PESWiki.com -- Pure Energy Systems Wiki: Finding and facilitating breakthrough clean energy technologies.
Directory:Europositron Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries
Europositron technology is based on nanoscale electrochemistry that is said to allow production of rechargeable aluminum batteries providing up to 20 times more capacity than current batteries. The materials are said to be environmentally safe and fully recycleable. 1-2 years to market.
- Fraud Allegation
- On Nov. 5, 2007 it was brought to our attention that Europositron is under scrutiny for alleged fraud.
- Business Plan / Prospect (pdf) 14 pages.
In 1989, Ab Europositron was founded to pursue a radical new theory which had been propounded by Mr Rainer Partanen concerning one of the materials which had been investigated before but had always run into the same difficulties, namely the apparently insurmountable problem recharging a sealed cell battery using aluminium. In Europositron technology metal ions are reduced to metal in the normal temperature and with the calculated defined current. Rainer Partanen has progressed the theory to the point of detailed specifications of cell construction, the electrochemistry involved and has registered patents covering all the necessary areas.
The fundamental basis of the Partanen technology can be applied to all formats of batteries, from tiny button batteries to high capacity stand-by power supplies. Using one of the most abundant metals available and incorporating existing manufacturing processes, this is an avenue which demands and deserves investigation to fruition.
Characteristics and Advantages
- Batteries of various sizes can be manufactured
- The creation of aluminium hydroxide is eliminated
Recharging for large number of cycles is possible.
- The technology applies to all existing methods of battery production including spiral wound sandwich examples.
- There is no "memory" effect.
- The application of Europositron technology does not require significant changes in either manufacturing or recharging equipment.
- The manufacturers do not have to design or build new machinery to produce new batteries which also means that manufacturers of user equipment, mobile phones, lap top computers etc will be able to use exactly the same bays and connection for the batteries as they now do.
- The new technology will not require new battery chargers to be engineered.
Calculated performance characteristics
- Energy Density/Volume: 2100 Wh/litre
- Energy Density/Weight: 1330 Wh/kg
- Cycle Life: 3000+ cycles
- Minimum Working Temperature: - 40C
- Maximum Working Temperature: +70C
- Life: 10-30 years
- Discharge Rate: Adjustable
Patent application was submitted in on May 30th 2005 and has the number 20050571. It is in the name of Mr. Rainer Partanen. On basis of an earlier patent application the National Patent and Register Office of Sweden has made an international research and found that no corresponding patents or applications exist which could in any way infringe or stand in the way of registration.
Aluminium is one of the most plentiful materials on earth with a low cost and has the highest electrical charge storage per unit weight except for alkali metals.
The advantages of aluminum can be summarized thusly:
- Low Cost
- High Energy Storage
History of Aluminum
Aluminum has already proved itself to be a viable material in battery application.
The Zaromb cell produced in 1960 stored 15 times the energy of a comparable lead acid battery and achieved 500 Wh/Kg with a plate density current of 1A/sq.cm
Salomon Zaromb working for US Philco Company and in this concept for an aluminium air cell, the anode was aluminium partnered with potassium hydroxide with air as the cathode.
The main drawback was corrosion in the off condition which resulted in the production of jelly of aluminium hydroxide and the evolution of hydrogen gas. To overcome this problem Philco added inhibitors to avoid the corrosion and had a space below the cell for the aluminium hydroxide to collect. The battery had replaceable aluminium electrode plates.
Another more recent attempt was made in 1985 by DESPIC using saline electrolyte. Additions of small quantities of tin, titanium, iridium or gallium move the corrosion potential in the negative direction. DESPIC built this cell with wedge shaped anodes which permitted mechanical recharging using sea water as electrolyte in some cases. The battery was commercially developed by ALUPOWER.
Other attempts have involved aluminium chloride (Chloroaluminate) which is molten salt at room temperature with chlorine held in a graphite electrode. This attempt in 1988 by Gifford and Palmison gives limited capacity due to high ohmic resistance of the graphite.
