo-Diesel demonstrates that high technology diesel engines make more sense than high-priced electric/petrol hybrids which have battery replacement and disposal issues. (gizmag; December 12, 2006)
  • Ford Focus TDCi - Ford's new Duratorq diesel. Reportedly good for 200,000 miles, as well as offering excellent performance and 50 mpg + fuel economy.
  • Audi A2 1.2 TDI 95 mpg from the same engine technology as the Lupo (discontinued)
  • Build a 100 mpg car - Peter Lindemann announces his new 2.5-hour instructional DVD and gives brief instructions of how to build a 100 mpg car using a small vehicle body, a 20 hp diesel engine, and a torque converter. (ZPEnergy; Apr. 8)

Diesel does have a 10-20% higher fuel density than gasoline, but that is not the only reason for the improved fuel economy of diesel engines. Diesels are genuinely more efficient. For information on why diesels are more efficient, see Diesel versus Gasoline directory at PESWiki.

Electric Vehicles

  • Directory: Electric Vehicles - In a recent cost analysis Electric Vehicles were shown to have the lowest fuel cost among alternative fuel vehicles.

Flight

See also Directory:Flight


  • Fuel Efficiency > Vehicles > Flight >
    NASA Unveils Passenger Plane Designs for 2025 - NASA recently asked the three of the largest airplane companies in the US to come up with a design that would fit a very specific criteria. This project hoped to create a full-functioning plane by the year 2025 that would not only use significantly less fuel, but be cleaner and quieter and be able to fly up to 85 percent of the speed of sound, cover a range of approximately 7,000 miles; and carry up to 100,000 pounds of payload. (Inhabitat; January 14, 2011)
  • 50 MPG Plane Wins PAV Prize - The Pipistrel won NASA's Personal Air Vehicle X-Prize like contest, achieving 50 MPG. The plane is extremely light weight, so it becomes more fuel efficient as it flies and burns fuel, getting lighter. The plane's simple controls and ease of operation also helped it take home the prize. It costs about $70,000. (EcoGeek; Aug. 15, 2007)
  • 9 Steps to Cheaper Greener Flight - The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is the first commercial jet produced with efficiency specifically in mind, but the 787 still leaves a lot of room for improvement. Several designs are at various stages of production that could make air travel as efficient, or even more efficient, than automobiles. (EcoGeek; Jul. 26, 2007)
  • Blended-Wing Boeing completes first test flight - Boeing flew its first prototype of a Blended Wing Body aircraft last week. A BWB design allows the entire body of the plane to generate lift and reduces drag in comparison to a tube-shaped fuselage - both of which are key factors in reducing fuel usage. The BWB design also provides a much greater cargo and passenger capacity. (GizMag; Jul. 30, 2007)
  • Silent aircraft creeps closer to reality - Researchers from Cambridge University and MIT unveiled their concept for a flying wing aircraft that makes a huge reduction in noise. This highly-efficient design offers improvements of around 25% in fuel consumption and is intended for entry into service in 2030. (The Cambridge-MIT Institute; November 06, 2006)
  • How Efficient is Flying Nowadays? - The Airbus A380 introduced to British air recently has the lowest fuel consumption per passenger of any large commercial airliner, requiring less than three litres of fuel per passenger per 100km traveled, making it more fuel-efficient than even the latest hybrid cars. (Note: This is only true if we compare a fully occupied airplane with a single occupancy vehicle. Most cars fit 4-5 people, which makes MOST cars much more fuel efficient than any commercial airplane). Aviation contributes about 4% of global CO2 emissions, and contributes to "radiative forcing" from its contrails. (The Guardian, UK; May 20, 2006)


Airships

See Directory:Airships - separate page

Image:Aeroscraft 95x95.jpg Image:Skyacht_95x95.jpg Image:Dynalifter_95x95.jpg Image:Windream_One_95x95.jpg Image:SkyCat_95x95.jpg

Hybrid Vehicles

  • Directory: Hybrid Vehicles - Hybrid Vehicles run on a combination of propulsion systems to achieve greater fuel efficiency. Most commercially available hybrids (such as the popular Toyota Prius) are classified as HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicles). HEV cars typically use gasoline as the fuel, but they also have an electric motor which can propel the vehicle. Electricity is generated by recovering braking energy as well as directly by the ICE. It is stored in batteries and used by the electric motor to assist the ICE and even to propel the car by itself (primarily at low speeds where the ICE is inefficient).