Equally significant is work by Gileardi and his team who have succeeded in depositing aluminium from organic solvents though the mechanisms of the reactions are not well understood at this time.
Between 1990 and 1995 Eltech Research (Fairport Habour, Ohio, U.S.A.) built a mechanically recharge Aluminium battery for the PNGV program. It had 280 cells and stored 190 kWh with a peak power of 55 kW and weighed 195 kg. This battery used a pumped electrolyte system with a separate filter/precipitator to remove the Aluminium Hydroxide jelly.
Since then, even higher ratings have been achieved but only in primary batteries i.e. where a single use is applicable. Examples of this are emergency stand-by power or torpedoes.
The reason for this is that there has been no way up to overcome the problem of aluminium hydroxide 'sludge' building up during the generation of electro- chemical energy. This has meant either disposal of the battery, or complete rebuilding and replenishing the active materials with no possibility of recharging the battery. The Partanen technology has overcome this barrier which means that the energy potential of an aluminium based battery can be utilised to a degree never before attainable and, radically can be recharged to over 3000 cycles.
In all attempts to benefit the energy of aluminium is that no one has succeeded in solving the recharging except mechanically (by replacing the aluminium plate with a new one). As the right solution was not found the results were such drawbacks as aluminium hydroxide jelly, too big current resistance, corrosion problems etc.
Europositron's Aluminum technology
Partanen Europositron technology overcomes the existing difficulty and electropositive metal ions are reduced to metal through analytic and catalytic reactions in normal temperature and with a calculated electrical current. The flow resistance of the solution and the required excess voltage are taken into account.
The creation of aluminium hydroxide is eliminated and recharging for large number of cycles is possible. The technology applies to all existing methods of battery production including spiral wound sandwich examples. Another advantage of the Partanen Technology is that there is no "memory" effect as is found with many existing versions of today's batteries.
For 200 years the basic theory of obtaining electricity from the energy potential which exists between different materials has been the foundation upon which the advances have been made in technology. It is only because of this simple electrochemical fact that we have an amazing spectrum of products and facilities available to us today. Vehicles, mobile phones, camcorders, watches, laptop computers, cordless tools - the list of consumer applications is endless.
Many different combinations of materials and construction have been investigated and the advances which have been made in the last 30 years have been remarkable, but there is still a demand for even higher power ratings. Some of the combinations have proved effective but have proved subsequently to be dangerous to our environment and have been banned on ecological and environmental grounds.
A great deal of time and money has been spent developing increased energy ratings of secondary batteries. The latest Lead Acid, Nickel Metal Hydride and Lithium Ion batteries have produced up to 200 Wh/Kg and although USABC (United States Advanced Battery Consortium) have invested $90 million over the last six years and produced a NiMH battery with a capacity of 100 Wh/Kg, it is deemed commercially non-viable because of the high expense in producing it. The required target for a viable battery system for electric vehicles is 300 Wh/litre and 200 Wh/Kg.
The technique of Europositron compared with the current techniques
The following is from http://www.europositron.com/en/techniques.html
The Europositron technology will allow the production of rechargeable aluminium batteries, providing up to 20 times more capacity than the types currently available on the market. The materials are safe to environment and fully recycleable.
The total weight of the EV 1 by General Motors without batteries is 816 kg. With the batteries the weight goes to 1550 kg. The power supply consists of 26 Lead-Acid batteries of 53 Ah each, which weigh 736 kg i.e. almost half of the total weight of the car. Without recharge the EV 1 runs 145 km on highway and in city traffic about 115 km.
With a Partanen technology battery weighing 60 kg, and with a volume 40 liters it would have a capacity of 80 kWh. Installed in a 816 kg EV 1 it could run 870 km on highway and 690 km in the city traffic.
The Company`s targets are:
- to manufacture production ready prototypes of the batteries and get them properly tested.
- sell globally manufacturing licenses based on Europositron technology.
Europositron will build two ready for production prototypes of aluminium batteries: A 12 V start battery for cars with energy capacity of 1,3 kWh, and a battery for electric vehicles with energy capacity of 80 kWh. (Ref.)