Full hybrid HEVs are more efficient because they can: 1) use a smaller engine and tune the engine to run more efficiently (since the electric motor can assist it and has lots of torque) 2) recover and store braking energy 3) run on electricity only at low speeds 4) shut down the engine while slowing down and while stopped (while running the AC etc. on electricity)

There are many types of hybrid systems. Hybrids may be classified as parallel or serial. Cars with only some hybrid capabilities are referred to as "mild" or "micro" hybrids. Buses are typically diesel HEVs, and some diesel HEV cars are being developed as well. Some hybrids use compressed air, flywheels, or ultracapacitors to store energy instead of using batteries. Fuel cell and hydrogen cars are typically designed as hybrids. Plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) can be plugged in and allow for short trips on electricity only. Conversion kits for the Toyota Prius are available (but rather expensive) and can achieve up to 100 mpg on short trips.

As of 2007, there are about a dozen gasoline HEV passenger vehicles available in the US from Toyota, Honda, Ford, Nissan, and GM. The best selling models are the Toyota Prius (60/51 mpg US) with 94,503 sold Jan-June 2007 (half of all hybrid sales), followed by the Toyota Camry Hybrid (40/38) and Honda Civic Hybrid (49/51).

Hydrogen

  • Volkswagen HyMotion fuel cell vehicle - built into Volkswagen's new Tiguan crossover model, uses hydrogen to create electricity, providing power for the car's electric drive motor. It also has a lithium ion battery pack for extra electricity storage, and gets the gasoline equivalent of 42-to-62 miles per gallon. (CNet Reviews; June 12, 2008)
  • Honda Leasing First Ever Consumer Fuel Cell Car - If you live in Torrance, Irvine, or Santa Monica, California, Honda is the first ever major car company to lease the hydrogen fuel cell-based Honda FCX Clarity to the public. (EcoGeek; May 27, 2008)