Schedule of Progress
1. Special issue of the shares and registration. Time of proceedings 1 month.
2. Acquisition and restoration of production space. Acquisition of necessary equipment and recruitment of the personnel. Time of proceedings 3-6 months.
3. Acquisition of raw materials (metals and chemicals). Time of delivery 2-6 months.
4. Production of the tools for electrode plates. Time of delivery 2-3 months.
5. Cutting, shaping and finishing of the electrode plates. Time of proceedings 1-2 months.
6. Ion coating of electrode plates. Time of proceeding 1-2 months.
7. Ultra sonic welding of electrode plates. Time of proceeding 1-2 months.
8. Preparation of power leads and connections for electrode plates. Time of proceedings 1-2 months.
9. Production of the tools for the seals. Time of proceedings 1-2 months.
10. Production of the seals. Time of delivery 1-2 months.
11. Manufacturing the frames for prototype devices. Time of delivery 1 month.
12. Preparing chemical solutions for electrolyte. Time of proceedings 1 month.
13. testing ultra sonic welding, the resistance of electric flow of electrode plates and other electrical characteristics. Time of proceedings 1 month.
14. Final tests of finished prototypes. Time of proceedings 3 months.
15. Verification of performances to be made by State Research Centre of Finland. Time 1 month.
16. Total schedule 11-24 months.
In the News
- Europositron Powerful Aluminum Battery to Hit Market in 2007 - Europositron of Finland has developed an innovative nano scale electrochemistry technology that allows the production of rechargeable aluminum batteries. (Electrifying Times; Spring/Summer 2006; Vol. 10 No. 1)
- Giant Aluminium batteries are for real - Ab Europositron Oy has been conferred the prestigious 2005 Frost & Sullivan Technology Innovation of the Year Award in the field of battery technologies. (ZPEnergy; March 23, 2005)
- Award for Europositron's Technology Innovation in Battery Technology - Ab Europositron Oy has been conferred the prestigious 2005 Frost & Sullivan Technology Innovation of the Year Award in the field of battery technologies. (Azonano; 23rd March 2005)
On Nov. 5, 2007, the following message was received:
I was searching for information about Europositron and besides your page about it I found a number of newspaper articles, unfortunatly none in English, that states the inventor of the battery, Rainer Partanen, is held in custody for fraud. Apparantly there is no invention or research, only stock issues.
Here are some links, first one in Swedish which I do understand. The following two are in Finnish which I don't understand but I get the picture, and I can spot the word "police" and "1.3 million Euro" (the Swedish paper is also referring to one of the Finnish). Last one is from a forum in English, but it is not that informative.
On Nov. 6, 2007, the same source wrote:
I took the time and translated the article (from the first link) and this is what it says:
[P.S. The article is not dated but link number two is the newspaper "Helsingin Sanomat" and there the article was published on october 29.]
- District court finds fake inventor
- The Helsinki district court has taken an inventor, who for years has been collecting money by issuing stocks, under custody, the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat says.
- Europositron Ab has sold stocks to hundreds of Finns for at least 1.3 million Euro despite the invention the company is marketing is a pure "product of imagination" according to the police.
- The company have had large advertisements in newspapers during the the years 2001-2007 and has sold stocks in three issues. Europositron has been collecting money from investors for a aluminum battery which was supposed to be developed with the help of "nano chemistry" and which promised to be 20 times lighter and with a much longer durability than today's batteries.
- According to testimonies the police has collected, the inventor is not real and Europositron has had no other business than issuing stocks.
- Helsingin Sanomat says six investors finally got tired with the inventor and reported him to the police.
- Ab Europositron Oy -- Profile - Ab Europositron is researching and developping aluminium battery. The new technology based on nanoscale electrochemistry will allow production of rechargeable aluminium batteries providing up to 20 times more capacity than current batteries.
http://www.europositron.com/en/contact.html - online form for query submission
Ab Europositron Oy
Pertunpellonraitti 2 00740 Helsinki FINLAND
Tel. +358 9 673 224
Fax. +358 9 389 7183