Hydraulic

See Directory:Hydraulics

Image:Hydrostatic_Powertrain_95x95.jpg Image:Hydraulic_truck_95x95.jpg

Natural Gas

See Directory:Natural Gas#Cars

Image:HondaCivicGX natural gas Phill 95x95.jpg

Three-Wheelers

  • Moonbeam - Homebuilt car costing $2,500 gets 105 mpg at a steady 40 mph and 80-85 mpg around town. Built from two motorscooters, it has a top speed of 53 mph, seats two adults and uses a variable speed transmission. The inventor estimates it could be mass produced for about $5,000.
  • Carver One - Steers like a car and banks like a motorcycle, reaching a top speed of 185 km/h (115 mph) while its average fuel consumption remains at a very modest 6 L/100 km (40 US mpg).
  • PAL-V - Personal Air and Land Vehicle combines the recent “tilting car‿ technology of the Carver with the safest and easiest principle of flying, the gyrocopter. While on land the rotor and propeller fold away, allowing a top speed of 125 mph and fuel economy of 30 km/liter (70 US mpg) at 100 km/hr (63 mph).
  • Fuel Vapor Technologies - The “alé‿ 3-wheeler accelerates from 0-60 in 5 seconds, will pull over 1.7 g’s while cornering, and returns 92 miles per US gallon. It runs on regular gasoline and achieves “super low‿ emissions without a catalytic converter, because the engine runs on “fuel vapors‿ rather than liquid fuel.
  • Volkswagen GX3 - Crossover between sports car and motorcycle only takes 5.7 seconds to go from 0-62.5 mph (100 km/h) and the fuel consumption in the city is estimated to be 46 mpg (5.2 l/100 km). Three wheels, two seats, and off you go in the carpool lane for less than $ 17,000.
  • Eco-Fueler - The American Roadster™ CNG is a 70 mile per gallon vehicle that runs on compressed natural gas which costs less than $0.92 per gallon. It has the lowest emissions of any fuel available today. The Home Fueling Appliance lets you fuel the Roadster right in your own garage. Price: $19,900.
  • The VentureOne Hybrid and EV: 100 MPH, 100 MPG - The VentureOne three-wheeler will be available as a hybrid with 300 mile range or as an all electric vehicle with 120 mile range. It seats two and is capable of 100 mph with 100 mpg fuel efficiency and can tilt almost 45º in turns. To be released in late 2008, priced in the $20,000 range. (TreeHugger; Feb. 16, 2007)
  • Freeway HMV - This car (tricycle really) is a very capable commuter at highway speeds, has an enclosed cabin for year-round use in variable climates, is fully legal in all (?) states, and reaches the 75 to 100 mpg level for fuel economy. It was built from 1979-1982.
  • Prizes > At Eco-marathon, teen driving team races to 2,843 mpg - The team from Mater Dei High School might be only months (or less) removed from driver's ed, but it pulled off a nifty feat of driving over the weekend. One of its entries in the Shell Eco-marathon Americas won the $10,000 USD grand prize for motoring to a record 2,843.4 miles per gallon. (CNet News; April 14, 2008)

Ultralight

  • Most Economic Car in the World? - VW has developed a road-proven, 2-seater car that will apparently get 258 miles/gallon via its small size and aerodynamic tear shape. It is ready to be launched as a single-seater for sale in Shanghai in 2010 for a mere RMB 4,000. It will go 75 MPH, and travel 400+ miles on its 1.7 gallons. (Oneshift; Mar. 19, 2009). (See also 1-litre VW at Wikipedia; video)
  • The affordable, 100mpg, carbon-composite car - Axon claims that its mass-production techniques will make carbon composite car frames and bodywork cheaper than metal and only 40% as heavy. The company plans to release a highly affordable 500cc passenger car making at least 100mpg from a basic petrol engine in 2010. (GizMag; July 17, 2008)
  • Model of Efficiency - PBS/Nova has a "Car of the Future" feature addressing the question, Why haven't cars improved more in fuel efficiency over the decades? View the brief 5-part Nova video with Amory Lovins and Rocky Mountains Institutes' new hyper car presentation.
  • Two Cars that Could Get 80 MPG - The Volkswagen Eco-Racer got 85 mpg and the Fiat Ecobasic got 94 mpg by being a lot lighter than anything else on the road. The VW eco-racer was made of carbon fiber and the Ecobasic went plastic. So....why weren't they produced? (EcoGeek; Dec. 4, 2007)
  • Tiny Smart cars aiming to make it big in USA - At 2.5 meters (eight feet) in length, Daimler's "Fortwo" Smart car two-passenger car tiny Smart cars are cheap, easy to maneuver, and fuel-efficient, running at around 40-45 miles (65-72 kilometers) to the gallon. Going on sale in the US next year, it will retail at 11,600 dollars. (Yahoo News; Nov. 13, 2007)
  • Lightweight Concept Car - Japanese textile producer Teijin unveiled a lightweight concept car, the PU_PA, made from materials including carbon fiber and bioplastic as part of an effort to promote its products that could reduce automotive weight. These advanced materials could halve the weight of automobiles in five years, greatly improving fuel efficiency. (Green Car Congress; Nov. 14, 2007)
  • The 1/X Concept - The Toyota 1/X (pronounced "one-Xth") is a light-weight (420kg) hybrid concept vehicle that matches the interior space of the Prius at only one-third the weight and double the fuel efficiency. It uses a plug-in hybrid powertrain with a displacement of only 500cc that allows charging from an external power source. (GizMag; Oct. 17, 2007)
  • Loremo's 157 mpg economy comes from balloon - Built on the principle of "Whoever sheds ballast, will pick up speed," the diesel Laremo, due out in 2009, gets 157 mpg and a top speed of 100 mph. With only 450 kg it weighs less than half of any comparable passenger car. (TreeHugger; Feb. 27, 2006)
  • Hypercar - A Hypercar® vehicle is designed to capture the synergies of: ultralight construction; low-drag design; hybrid-electric drive; and, efficient accessories to achieve 3 to 5-fold improvement in fuel economy, equal or better performance, safety, amenity and affordability, compared to today's vehicles.
  • Aptera's Prototype Unveiled - Aptera Motors last week unveiled a working prototype of their diesel-electric hybrid car that will get 230 mpg at 55 mph. An all electric version will be available with a 150 mile range using NiZn batteries. Tough composite chassis and body weigh less than 400 pounds. Estimated price is $20,000. (TreeHugger; Mar. 15, 2007)
    • Aptera Is Now Accepting Orders - Aptera is now accepting orders for their lightweight three wheeled hybrid car made of composite materials. It is estimated to acheive 300 mpg fuel efficiency and a 95 mph top speed at a price of less than $30,000. (AutoblogGreen; Sep. 28, 2007)
  • 100+ MPG Sports Car - The Axon Eco-M is based on a Caterham 7 Classic and uses the standard 1.4 liter engine. To improve its aerodynamics and reduce its weight Axon have done away with the roof and windscreen, and used lightweight carbon fiber components. The car averaged over 131 mpg at the Shell Eco Marathon in July 2006. (TreeHugger; Mar. 27, 2007)
  • SuperLIGHT-CAR - 38 leading organizations from 9 european countries work together to bring lightweight automotive technologies closer to high volume car production. SuperLIGHT-CAR has a multi-material philosophy, striving to use for each part the best material and manufacturing processes in terms of weight and cost minimization, while fulfilling a wide range of automotive requirements in areas such as stiffness, crash performance, fatigue and corrosion resistance, etc.
  • California Commuter - Inventor, Doug Malewicki, set two Official Guinness World Records for high mileage efficiency with his lightweight, streamlined California Commuter. Both Mile Per Gallon records were set in real world conditions while Doug drove at the legal speed limit on freeways. The 157 MPG at 55 MPH gasoline record was set on November 20, 1980 when Malewicki drove from Los Angeles to San Francisco.

40+ MPG commercial ICE vehicles

For 2007, only 7 cars sold in the US are rated at 40+ mpg city and/or highway. The leader is the Toyota Prius hybrid at 60/51 mpg, followed closely by the Honda Civic hybrid. The others are the Toyota Camry hybrid and some versions of the Toyota Corolla, Toyota Yaris, and Honda Civic, plus the Nissan Altima Hybrid (in 8 CARB states only).

  • 40mpg.org is working to make 40 miles per gallon the standard for all automobiles in the United States. In 2005, they compiled a list 86 cars with a combined city/highway rating of 40mpg or better that are NOT available in the U.S. Most of these high mpg vehicles were TDI diesels. The only 40+ MPG diesel currently sold in the U.S. is the 2009 Jetta TDI, which uses the cleaner common rail diesel technology. Small high MPG diesel cars are typically not sold in the US in part because most diesels do not meet the strict soot and smog forming emissions regulations, in part because many of the small cars do meet US safety standards, and in part because the typical US consumer is used to buying bigger cars.

Gasoline

  • Fuel Efficiency > Vehicles > Gasoline >
    Volkswagen to unveil 261 mpg XL1 prototype in Qatar - Volkswagen will unveil a vehicle at the Qatar Motor Show this week that, according to the company, consumes only 0.9 liter of gasoline at every 100 km (261 mpg), surpassing the vision dreamed in 2000 of creating a practical everyday use production car with a fuel consumption of 1.0 liter per 100 km, accomplished in 2002. (Gizmag; January 25, 2011)
  • A lesson for Detroit - Tata Nano - Three innovations make the Nano huge. 1) A modular design enables a knowledgeable mechanic to assemble the car in a workshop, making on-demand assembly possible. 2) It has a no-frills design and uses lighter components, giving it 67 mpg. 3) While it is only 122 inches long it still has ample interior space. With a base price of $2,000, this "poor man's car" is gaining momentum. (San Francisco Chronicle; March 31, 2009)
  • Rave reviews for world's cheapest car - Tata Nano, was hailed the world's cheapest car as "one of the greatest bargains of all time" and "a triumph of Indian ingenuity." The tiny car, "as cute as a cartoon caricature," costs just 100,000 rupees (2,000 dollars). (Autoblitz; March 24, 2009)
  • Dirty Secret: Green Cars Automakers Won't Sell You - Some ultra-efficient automobiles are only available in a handful of tough-pollution-law U.S. states. Is it to keep the secret from getting out, so that the manufacturer's don't loose their profit margin on these more expensive versions? (MSN; date not shown)
  • Miller-cycle Engine Improves Fuel Economy - Mazda has developed a Miller-cycle gasoline engine which employs delayed closing of the intake valves to reduce pumping losses and improve thermal efficiency. In combination with Mazda’s first continuously variable transmission (CVT), the Mazda2 will get 54 mpg US, an improvement of 20% over the current model. (Green Car Congress; May 31, 2007)
  • 70 mpg 300 HP V-12 Duesenberg - The Torpedo® Coupe will be driven by the CEM engine, an air-cooled and self lubricating, supercharged 12 cylinder four-stroke engine. It has a calculated 70 MPG and 300 horsepower from a 100 pound package measuring 18 inches in diameter and 24 inches in length. Planned market introduction August 2007. (AutoblogGreen; Apr. 27, 2007)
  • VW Golf GT is powered by an innovative 1.4 liter Twincharger engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger. The GT hits 62 mph in 7.9 seconds and goes up to 136 mph, while returning an impressive average of 39 mpg. Now available in Europe.
  • Toyota Aygo - Combined fuel economy figures: 51 mpg average in the European cycle. Who needs a Prius?!? Not yet available stateside.
  • Mitsubishi Carisma 1.8l GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) does zero to 60 in 9.7 seconds and has combined fuel consumption of 45.6 mpg Imperial times 0.833 = 38 mpg American
  • The Humming Bird has a conventional gasoline engine with a water (H2O) catalyst system (30 mpg+). Two extra tanks carry common water and inject it directly into the combustion, making emissions cleaner and enabling the engine to burn gasolines as low as 75 octane. This can be a savings of up to 25%.
  • NARO - Fully enclosed, two-seat four-wheel vehicle with the banking action of a motorbike, is one third the weight of a typical European saloon and has half the frontal area. Its power demand is a quarter of today's passenger cars resulting in ultra high efficiency of 100 mpg, with a top speed of 85 mph. The fully enclosed cabin provides passenger-car levels of safety protection (e.g. airbags, ABS, etc).

Inefficient Vehicles

  • FORD'S TEST BED: Brazil's Camaçari plant is model for the future - This state-of-the-art manufacturing complex in the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia is one of the most advanced automobile plants in the world. It is more automated than many of Ford's U.S. factories, and leaner and more flexible than any other Ford facility. The United Auto Workers will not allow supplier integration in the US-based facilities. Video (Detroit News; Aug. 22, 2007)


  • 7 Gas Guzzling Military Combat Vehicles - According to NPR, all the tanks, planes and ships of the U.S. military burn about 340,000 barrels of oil per day, making it the "single-largest purchaser and consumer of oil in the world." If you break it down, the Air Force uses the most fuel, followed by the Navy, and then the Army. Here are seven land-based vehicles and what they consume. (TreeHugger";; Sept. 23, 2008)

Directories

See also

FUEL EFFICIENCY

FUEL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

ELECTRIC VEHICLES

VEHICLE HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS

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